Architecture Styles. Software Architecture

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1 Architecture Styles Software Architecture

2 Architectural Styles and Strategies Software architecture is the first step in producing a design. Three design levels: Architecture: requirements -> system modules Code Design: modules -> algorithms and data structures Executable Design: algorithms (codes) -> physical attributes like memory allocation, execution time, code optimizations,...

3 Architectural Styles A style involves: its components, connectors, constraints on combining components. Commonly used styles: Data-centered architectures Object-oriented architectures Data flow architectures Client-Server architectures Layered architectures, Call and return architectures Implicit Invocation Model View Controller

4 Repositories Architectures Two types of components A central data store A collection of components that operate on it to store, retrieve, update information Examples A traditional database A blackboard knowledge sources (agents)

5 Repositories illustration Ks 4 Ks3 Ks 5 Repository (shared data) Ks 6 Ks2 Ks1

6 Blackboard LL

7 Object-Oriented Style Components are objects Data and associated operations Connectors are messages and method invocations Style invariants Objects are responsible for their internal representation integrity Internal representation is hidden from other objects

8 Object-Oriented LL

9 OO/LL in UML

10 Data flow architectures Pipes and filter Components are filters Transform input data streams into output data streams Easy to understand Filters are independent, can be freely combined and reused Easy to add or remove filters Allow concurrent execution of filters Connectors are pipes Conduits for data streams Drawback: repetitiveness of functions due to a blind independence

11 Pipes and Filters Pipe (data streams) Filter (execution module)

12 Pipe and Filter LL

13 Example of a pipe-and-filter system

14 Batch Sequential Separate programs are executed in order; data is passed as an aggregate from one program to the next.

15 Client-Server Style Components are clients and servers Servers do not know number or identities of clients Clients know server s identity Connectors are RPC-based network interaction protocols

16 Client-Server LL

17 The Model-View-Controller (MVC) An architectural style used to help separate the user interface layer from other parts of the system The model contains the underlying classes whose instances are to be viewed and manipulated The view contains objects used to render the appearance of the data from the model in the user interface The controller contains the objects that control and handle the user s interaction with the view and the model

18 Example of the MVC architecture

19 Example of MVC in Web architecture The View component generates the HTML code to be displayed by the browser. The Controller is the component that interprets HTTP post transmissions coming back from the browser. The Model is the underlying system that manages the information.

20 Layered Style System is organized hierarchical Client-server in multi-level Each layer exposes an interface (API) to be used by above layers Each layer acts as a Client: service consumer of layers below Server: service provider to layers above Connectors: protocols of layer interaction

21 Layering Architecture Case 1: one layer has access only to adjacent layers Case 2: one layer has access to some or all other layers Case 1 is used in most layering architectures

22 Layered style cont. Advantages Increasing abstraction levels Evolvability Changes in a layer affect at most the adjacent two layers Reuse Different implementations of layer are allowed as long as interface is preserved Standardized layer interfaces for libraries and frameworks

23 Layered style cont. Disadvantages Not universally applicable Performance Layers may have to be skipped Determining the correct abstraction level

24 A layered architecture

25 Layering A layered security architecture - illustration Cryptography File interface Key management Authentication

26 Implicit Invocation (event-driven) An agent broadcasts an event Some other agents decide to work on the event Problem: when the agent broadcasts an event, it does not know which other agent (if any) will work on the event Solution: agents can be arranged in levels, the closest levels will first pick up the event, then the next levels, and so on, to a default level pick up what is left.

27 The Broker architectural style Transparently distribute aspects of the software system to different nodes An object can call methods of another object without knowing that this object is remotely located. CORBA is a well-known open standard that allows you to build this kind of architecture.

28 Example of a Broker system

29 Other archtecture styles Domain-specific architectures Takes advantage of particular application domain, such as avionics or automobile manufacturing. Match software architectures with physical architectures or application domain processes.

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