# Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. Aqueous Solutions

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1 Chapter 4: Solution Stoichiometry Cont. 1 Aqueous Solutions Molarity (dilution calculations, solution stoichiometry); Solubility and Solubility Rules Molecular, Ionic and Net Ionic Equations Precipitation Reactions Acid-Base Reactions Reading: Sections , 4.7, 4.8. Recommended Problems: 27 a&c, 29, 31, 35c, 37a, 45b, 49, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61, 63, 67, 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79 and

2 Aqueous Solutions Recall from Chapter 2 Homogeneous mixtures are called solutions The component of the solution that changes state (e.g. salt in water) is called the solute The component that keeps its state and does the dissolving is called the solvent If both components start in the same state, the major component is the solvent To describe solutions accurately, we must describe how much of each component is present 3 Solution Concentration Dilute solutions have a small amount of solute compared to solvent Concentrated solutions have a large amount of solute compared to solvent Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e 4 2

3 Concentrations: Quantitative Descriptions of Solutions A more precise method for describing a solution is to quantify the amount of solute in a given amount of solution Concentration = amount of solute in a given amount of solution occasionally amount of solvent 5 Solution Concentration: Molarity Moles of solute in one liter of solution Used because it describes how many molecules of solute are in each liter of solution Molarity, M = amount of solute (in moles) amount of solution (in L) or simply M = moles of solute L of solution 6 3

4 Preparing 1 L of a 1.00 M NaCl Solution 7 Example 4.5: Find the molarity of a solution that has 25.5 g KBr dissolved in 1.75 L of solution Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: 25.5 g KBr, 1.75 L solution Molarity, M g KBr mol KBr L sol n M Relationships: Solution: 1 mol KBr = g M = moles KBr/L solution MM KBr 8 4

5 Practice 1: What is the molarity of a solution containing 3.4 g of NH 3 (MM 17.03) in ml of solution? Answer: 0.20 mol NH 3 / L = 1.0 M NH 3 solution 9 Practice 2: How many grams of CaCl 2 are needed to prepare ml of M CaCl 2 (MM = )? Answer: 4.16 g CaCl

6 Dilution Often, solutions are stored as concentrated stock solutions To make solutions of lower concentrations from these stock solutions, more solvent is added The concentrations and volumes of the stock (M 1, V 1 ) and dilute solutions (M 2, V 2 ) are inversely proportional Dilution equation: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 11 Example 4.7: To what volume should you dilute 200 ml of 15.0 M NaOH to make 3.00 M NaOH? Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: V 1 = 200 ml, M 1 = 15.0 M, M 2 = 3.00 M V 2, L V 1, M 1, M 2 V 2 Useful equation: M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 or M V M = V 2 WORK: V 2 = (15.0 M) x 200 ml 3.00 M = 1000 ml 12 6

7 Practice: What is the concentration of a solution prepared by diluting 45.0 ml of 8.25 M HNO 3 to ml? Answer: 13 Solution Stoichiometry Because molarity relates the moles of solute to the liters of solution, it can be used to convert between amount of reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction 14 7

8 Example 4.8: What volume of M KCl is required to completely react with L of M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in the reaction 2 KCl(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) PbCl 2 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq)? Given: Find: Conceptual Plan: M KCl, L of M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Volume in L of KCl L Pb(NO 3 ) 2 mol KCl L KCl mol Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Relationships: 1 L Pb(NO 3 ) 2 = mol, 1 L KCl = mol, 1 mol Pb(NO 3 ) 2 : 2 mol KCl 15 Example 4.8 Cont. Solution: Answer: L or 350 ml of M KCl is needed for the reaction 16 8

9 What Happens When a Solute Dissolves? Solute-solute attractive forces exist Solvent-solvent attractive forces also exist Mix solute with solvent What happens? If attractions between solute and solvent are strong enough, the solute will dissolve Table Salt Dissolving in Water 18 Each ion is attracted to the surrounding water molecules and pulled off and away from the crystal When it enters the solution, the ion is surrounded by water molecules, insulating it from other ions The result is a solution with free moving charged particles able to conduct electricity 9

