Review of Networking Concepts. Part 2: Protocols and Services

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1 Review of ing Concepts Part 2: Protocols and Services ed Protocol Architectures Services OSI Reference Model Summary of Topics Protocol, s, Encapsulation Services Protocol Architecture OSI Reference Model 1

2 Communications Architecture Protocols are a set of rules and conventions. By enforcing that communicating parties adhere to a common protocol, communication is made possible The complexity of the communication task is reduced by breaking it up in several layers of smaller tasks: Each layer is responsible for a specific subtask Each layer has its own protocols A structured set of layered protocols is called a layered communications architecture orprotocol suite ed Architecture In a ed Architecture, the services are grouped in a hierarchy of layers N uses services of layer N-1 N provides services to layer N+1 Example: Architecture not layered layered A B A B layer 3 C C layer 2 E D E D layer 1 2

3 ed Communications A communication layer is completely defined by (a) A peer protocol which specifies how entities at layer-n communicate (b) The service interface which specifies how adjacent layers at the same system communicate Note: When talking about two adjacent layers, (a) the higher layer is a service user, and (b) the lower layer is a service provider ed Communications N+1 N+1 N+1 Protocol N+1 layer N+1/N interface N N N Protocol N layer N/N-1 interface N-1 N-1 N-1 Protocol N-1 Important: The communication between entities at the same layer is logical The physical flow of data is vertical 3

4 Example: Sending a Letter Bob sends a letter to Alice Bob Logical flow of information Alice Bob s mailbox Alice s mailbox Postman Service Primitives Communication services are invoked via function calls. The functions are called service primitives N+1 N+1 Peer Protocol N+1 Request Delivery Indicate Delivery N N 4

5 Service Primitives Recall: A layer N+1 entity sees the lower layers only as a service provider N+1 N+1 Peer Protocol N+1 Request Delivery Indicate Delivery Service Provider Service Access Points A service user accesses services of the service provider at Service Access Points (SAPs) A SAP has an address that uniquely identifies where the service can be accessed N layer N/N-1 service interface N-1 -N - N-1 N-1 SAP 5

6 Exchange of Data Assume a layer-n entity at A wants to send data to a layer-n peer entity to B The unit of data send between peer entities is called a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) For now, let us think of a PDU as a single packet A N PDU (at layer N) N B What actually happens: N passes the PDU to one of A s SAPs at layer N-1 The layer N-1 entity (at A) then constructs its own PDU which it sends to the layer N-1 entity at B Note: PDU at layer N-1 = Header + PDU at layer N Exchange of Data A B -N control N PDU When passed to the SAP, the PDU is called a Service Data Unit (SDU) (-N PDU = - N-1 SDU) -N SAPs - N-1 - N-1 control N PDU Header (of layer N-1) N PDU PDU of -N-1 6

7 ing and Encapsulation At the sending site, each layer adds a header to the PDU (encapsulates) from the higher layer Data 4 Data Data Data Data Data ing and Encapsulation At the receiving site, the headers are removed by the corresponding layers Data 4 Data Data Data Data

8 Protocol Architectures The following protocol architectures are relevant today: OSI Reference Model Defined as a big effort in the 1970 s by ISO to specify a comprehensive set of protocols for networking. The effort failed, in that the defined protocols are not widely used. However, the concepts and terminology defined in the OSI model are the lingua franca of many networkers TCP/IP Protocols Suite The Internet protocol architecture is not the result of a design effort, but has evolved over several decades ATM Protocol Stack An example that protocols can be designed by a committee. Future relevance will depend on the success of ATM OSI Reference Model In 1977 the International Standardization Organization (ISO) developed a model for a layered network architecture This effort was completed in 1983 and is known as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model The OSI model defines seven layers: 7: 6: 5: 4: 3: 2: 1: ( 0: Interconnection Media) 8

9 OSI s HOST HOST NODE NODE OSI s and Encapsulation Data Header of AH Data Data PH AH Data SH PH AH Data TH SH PH AH Data NH TH SH PH AH Data DH NH TH SH PH AH Data Bits 9

10 OSI Model in a Switched Communication Node (Router) End system (Host) Only end systems have all layers Nodes only have the lower 3 layers ( 1) Service: Functions: Examples: Transmission of a raw bit stream over a communication channel Conversion of bits into electrical or optical signals X.21, RS -232-C 10

11 ( 2) Service: Functions: Examples: Transfer of frames over a single link synchronization, error control, flow control PPP, SLIP, HDLC, CCITT LAP-D frame frame ( 3) Service: Functions: Examples: End-to-end delivery of packets Routing, Addressing, Switching, Congestion Control. IP, X.25, CLNP packet 11

12 ( 4) Service: Functions: Examples: Delivery of data between end systems. Connection establishment/management/termination, Error Control, Flow Control, Multiplexing. TCP, UDP, ISO TP0 - TP4. data data Higher s of the OSI Reference Model ( 5): Service: Support the dialog between cooperating application programs Functions: establishment/management/termination, Synchronization, Recovery Examples: ISO session protocol, RPC ( 6): Service: Provides freedom from compatibility problems Functions: Virtual device support, syntax conversion, encryption Examples: ISO presentation protocol ( 7): Service: Provides network access to application programs Functions: Everything is application specific Examples: File Transfer, Electronic Mail 12

13 TCP/IP Protocol Suite The TCP/IP protocol suite is the protocol architecture of the Internet The TCP/IP suite has four layers:,,, and User-level programs Operating system End systems (hosts) implement all four layers. Gateways (Routers) only have the bottom two layers. Media Access Control (MAC) Sublayer in Local Area s Functions of the s : Service: Reliable transfer of frames over a link Media Access Control on a LAN Functions: Framing, media access control, error checking : Service: Move packets from source host to destination host Functions: Routing, addressing : Service: Delivery of data between hosts Functions: Connection establishment/termination, error control, flow control : Service: specific (delivery of , retrieval of HTML documents, reliable transfer of file) Functions: specific 13

14 TCP/IP Suite and OSI Reference Model The TCP/IP protocol stack does not define the lower layers of a complete protocol stack (Data) Link TCP/IP Suite (Data) Link OSI Reference Model Assignment of Protocols to s ping application HTTP Telnet FTP DNS SNMP TCP UDP Routing Protocols ICMP RIP IGMP IP PIM DHCP OSPF ARP Ethernet Interface 14

15 The B-ISDN ATM Reference Model ATM technology has its own protocol architecture Control Plane User Plane Upper Upper ATM Adaptation (AAL) ATM End-to-end layer Transfer of Cells Same as in OSI s of ATM Host A ATM Switch Host B Upper s Upper Protocol Upper s AAL AAL Protocol AAL ATM l ATM ATM 15

16 ATM The ATM is responsible for the transport of 53 cells across an ATM network The ATM can provide a variety of services for cells from an ATM virtual connection: Constant Bit Rate (CBR) guarantees a fixed capacity, similar to circuit switching guarantees a maximum delay for cells Variable Bit Rate (VBR) guarantees an average throughput can guarantee maximum delay Available Bit Rate (ABR) guarantees fairness with respect to other traffic Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) service is on a best effort basis 16

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