ANALYSIS OF SHEAR STRESS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENTS UNDER ACTUAL MEASURED TIRE-PAVEMENT CONTACT PRESSURE

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1 6th ICPT, Sapporo, Japan, July 2008 ANALYSIS OF SHEAR STRESS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENTS UNDER ACTUAL MEASURED TIRE-PAVEMENT CONTACT PRESSURE Kai SU Special Researcher, Airport Research Center, Port and Airport Research Institute 1-1, Nagase 3, Yokosuka , Japan Lijun SUN Professor, Department of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University 1239, Siping road, Shanghai, , China Yoshitaka HACHIYA Service Center of Port Engineering (SCOPE), 3-3-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, , Japan Ryota MAEKAWA Senior Researcher, Airport Research Center, Port and Airport Research Institute 1-1, Nagase 3, Yokosuka , Japan ABSTRACT Rutting is one of the most important load-induced distresses found in asphalt pavements. The primary mechanism of rutting is associated with shear deformation rather than densification. Recently, top-down cracking probably attributed to shear failure has also been a frequent occurrence in asphalt pavements. Clearly, shear stress is one of the critical factors affecting pavements performance, and there is a great need to fully comprehend shear stress in asphalt pavements. However, most conventional pavement design methodologies assume tirepavement contact stress is equivalent to tire inflation pressure and uniformly distributed over a circular contact area. In fact, tire-pavement contact is not circular and contact pressure is neither uniform nor the same as tire inflation pressure. To obtain an accurate account of the influence of actual tire-pavement contact pressure on pavement response, this study evaluates the shear stress in asphalt mixture layers produced by non-uniform stresses applied to the pavement surface, in a simulation of field conditions. Then a solid analysis is carried out for a semi-rigid asphalt pavement. The calculated results indicate the maximum shear stress occurs at a point approximately 60 mm under the tire edge, and that both tire inflation pressure and load distinctly affect shear stress. Bonding at the interface between the asphalt mixture layer and the base course obviously affects shear stress as well. KEY WORDS shear stress, rutting, top-down cracking, measured tire-pavement contact pressure, 3D finite element method 11

2 Analysis of Shear Stress in Asphalt Pavements under Actual Measured Tire-Pavement Contact Pressure INTRODUCTION Rutting in asphalt pavement includes densification and shear flow of hot-mix asphalt, but the majority of severe instable rutting results from shear flow within the asphalt mixtures 1,2). In recent years, another type of surface distress called Top-Down Cracking (TDC), which is usually found in longitudinal path, has become more common in asphalt pavements 2,3,4) ; this is also considered as a shear-related failure 5). As a result, shear stress is believed to be one of the critical factors affecting pavements performance, and it is necessary to well understand shear stress in asphalt pavements. However, traditional methods of pavement analysis assumed that contact pressure is the same to tire inflation pressure and that it is uniformly distributed over a circular contact area and acts in the vertical direction 6). In fact, it has been recognized that the tire-pavement contact area is not circular and that contact stress is neither uniform nor equal to tire inflation pressure 1,2,3,4,7,8). To gain an accurate understanding of the effect of shear stress on pavement performance, a laboratory method of applying tire-pavement contact pressure is employed in this paper. The results are compared for differing loading conditions. The effects of tire pressure and stress components in terms of vertical and horizontal stress on shear stress are comprehensively investigated by three-dimensional finite element method (3-D FEM). In addition, the effects of asphalt layer thickness and interface conditions are also discussed. MEASUREMENT OF TIRE-PAVEMENT CONTACT PRESSURE In order to measure the tire-pavement contact pressure distribution under realistic condition, a static laboratory test device was developed, as shown in Figure 1 9,10). In this device, a series of instrumented pins are embedded in the asphalt concrete specimen to measure the stress induced by the tire. The tire load is applied using servo-hydraulic actuators. All measurements are automatically recorded using a data logger. Though this method may seem simple and may result in slight inaccuracy as compared with an actual pavement, the results are undoubtedly much more reliable than when uniform contact pressure is assumed. Pressure sensor Fixed frame Testing tire Hydraulic system Specimen Sensor wire Test controller Figure 1 Static test system for tire-pavement contact pressure The tire used for testing was new longitudinally pattern truck tire ( ) as illustrated in Figure 2 a). In the subsequent analysis, the tire loading area had to be simplified to build a more efficient three-dimensional finite element model. This simplified pattern is presented in Figure 2 b). In the tests, tire inflation pressure ranged from 0.46 MPa to 1.05 MPa, while tire loading varied from 19 kn to 50 kn. In all, six combinations of tire pressure and tire loading are studied in this paper, that is, 0.46/25, 0.60/25, 0.81/19, 0.81/25, 0.81/50, 1.05/25, in which the first item meant tire pressure (MPa) and the later item symbolized the tire load (kn). For example, 0.60MPa/25kN meant the combination of tire inflation pressure of 0.60 MPa and 12