10 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity are called electrolytes Materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity are called nonelectrolytes Tro: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 2/e 19 Molecular View of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes To conduct electricity, a material must have charged particles that are able to flow Electrolyte solutions contain ions dissolved in water - Ex. Ionic compounds dissolved in water Nonelectrolyte solutions contain whole molecules dissolved in the water Generally, molecular compounds do not ionize when they dissolve in water the notable exception being molecular acids 20 10

11 Salt vs. Sugar Dissolved in Water Electrolytes: Compounds that dissociate into ions when they dissolve Nonelectrolyte: Compounds do not dissociate into ions when they dissolve 21 Dissociation of Ionic Compounds When ionic compounds dissolve in water, the anions and cations are separated from each other. This is called dissociation. Dissociation of magnesium chloride: MgCl 2 (aq) Mg +2 (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) - Polyatomic ions stay together as one ion Na 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) 22 11

12 Practice: Write the equation for the process that occurs when the following ionic compounds dissociate in water. CaCl 2 CaCl 2 (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) Al(NO 3 ) 3 Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) Al 3+ (aq) + NO 3 (aq) (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (aq) 2 NH 4+ (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) 23 Solubility of Ionic Compounds Some ionic compounds, such as NaCl, dissolve well in water at room temperature Others, such as AgCl, dissolve hardly at all Compounds that dissolve in a solvent are said to be soluble, where as those that do not are said to be insoluble. NaCl is soluble in water AgCl is insoluble in water Solubility depends on the temperature 24 12

13 Practice: Determine if each of the following is soluble in water. KOH AgBr CaCl 2 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 PbSO 4 KOH is soluble because it contains K + AgBr is insoluble; most bromides are soluble, but AgBr is an exception CaCl 2 is soluble; most chlorides are soluble, and CaCl 2 is not an exception Pb(NO 3 ) 2 is soluble because it contains NO 3 PbSO 4 is insoluble; most sulfates are soluble, but PbSO 4 is an exception 26 13

14 Precipitation Reactions Precipitation reactions are reactions in which an insoluble solid forms when two solutions are mixed Reactions between aqueous solutions of ionic compounds that produce an insoluble ionic compound The insoluble product is called a precipitate 27 2 KI(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2 KNO 3 (aq) insoluble 28 14

15 No Precipitate Formation = No Reaction KI (aq) + NaCl (aq) KCl (aq) + NaI (aq) all ions still present, no reaction 29 Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction 1. Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has 2. Determine formulas of possible products exchange ions (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from other 3. Determine solubility of each product in water use the solubility rules if product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate 4. If neither product will precipitate, write no reaction after the arrow 30 15

16 Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction 5. If any of the possible products are insoluble, write (s) after the formula to indicate solid. Write any soluble products with (aq) after the formula to indicate soluble compounds 6. Balance the equation remember to only change coefficients, not subscripts 31 Example 4.10: Write the equation for the precipitation reaction between an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate and an aqueous solution of nickel(ii) chloride 1. Write the formulas of the reactants K 2 CO 3 + NiCl 2 2. Determine the possible products a) Determine the ions present (K + + CO 3 2 ) + (Ni 2+ + Cl ) b) Exchange the ions (K + + CO 3 2 ) + (Ni 2+ + Cl ) (K + + Cl ) + (Ni 2+ + CO 3 2 ) c) Write the formulas of the products - balance charges K 2 CO 3 (aq) + NiCl 2 (aq) KCl + NiCO

17 3. Determine the solubility of each product - KCl is soluble - NiCO 3 is insoluble 4. If both products are soluble, write N.R. (no reaction) - Does not apply because NiCO 3 is insoluble 5. Write (aq) next to soluble compounds and (s) next to insoluble compounds K 2 CO 3 (aq) + NiCl 2 (aq) KCl (aq) + NiCO 3 (s) 6. Balance the equation K 2 CO 3 (aq) + NiCl 2 (aq) 2 KCl (aq) + NiCO 3 (s) 33 Practice: Predict the products and balance the equation KCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) (K + + Cl ) + (Ag + + NO 3 ) (K + + NO 3 ) + (Ag + + Cl ) KCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 + AgCl insoluble KCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq ) + AgCl (s) 34 17

