Historical Perspective. International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War

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1 Historical Perspective International Systems The Rise of the European State System 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems & The Cold War

2 Historical Perspective This chapter introduces various historical examples of international systems. It examines the Roman Empire the Greek city-states Persia India up through the Cold

3 Historical Perspective It is important to talk about the history of international systems because: International relations has not always revolved around the modern idea of a nation-state. For most of history, people have been part of smaller, more localized groups, such as tribes and clans. As a result, interdependence has not always been as important as it is today.

4 Key Terms International Systems - groups of similar entities linked by regular interaction that sets them apart from other systems. This definition of systems is based on several smaller components: entities - different actors, including states and non-states actors, coming together in a common forum. regular interaction - these actors come into contact with one another, in trade, war, or diplomacy.

5 Four Types of International Systems 1. The Independent State system: consists of political actors that claim to have the right to both domestic and foreign policy decisions. No higher power exists in the system. States in this system may work together in a balance of power setup that defends against a rising power. Or they may establish rules of war. But these all fall short of establishing a superior power.

6 Four Types of International Systems 2. The Hegemonic State system: one or more states are clearly more powerful and set "the rules of the game." These systems can be broken down according to the number of dominant states as follows: unipolar (1 hegemon) bipolar (2 hegemons) multipolar (3 or more hegemons). There are other states within the system, but they play by the rules established by the hegemon.

7 Four Types of International Systems 3. The Imperial system: consists of separate societal units that interact, but one of them asserts political supremacy. In an imperial system, the dominant state is more likely to be involved in other states affairs (such as appointing leaders) than in the hegemonic system.

8 Four Types of International Systems 4. The feudal system: consist of a very diverse group of entities interacting, including governmental units, not all of which became states, as well as trade associations and merchant bankers. Note: All four categories of International Systems are ideal or pure types, meaning actual historical examples will have their variations.

9 Historical International Systems An illustration of the diversity of systems, actors, and processes of international relations. the Persian Empire (ex. Imperial organization) the Greek world (ex. Independent state & Hegemonic systems) India (ex. Independent state & Imperial systems) the Roman Empire Medieval Europe & the feudal system

10 Rise of the European Independent State System Since the 12 th century, many advances were made impacting the international system: the rise of literacy the rise in capitalistic commerce the tension between secular & religious authorities the Black Death in the mid 14 th century the rise of national identity of England, France, and Spain the Renaissance and the Reformation in the mid 15 th century the conflict over the power of the Holy Roman Empire starting the Thirty Years' War in 1648, ending with adoption of the Treaty of Westphalia.

11 Rise of Collective Hegemony The rise of Napoleon & his defeat at the end of the 18 th century brought about the Congress of Vienna, creating a collective hegemonic system. Certain rules were established by the core members - Concert of Europe. An attempt to establish international rules of conduct in the international system.

12 Globalization of the European System 1492 witnessed Spanish and Portuguese spheres of influence in the Americas. Dutch, French, and English make inroads in the Middle East, North Africa, Asia, and eventually in the Americas too. Portuguese in China and Japan British and French in India Dutch in East Indies (Indonesia) Partition of Africa after the partition

13 20 th Century Hegemonic Systems Europe s inability to respond to a rising Germany led to the collapse of the Concert of Europe and the beginning of World War I. After World War I, the League of Nations formed in an attempt at collective security the idea that an aggressive state can be responded to collectively. The League of Nations failed with the outbreak of World War II. Following World War II, the United Nations formed in another attempt at collective security and defense.

14 The Cold War Following World War II, the period known as the Cold War occupied the international system. Communist Soviet Union and capitalist United States were at odds with one another. The fall of China and the invasion of South Korea led to a policy of containment aimed at keeping the Soviets in check. Throughout the Cold War, the United States and USSR were never involved directly in a conflict, although they came quite close. This can possibly be attributed to several factors: the advent of nuclear weapons the bipolar nature of the world the obsolescence of warfare.

15 Glossary List: Balance of Power Containment Hegemony Mercantilism Jus naturale Jus gentium Revanchism Imperialism

16 Review How much do you understand? 1. Which of the following is NOT included in the legal definition of a state? A. a territory with defined boundaries B. recognition by other states C. a population D. economic autarky

17 Review How much do you understand? 2. Which of the following is NOT an example of an international system given in the book? A. hegemonic B. imperial C. dynastic D. independent

18 Review How much do you understand? 3. The Roman empire is an example of which type of international system? A. independent B. imperial C. hegemonic D. none of these answers

19 Review How much do you understand? 4. The U.S. policy towards the Soviet Union during the Cold War, as laid out by NSC 68, was A. containment. B. democratization. C. appeasement. D. retribution.

20 Review How much do you understand? 5. The Cold War never developed into a Third World War. Which of the following is NOT a reason discussed in the book? A. bipolarity B. nuclear weapons C. the leaders of both states D. Major wars are obsolete.

21 Review How much do you understand? 6. Which of the following is a characteristic of international systems? A. diverse entities B. regular interaction C. boundaries D. all of these answers

22 Review How much do you understand? 7. Unipolarity, bipolarity, and multipolarity are all forms of which international system? A. imperial B. hegemonic C. dynastic D. independent

23 Review How much do you understand? 8. Thomas Hobbes s idea of the state of nature is most similar to the idea of A. anarchy. B. International cooperation. C. autarky. D. none of these answers

24 Review How much do you understand? 9. Which of the following philosophers would NOT be considered a realist? A. Thucydides B. Niccolo Machiavelli C. Immanuel Kant D. Thomas Hobbes

25 Review How much do you understand? 10.The modern nation-state was established under which of the following agreements? A. Congress of Vienna B. Treaty of Versailles C. Treaty of Paris D. Treaty of Westphalia

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