3 Su, Sun, Hachiya and Maekawa tire load of 25 kn. It should be noted that the case of 0.60MPa/25kN, with an average vertical contact pressure of 0.70 MPa (load/average area), is generally considered as the standard loading condition 11). a) Tire b) Simplified contact area Figure 2 Test tire tread and contact area simplified for 3-D FEM Table 1 Pavement structures in FEM model Layer Thickness Modulus Poisson s Material (mm) (MPa) ratio Wear course 50 Binder course 100 Asphalt concrete 3, Base course 300 Cement-stabilized aggregate 6,000 Subgrade / soil PAVEMENT STRUCTURE AND 3-D FEM MODEL In some countries, asphalt pavements consisting of a cement stabilized base and asphalt layer are widely used to take advantage of the superior strength of semi-rigid materials 10,11). A fairly typical semi-rigid asphalt pavement structure was selected for modeling in this finite element analysis 11,12), as tabulated in Table 1. It consists of two asphalt mixture layers, a base course and a semi-infinite subgrade. Each material is assumed to be homogenous, isotropic and linearly elastic. The modulus of the cement-stabilized base course with a cement content of 5% was determined by back-calculation based on the measured deflection 10). Figure 3 shows the entire 3-D FEM model by ANSYS, in which the load is a single axle fitted with dual tires at each side. This configuration is considered based on the assumption that the effect of interactions between front and rear axles on shear stress is negligible 10). The dimensions of the model are 6m long, 4m wide and 6m deep; this size gives a good convergence of results. The y axis represents the tire travel direction and the x axis the transverse direction. The origin of the coordinate system is located in the mid-point between the two left tires. The loading area varies with loading conditions. However, the dual tire spacing (center to center) is kept constant with 300mm in every case 10). The boundary conditions are that the side faces (front, back, left and right) are fixed in the normal direction, and the other two directions are free; the bottom is completely fixed in all directions. The interfaces between different layers are all assumed to be perfectly bonded except the section of effect of bonding condition. 13

4 Depth (m) Analysis of Shear Stress in Asphalt Pavements under Actual Measured Tire-Pavement Contact Pressure Figure 3 3-D FEM model EFFECT OF TIRE INFLATION PRESSURE AND TIRE LOAD In this section, vertical load is only considered. The maximum shear stress occurs directly under the tire edge irrespective of loading conditions. Figure 4 shows that, in all cases, shear stress under the tire edge increases initially with depth, reaching the maximum value at a depth approximately 60 mm after which it decreases from the peak value. It seems that loading conditions have little effect on the location of the shear stress maximum. However, both tire load and tire pressure make a significant contributions to the magnitude of shear stress. Relatively, overloading is more dangerous than overpressure. This is clear from the shear stress in the case of loading at 0.81MPa/50kN, which is far greater than that at 0.81MPa/25kN, whereas the shear stress at 1.05MPa/25kN is only slightly larger than that at 0.81MPa/25kN MPa/25kN 0.60MPa/25kN 0.81MPa/19kN 0.81MPa/25kN 0.81MPa/50kN 1.05MPa/25kN Shear stress (MPa) Figure 4 Shear stress distribution as a function of depth The shear stress distributions over the horizontal plane through the point with the maximum shear stress are illustrated in Figure 5. Only three load conditions are compared here. The distribution of shear stress over the horizontal plane differs under different load conditions. The larger shear stresses are focused at the tire edge in the case of overloading and standard load conditions, while in the case of overpressure, shear stress is similar at the edge and at the center of the tire. 14

5 Maximum shear stress (MPa) Maximum shear stress (MPa) Su, Sun, Hachiya and Maekawa 0.40 Shear stress (MPa) Shear stress (MPa) 0.35 Transverse direction (m) Travelling direction (m) Transverse direction (m) Travelling (m) Shear stress (MPa) Transverse direction (m) Travelling direction (m) a) 0.60MPa/25.0kN b) 0.81MPa/50.0kN c) 1.05MPa/25.0kN Figure 5 Shear stress distribution over the transverse plane (one tire) From these calculated results, it can be concluded that high shear stress action occurs at the edge of the loading area. This implies that a shear plane may develop near the tire edge if the shear stress is great enough, forcing the asphalt concrete away from the tire. This might be the mechanism responsible for shear deformation. On the other hand, shear stress may also play a role in the formation of TDC, which occurs along the driving path; it is believed that when the maximum shear stress is great enough, it can easily cause TDC at the tire edge under repeated application of loading. Even if shear stress is not primarily responsible, it is at least one of the major factors which develop TDC. EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL STRESS The load combination of 0.60MPa/25kN was used to study the effect of horizontal pressure on shear stress. The horizontal stress coefficient, defined as the ratio of horizontal stress to vertical stress, varied from 0.0 to ). Figure 6 depicts the relationship between shear stress and horizontal stress. As can be seen from this figure, shear stress gradually increases when the horizontal stress is very low, and then rapidly increases once the horizontal stress coefficient exceeds 0.2. This means that higher shear stress generally occurs in areas where braking or turning wheels cause significant horizontal stress. This agrees with the observed severe rutting on highway gradients and at bus stops. Asphalt mixtures in such areas should be carefully designed to give greater shear strength, enabling them to resist shear deformation Horizontal stress coefficient Figure 6 Maximum shear stress versus horizontal stress coefficient Asphalt mixture layer thickness (cm) Figure 7 Shear stress at different asphalt mixture layer thickness EFFECT OF ASPHALT MIXTURE LAYER THICKNESS For asphalt mixture layers of 100 mm to 300 mm in thickness, the maximum shear stress remains almost constant. This is illustrated in Figure 7, which shows that a thinner asphalt 15