18 Practice: Write an equation for the reaction that takes place when an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate is mixed with an aqueous solution of lead (II) acetate. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) (NH 4+ + SO 4 2 ) + (Pb 2+ + C 2 H 3 O 2 ) (NH 4+ + C 2 H 3 O 2 ) + (Pb 2+ + SO 4 2 ) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 + PbSO 4 Insoluble (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + PbSO 4 (s) Finally, balance the equation: (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq) + Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 (aq) 2 NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + PbSO 4 (s) 35 Equations written to represent precipitation reactions can be written in one of three ways: Molecular Equations - All reactants and products are written as if they are molecules Ionic Equations - All soluble reactants and products are written as ions - Only the precipitate is written as if it were a molecule Net Ionic Equations - Only the reactants and product taking part in the reaction are written in the equation --- reactants as ions; product as molecule. - Spectator ions are not included in the equation Reference:

19 Molecular Equations In molecular equations, all reactants and products are written as if they are molecules - Species in solution must include the soluble compounds (aq) and the precipitate (s) Example: NaCl (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) -----> NaNO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s) 37 Ionic Equations In ionic equations, all species in solution are written as ions; the precipitate is written as if it were a molecule. Example: Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) ----> Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl (s)

20 Net Ionic Equations Net ionic equations are written like ionic equations except that spectator ions are not included in the equation: Example: Ionic: Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) ----> Na + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl(s) Net ionic: Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) > AgCl(s) Insoluble chloride 39 Ionic Equations Cont. Ions that are both reactants and products are called spectator ions (Ex. Na + and NO 3- ions below) Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) Na + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) + AgCl (s) insoluble An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are removed is called a net ionic equation Example: Cl (aq) + Ag + (aq) AgCl (s) Remember to name and write the metal cation first in an ionic compound 40 20

21 Practice: Write the ionic and net ionic equation for each of the reactions below. K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 AgNO 3 (aq) 2 KNO 3 (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4 (s) Ionic: 2K + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) + 2Ag + (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) 2K + (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) + Ag 2 SO 4 (s) Net ionic: 2 Ag + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) Ag 2 SO 4 (s) Na 2 CO 3 (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) 2 NaCl (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) Ionic: Net ionic: 2Na + (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq) + 2H + (aq) + 2Cl (aq) 2Na + (aq) + 2Cl (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) CO 3 2 (aq) + 2 H + (aq) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) 41 Acids Acids are molecular compounds that ionize when they dissolve in water the molecules are pulled apart by their attraction for the water when acids ionize, they form H + cations and also anions The % of molecules that ionize varies from one acid to another Acids that ionize virtually 100% are called strong acids Example: Hydrochloric acid, HCl HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Hydrochloric acid Hydrogen ion Chloride anion Acids that only ionize a small percentage are called weak acids. Example: Hydrofluoric acid, HF HF (aq) H + (aq) + F (aq) Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen ion Fluoride anion 42 21

22 Strong and Weak Electrolytes Strong electrolytes are materials that dissolve completely as ions ionic compounds and strong acids their solutions conduct electricity well Weak electrolytes are materials that dissolve mostly as molecules, but partially as ions weak acids their solutions conduct electricity, but not well When compounds containing a polyatomic ion dissolve, the polyatomic ion stays together HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Acetic acid H + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) acetate ion 43 Ionization Cont. When strong acids dissolve in water, the molecule ionizes into H + and anions H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2 H + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) Sulfuric acid Hydrogen ion Sulfate (anion) 44 22

23 Bases Recall: Acids ionize in water to form H + ions - H from the acid is donated to a water molecule to form hydronium ion, H 3 O + Most chemists use H + and H 3 O + interchangeably Bases dissociate in water to form OH ions - Bases, such as NH 3, that do not contain OH ions, produce OH by pulling H off water molecules Examples of base dissociation NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) A base with OH- NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq) A base without OH

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