Nutrition. The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes.

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1 Nutrition The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes.

2 There are 6 Essential Nutrients found in varying amounts in the food and drinks we consume.

3 Of the 6 Nutrients, there are 3 Macronutrients Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins All 3 provide energy to fuel the body s processes and often contribute the most to the mass of a food item.

4 The other 3 nutrients are Micronutrients Vitamins, Minerals, Water These nutrients do not provide the body with energy. They help assist with and regulate bodily processes and may be referred to as regulating nutrients

5 Let s first take a look at the 3 macronutrients Carbohydrates Fats Protein

6 Carbohydrates Calories Per Gram 4

7 Carbohydrates Calories Per Gram 4 Since the sugar packet weighs one gram, it contains 4 calories of energy.

8 Carbohydrates Calories Per Gram 4 How many calories come from carbohydrates in one cookie? Since the sugar packet weighs one gram, it contains 4 calories of energy.

9 Carbohydrates Calories Per Gram 4 How many calories come from carbohydrates in one cookie? 13x4=52 Since the sugar packet weighs one gram, it contains 4 calories of energy.

10 Carbohydrates CHO s (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) Categories Simple Sugars (They taste sweet to the tongue and enter the bloodstream quickly)

11 Carbohydrates CHO s (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) Categories Simple Sugars (They taste sweet to the tongue and enter the bloodstream quickly) Starches (Complex arrangements of simple sugar molecules )

12 Carbohydrates CHO s (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) Categories Simple Sugars (They taste sweet to the tongue and enter the bloodstream quickly) Starches (Complex arrangements of simple sugar molecules ) Fiber The structural part of the plant. It provides us with roughage and keeps us regular with our bowel movements. Provides us with no energy.

13 Carbohydrates Functions Sugars-quick energy- individual molecules of sugar enter the bloodstream quickly Starches-sustained energy- chemically bound strands of sugar molecules that must break away in order to enter the bloodstream. Fiber- no energy, keeps stools moving to prevent constipation. See next slide

14 Fiber The parts of the plant that our body doesn t easily digest

15 Carbohydrates Sources All plant products. The only animal product containing a substantial amount of CHO s is milk, which contains lactose (milk sugar).

16 Carbohydrates Other 1. The brain only uses glucose as fuel 2. About 60% of daily calories come from carbohydrates

17 Carbohydrates If a person requires 2000 calories per day, how many of those calories should be from carbohydrates? 2000x.60 = 1,200 calories

18 Carbohydrates 2000x.60 = 1,200 calories How many grams of carbohydrates would the person need to consume to get 1,200 calories from carbohydrates?

19 Carbohydrates How many grams of carbohydrates would the person need to consume to get 1,200 calories from carbohydrates? 1,200 4 = 300 grams

20 Carbohydrates 1,200 4 = 300 grams How many cookies would the person need to eat to consume 300 grams of carbohydrates?

21 Carbohydrates 1,200 4 = 300 grams How many cookies would the person need to eat to consume 300 grams of carbohydrates? 300/13 = 23 cookies Would this be wise? Why, Why Not?

22 Carbohydrates 1,200 = 300 grams 4 How many cookies would the person need to eat to consume 300 grams of carbohydrates? 300/13 = 23 cookies Would this be wise? Why, Why Not? 23 cookies also means 80.5 grams of fat (You ll learn later that the person only requires 67 grams of fat on a 2,000 calorie diet )

23 Which carbohydrate dominates these candies? SIMPLE Sugars!

24 FIBER is the non-digestible structural component of a plant. Why is it so good for us if we can t digest it? It assists us with REGULARITY by keeping our stools moving!

25

26 A select population of Americans view carbohydrates as evil and avoid them at all costs..but are ALL carbohydrates bad?

27 The label shows Dietary Fiber and Sugars (simple sugars)

28 How many grams of starch does one serving of this food item contain?

29 If you said 2, then your are right!!!! Out of 10 Total Carbohydrate grams, 3 are fiber, 5 are sugars, and 2 must be from starches.

30 Which Carbohydrate is predominant in these food items?

31 Dominant carbohydrates in vegetables and whole grains: Starches Fiber Sugars

32 Fats Calories Per Gram 9 Fat contains more energy, per gram, than any other macronutrient.

33 Fats Calories Per Gram 9 14x9=126 fat calories Fat contains more energy, per gram, than any other macronutrient. 2.5x9=22.5 fat calories

34 Fats Calories Per Gram 9 How many calories are from fat in one cookie? Fat contains more energy, per gram, than any other macronutrient.

35 Fats Calories Per Gram 9 How many calories are from fat in one cookie? 3.5x9 = 31.5 Fat contains more energy, per gram, than any other macronutrient.

