Conceptual Modeling and Entity-Relationship Diagrams

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1 Conceptual Modeling and Entity-Relationship Diagrams Chapter 3 & 4: Elmasri/Navathe 3753 X1

2 Outline Phases of Database Design Conceptual Modeling Abstractions in Conceptual Design Example Database Requirements Deconstructing the E-R Diagram Entities, Attributes and Relationships Participation, Cardinality and Keys 3753 X1 2

3 Phases of Database Design Requirements Analysis Application Domain DBMS Independent Conceptual Design Database Requirements Data Model Mapping Conceptual Schema Implementation Schema DBMS Dependent Physical Design Physical Schema 3753 X1 3

4 Conceptual Design Similar to the analysis phase in software development produce a description of the data capture the semantics of the data Description in a high-level model close to the user s view of the world abstract concepts means of communication between the user and the developer 3753 X1 4

5 Reasons for Conceptual Modeling Independent of DBMS. Allows for easy communication between end-users and developers. Has a clear method to convert from highlevel model to relational model. Conceptual schema is a permanent description of the database requirements X1 5

6 Abstractions in Conceptual Design An abstraction is a mental process where we select some set of properties of an object and exclude others. 3 types of abstractions classification aggregation generalization 3753 X1 6

7 Classification Define a class of real-world objects with common properties Month January February December 3753 X1 7

8 Aggregation Define a new class from a set of other classes that represent component parts Car Tires Steering Wheel Engine Gas pedal 3753 X1 8

9 Generalization Defines a subset relationship between elements of 2 or more classes Person Employee Faculty Staff Student 3753 X1 9

10 Entity-Relationship Model Most popular conceptual model for database design Basis for many other models Describes the data in a system and how that data is related Describes data as entities, attributes and relationships 3753 X1 10

11 Database requirements We must convert the written database requirements into an E-R diagram Need to determine the entities, attributes and relationships. nouns = entities adjectives = attributes verbs = relationships 3753 X1 11

12 Acadia Teaching Database Design an E-R schema for a database to store info about professors, courses and course sections indicating the following: The name and employee ID number of each professor The salary and address(es) for each professor How long each professor has been at the university The course sections each professor teaches The name, number and topic for each course offered The section and room number for each course section Each course section must have only one professor Each course can have multiple sections 3753 X1 12

13 Visual View of the Database Employee ID Start Date Years Teaching Section ID Room Professor 1 teaches N Section N Salary Name First Part of Last 1 Number Course 3753 X1 Topic Name 13

14 The Pieces Objects Entity (including weak entities) Attribute Relationship Structural Constraints Cardinality Participation 3753 X1 14

15 Entities Entity basic object of the E-R model Represents a thing with an independent existence Can exist physically or conceptually a professor, a student, a course Entity type used to define a set of entities with the same properties X1 15

16 Entity and Entity Types Entity Type Number Name Topic Course Entity Number: 3753 Name: Database Management Systems Topic: Introduction to DBMSs 3753 X1 16

17 Attributes Each entity has a set of associated properties that describes the entity. These properties are known as attributes. Attributes can be: Simple or Composite Single or Multi-valued Stored or Derived NULL 3753 X1 17

18 Attributes (cont d) Simple Professor Start Date First Composite Professor Name Last 3753 X1 18

19 Attributes (cont d) Single Professor Employee ID# Multi-Valued Professor X1 19

20 Attributes (cont d) Stored Professor Start Date Derived Professor Years Teaching 3753 X1 20

21 Attributes (cont d) NULL attributes have no value not 0 (zero) not a blank string Attributes can be nullable where a null value is allowed, or not nullable where they must have a value X1 21

22 Primary Keys Professor Employee ID Employee ID is the primary key Primary keys must be unique for the entity in question 3753 X1 22

23 Relationships defines a set of associations between various entities can have attributes to define them are limited by: Participation Cardinality Ratio 3753 X1 23

24 Relationships (cont d) Section part of Course 3753 X1 24

25 Participation Defines if the existence of an entity depends on it being related to another entity with a relationship type. Partial Total Section part of Course 3753 X1 25

26 Cardinality The number of relationships that an entity may participate in. 1:1, 1:N, N:M, M:1 Section N part of 1 Course 3753 X1 26

