A data model can be thought of as a diagram or flowchart that illustrates the relationships between data Data modeling techniques and tools capture

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1 DATA MODELING

2 definition A data model is a visual representation of people, places and things of interest to a business and is composed of a set of symbols that communicate concepts and their business rules. Data modeling is the formalization and documentation of existing processes and events that occur during application software design and development.

3 A data model can be thought of as a diagram or flowchart that illustrates the relationships between data Data modeling techniques and tools capture and translate complex system designs into easily understood representations of the data flows and processes

4 Sample Data Model For simple Order Processing for Starbucks Modified from

5 think about the area we are going to Model We can see Customers ordering Products,(Food and Drink and so on) 1) Establish the Scope of the Data Model 2) Identify the 'Things of Interest' that are within the Scope, These will be called Entities 3) Determine the Relationships between them.

6 1) Establish the Scope of the Data Model We step inside, we see that Starbucks sells a wide range of Products, so our first task is to decide which of them should be included in our Data Model We are interested only in something to eat and something to drink Therefore, all the mugs and other items on the shelves, are outside the Scope of our Data Model

7 2) Identify the 'Things of Interest' that are within the Scope a) Identify entities b) Identify Primary Attribute and one details

8 3) Determine the Relationships between them

9 Entity-Relationship Model In relation to Data Modeling

10 Definitions.. The ER model is a conceptual data model that views the real world as a construct of entities and associations or relationships between entities. The entity-relationship model (or ER model) is a way of graphically representing the logical relationships of entities (or objects) in order to create a database

11 The ER model doesn t actually give us a database description. It gives us an intermediate step from which it is easy to define a database. The ER model was first proposed by Peter Pin-Shan Chen of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the 1970s.

12 ER model What are the items of interest here? Entity type and/or an entity? Any relationships?

13 ER model In ER modeling, the structure for a database is portrayed as a diagram, called an entityrelationship diagram resembles the graphical breakdown of a sentence into its grammatical parts

14 ER Diagram An entity-relationship (ER) diagram is a specialized graphic that illustrates the relationships between entities in a database ER diagrams often use symbols to represent three different types of information

15 ER Diagram Boxes are commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships Ovals are used to represent attributes.

16 ER Diagram An entity-relationship (ER) diagram may also indicate the cardinality of a relationship Cardinality is the number of instances of one entity that can, or must, be associated with each instance of another entity (one-to-one, one-tomany, or many-to-many relationships) The cardinality diagram shows some of the different notations that are used

17

18 Crow Foot Notation

19 Each student fills one seat in a class. Each seat is filled by one student. This is a one-to-one relationship. A single instructor may teach several courses. Each course has only one instructor. This is a one-to-many relationship. Example of ER diagrams

20 A single student may register for several courses. A single course can have many students enrolled in it This is the many-to-many relationship. Each professor may teach several course sections but may not teach at all if on sabbatical. Assume there is no team teaching, therefore each section must have a single professor. More example of ER diagrams

21 Exercise on ER Explain the diagram...

22 Sample model A Sales Office lists at least zero and at most many Property A Property must be listed under at least one Sales Office An Employee works for one and only one Sales Office A Sales Office can have no employee working for it (sounds somewhat un-realistic but that's what the circle beside the Employee entity means) An Employee entity has a 'supervises' self-relationship (note that a self-relationship is always a non-identifying one)

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