36 Fats Categories Saturated- solid at room temp (mostly from animals) Unsaturated- liquid at room temp (from plants)

37 Fats Functions Long term energy storage, enable hormone/vitamin use and transfer, insulation, padding of organs, etc.

38 Fats Sources Both plant and animal sources. Animal fats are generally less healthy than plant fats. Why?

39 Fats Animal fats are generally less healthy than plant fats. Why? If you said that animal fats are saturated and much more likely to cause fatty deposits (plaques) in the arteries, then you are right! (and we already know that plaque in the arteries can lead to CAD!)

40 Fats Other Advised that 30% of daily calories should come from fats. (Up to 600 calories of a 2000 calorie intake should be from fat.) 2000 x.30 = 600 calories 600/9 =67 grams

41 Fats Other *Cholesterol is a fat-like substance only found in animal products (made by the liver), is not classified as a fat, and provides no energy to the body yet it is an essential component of cell membranes and hormone production.

42 What kind of fat is in a piece of meat such as this? Would it contain cholesterol?

43 What kind of fat is in a piece of meat such as this? Saturated Would it contain cholesterol? Yes, because it s an animal product and all animals produce cholesterol in their livers.

44

45 How many grams of unsaturated fat are in one serving of this candy bar?

46 If you answered 7 then you are right! Of 19g of Total Fat, 12g are Saturated. That leaves 7g that must be Unsaturated.

47 Which are saturated? Unsaturated?

48 Saturated Unsaturated

49 Protein Calories Per Gram 4

50 Protein Categories Amino Acids (The body needs 20 but the liver only makes 12) Complete Protein A food that contains all 8 amino acids that the body can t make. Incomplete Protein A food that does not contain all 8 amino acids that the body can t make.

51 Protein Functions Cell production and repair Enzyme production Antibody production (essential for the immune system), Etc.

52 Protein Sources Animal and Plant Products Meat: Most likely to be a complete protein Plant Foods: Most likely to be incomplete proteins

53 Protein Other Body s last resort for energy. Advised 10% of daily calories. (200 Calories of a 2000 calorie intake) 2000 x.10 = 200 calories 200/4= 50 grams of protein required

54 Animal products are a good source of COMPLETE protein

55 Dried beans are a good source of fiber and protein. although they are INCOMPLETE proteins.

56 Amino Acid The R side group will vary for each of the different amino acids. For each protein that's made, the order of the R groups is VERY important because it determines the shape of the protein and the job it will do.

57 Examples of some amino acids

58 What message are we getting from this cartoon?

59 A diet high in animal products will naturally contain more fat than a vegetarian diet.the concern isn t that the vegetarians don t get adequate protein. The real concern is the fat content consumed by *omnivores like the family on the right. (*omnivores eat both plant and animal products)

60 Vitamins Calories Per Gram 0

61 Vitamins Categories Fat Soluble: A,D,E,K (Stored in fats cells until used) Water Soluble: C, and all the B s (Found in fluids of the body and the excess is excreted instead of stored)

62 Vitamins Functions Depends on the vitamin. Vitamins are regulating nutrients and assist in a variety of biochemical processes.

63 Vitamins Sources All plant and animal products Vitamins are organic (made by living tissues, they contain carbon)

64 Vitamins Other The only disease a vitamin can cure is one caused by a lack of that vitamin. Example: Scurvy- lack of vitamin C Night Blindness- lack of vitamin A Which category of vitamins is a person more likely to build up to toxic levels in a person s body?

65 Vitamins If you said Fat Soluble Vitamins then you are right! (We have an opportunity to excrete water soluble vitamins before they build up to toxic levels)

66 Would these food items contain water soluble or fat soluble vitamins? Water Soluble since fruit contains almost no fat.

67 Grains are a good source of water and fat soluble vitamins

68 Minerals Calories Per Gram 0

69 Minerals Categories Macrominerals- Needed in large amounts K, S, Na, Ca, Si, Mg, Cl, P Trace Minerals- Needed in small amounts Fe, Cr, Co, Cu, I, Mn, Se, Zn, Mo Can you name them?

70 Minerals Functions Depends on the mineral. Minerals, like vitamins, are regulating nutrients and assist in a variety of bodily processes. Unlike vitamins, minerals are inorganic.

71 Minerals Sources Plant and animal products, but mostly obtained from plant products since minerals are absorbed from the soil through the plant s root system.

72 Minerals Other Body s most abundant mineral is Calcium If every particle of salt were taken from our bodies, we would live about 48 hours. The vegetable with the highest amount of potassium is french beans. The fruit with the highest amount is a banana.

73 Which items on the label are vitamins? Which items are minerals?

74 Mineral Mineral Vitamins Vitamins Mineral Mineral Vitamins Vitamin Vitamin Mineral

75

76 Water Calories Per Gram 0

77 mom all Water Functions Nutrient transport, waste transport, Necessary for all cellular processes, temperature regulation, provide moisture to delicate tissues like mucus membranes.

78 Water Sources Besides the obvious, we get water from certain fruits, vegetables, milk, and all drinks.

79 Water Other We lose about 8 glasses of water each day through breathing, sweating, urinating, etc. The body s total weight is about 60-75% water but, men s bodies usually contain a higher % of water than women. WHY?

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