27 Weak entity Weak entities do not have key attributes of their own. Weak entities cannot exist without another a relationship to another entity. A partial key is the portion of the key that comes from the weak entity. The rest of the key comes from the other entity in the relationship. Weak entities always have total participation as they cannot exist without the identifying relationship X1 27

28 Weak Entity (cont d) Section ID Section Identifying Relationship part of Course Number 3753 X1 28

29 Review of the ER Diagram Employee ID Start Date Years Teaching Section ID Room Professor 1 teaches N Section N Salary Name First Last Part of 1 Number Course 3753 X1 Topic Name 29

30 University DB Case Study Maintain the following information about undergrad students: Name, address, student number, date of birth, year of study, degree program (BA, BSc, BCS), concentration (Major, Honours, etc) and department of concentration. Note: An address is composed of a street, city, province and postal code; the student number is unique for each student 3753 X1 30

31 University Case Study (cont d) Maintain information about departments Name, code (CS, Phy), office phone, and faculty members Maintain information about courses: Course number (3753), title, description, prerequisites. Maintain information about course sections: Section (A, B, C), term (X1), slot #, instructor 3753 X1 31

32 University Case Study (cont d) Maintain information about faculty: Name, rank, employee number, salary, office number, phone number and address. Note: employee number is unique Maintain a program of study for the current year for each student: i.e. courses that each student is enrolled in 3753 X1 32

33 Extended E-R Model E-R model is sufficient for traditional database applications Nontraditional applications (CAD, multimedia) have more complex requirements Can extend traditional E-R diagrams with semantic data modeling concepts 3753 X1 33

34 IS-A Relationship (cont d) Name Employee S.I.N. d Staff Faculty Teaching Assistant Position Rank Student # 3753 X1 34

35 Specialization & Generalization Specialization process of taking an entity and creating several specialized subclasses Generalization process of taking several related entities and creating a general superclass We will talk mainly of specialization, but most information will also apply to generalization 3753 X1 35

36 Specialization constraints Specializations can be predicate-defined or attribute-defined (otherwise called userdefined) Disjointness constraint specialization is disjoint or overlapping Completeness constraint specialization is total or partial 3753 X1 36

37 Predicate-defined subclass An attribute value is used to determine the members of a subclass Not all members of every subclass can be determined by the attribute value In the following example, the Pension Plan type can be used to determine faculty from staff, but has no effect on students or those who opted out of the pension plan X1 37

38 Predicate-defined subclass Pension Plan Type Employee d S.I.N. Note: not all employees included Staff Faculty Position Rank 3753 X1 38

39 Attribute-defined subclass There is one defining attribute for all subclasses Each member of the superclass can be assigned to the appropriate subclass based on this one attribute 3753 X1 39

40 Attribute-defined subclass Jobtype Staff Staff Employee Jobtype d Faculty Student Students S.I.N. Faculty Rank Year 3753 X1 40 Rank

41 User-defined subclass When there is no condition to automatically determine membership in a subclass, it must be done at the discretion of the user X1 41

42 Disjointness constraint Specifies that an entity can be a member of at most one subclass There can be no overlap between the subclasses We use the notation of a d in a circle to symbolize that the subclasses are disjoint 3753 X1 42

43 Disjoint constraint Name Employee S.I.N. d Staff Faculty Teaching Assistant Position Rank Student # 3753 X1 43

44 Overlap Entities are able to belong to more than one subclass Notation is an o inside of a circle 3753 X1 44

45 Overlap Jobtype Employee S.I.N. o A staff member may also be a student Staff Rank Students Year Faculty Rank 3753 X1 45

46 Completeness Constraint May be total or partial for total, every entity in the superclass must belong to a subclass for partial, entities in the superclass do not need to be part of any subclass notation for total and partial are the same as in a regular E-R diagram single and double lines 3753 X1 46

47 Partial Jobtype Employee S.I.N. o Staff Rank Students Year Faculty Rank 3753 X1 47

48 Total Jobtype Employee S.I.N. o Staff Rank Students Year Faculty Rank 3753 X1 48

49 Hierarchies and Lattices Hierarchies a tree-like structure where each subclass belongs to only one superclass everything we have seen so far is a hierarchy Lattices a graph-like structure where a subclass can belong to more than one superclass 3753 X1 49

50 Lattice name Person o student # Employee Student salary Teaching Assistant course 3753 X1 50

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