6 D epth (m ) D epth (m ) Analysis of Shear Stress in Asphalt Pavements under Actual Measured Tire-Pavement Contact Pressure mixture layer does not lead to significantly greater shear stress than a thicker one. In other words, for a particular asphalt mixture, a thinner layer leads to barely greater risk of rutting and TDC compared with a thicker one. EFFECT OF INTERFACE CONDITION In a multi-layered pavement system, the condition of the interfaces between layers makes an important contribution to pavement performance. Here, the effect of interface condition on shear stress is evaluated, focusing on the cases of no bonding and full bonding between the asphalt mixture layer and the base course. For these two cases, the shear stress contour on the vertical plane at the edge of the tire is illustrated in Figure 8. Both the range and magnitude of shear stress where there is no bonding are greater than where there is full bonding. Correspondingly, poor bonding at the interface, which means a situation somewhere between no bonding and full bonding, would result in higher shear stress than the full bonding case. That is, inadequate bonding between the asphalt mixture layer and the base course is detrimental not only in the sense that slippage failure may be induced, but also because it can lead to rutting and TDC T ranverse distance (m ) a) Full bonding E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E T ranverse distance (m ) b) No bonding Figure 8 Shear stress distribution through depth with different interface conditions 16

7 Su, Sun, Hachiya and Maekawa CONCLUSIONS This study has led to following conclusions: 1) In all cases, the maximum shear stress occurs at the tire edge, and this point of peak shear stress is one of the major factors responsible for rutting and top-down cracking (TDC) development. 2) Both tire pressure and vertical load have a significant effect on shear stress, with vertical load having more pronounced influence. 3) Horizontal stress significantly affects shear stress, and particularly at higher magnitude of horizontal stress. 4) The thickness of the asphalt mixture layer has little influence on shear stress. 5) Poor bonding between asphalt mixture layer and base course can lead to an increase in shear stress, and this in turn increases the risk of rutting and TDC. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors express their hearty thanks to the National Science Found for Distinguished Young Scholars of China for its assistance with this study. REFERENCE 1) Eisenmann J. and A. Hilmer: Influence of wheel load and inflation pressure on the rutting effect at asphalt pavement - experiments and theoretical investigations. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on the structural design of asphalt pavements, pp , Ann Arbor, ) Myers, L. A., C. Drakos and R. Roque: The combined effects of tire contact stresses and environment on surface rutting and cracking performance. Proceedings of the ninth international conference on asphalt pavements, Copenhagen, Denmark, ) Myers, L. A., R. Roque and B. E. Ruth: Mechanisms of surface-initiated longitudinal wheel path cracks in high-type bituminous pavements. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 67, pp , ) Myers, L., R. Roque, B. Ruth and C. Drakos: Measurement of contact stresses for different truck tire types to evaluate their influence on near-surface cracking and rutting. Transportation Research Record, No. 1655, Transportation Research Board, pp , ) Wang, L. B., L. A. Myers, L. N. Mohammad and Y. R. Fu: A micromechanics study on top-down cracking. Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., ) Huang, Y. H.: Pavement analysis and design. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, ) De Beer, M., C. Fisher and F. Jooste: Determination of pneumatic tire/pavement interface contact stresses under moving loads and some effects on pavements with thin asphalt surfacing layers. Proceedings. Eighth International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, Seattle, Washington, pp , ) Himeno, K., T. Kamijima, T. Ikeda and T. Abe: Distribution of tire contact pressure of vehicles and its influence on pavement distress, Proc. 8th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, pp , Vol.1, ) Sun, L.J. and X. D. Hu.: Top-down cracking analysis and control for asphalt pavements. Proceedings of the tenth international conference on the structural design of asphalt pavements, Quebec, Canada, ) K. Su. Mechanism and prediction of rutting in asphalt pavements. Ph.D. Dissertation, School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, China. Pp.20-27, ) Ministry of communication. Specification of asphalt pavement design. The peoples 17

8 Analysis of Shear Stress in Asphalt Pavements under Actual Measured Tire-Pavement Contact Pressure communication press. pp.10-15, Beijing, P.R.China, 1997 (in Chinese). 12) S. A. Romanoschi. Characterization of pavement layer interface. Ph.D. Dissertation, Louisiana state university, Baton Rouge, USA, pp.112,

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