Asian Research Consortium

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Asian Research Consortium"

Transcription

1 Asian Research Consortium Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 4, No. 11, Special Issue, November 2014, pp ISSN Asian Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities The Impact of Inductive and Deductive Approaches on Grammar Knowledge of Iranian Elementary EFL Learners Esmail Zare-Behtash a, Fatemeh Bamadi b a Associate Professor of English, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabaha, Iran. b Master Student of TEFL, Chabahar Maritime University, Chabahar, Iran. Abstract The current study aims to find out the impact of inductive and deductive Approaches on Iranian elementary EFL learners grammar knowledge. 65 students were selected and divided into two experimental and control groups. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established using a Nelson proficiency test (as pretest). The experimental group used the inductive approach three sessions each week for 5 weeks, while the control group was trained on the deductive approach (traditional approach). At the end of the study, a posttest was administered to both groups. Paired-sample t-test and Independent sample t-test were used for analysis. The results of the study revealed that inductive approach had significant effect on improving grammar knowledge of elementary EFL learners. The results of the analyses for the collected data showed that there was a significant difference at the level of p<0.05 between the post-test scores of inductive and deductive subjects in the experimental group and their counterparts in the control group. Keywords: Approach, Inductive approach, Deductive approach, Grammar knowledge, EFL learners. 1

2 1. Introduction For most of the people grammar is same with learning the grammatical forms, and it is often associated with rules, drills, and boredom (Larsen-Freeman, 2003; Summer, 2011). Recently, however, grammar instruction has been considered as a vital and inevitable part of language learning and use (Doughty & Williams 1998; Thornbury 1997, 1998). It is known as valuable within the context of EFL teaching and learning. Even though a skill in itself, grammar can also be considered as a necessary master skill that enables competence to expand in the four areas of language skills. When grammar is not correct or it is misunderstood in any of these areas, communication may be distorted (Bitterlin, Price & Savage, 2010, p. 2). The aim of this study is to examine the impacts of the way it is taught/approach as independent variables on the rate of progress in learning the lessons desired as dependent variables. The main focus of the study is to determine how teaching grammar approaches result in effective grammar knowledge and how teachers can teach, and manage these approaches while teaching grammar. Teaching grammar approaches give both teachers and students a chance to evaluate the degree of students grammar knowledge achievements. A plethora of studies have been done to alleviate students grammar knowledge difficulties. Although these studies have examined the role of grammar knowledge in both L1 and L2 language contexts, it seems still necessary to do research considering learners required abilities, and needs in grammar achievement and help them reduce their grammar knowledge difficulties. So, the main question of the research is Do deductive and inductive teaching and learning have similar effects on grammar knowledge of EFL learners? 2. Literature Review This study is an experimental attempt to expand our understanding of EFL teachers actions towards grammar instruction. The study of English language teachers awareness and its relation to teachers classroom practices have been the focus of language teaching and education of teachers (Borg, 2006, 2010). However, rarely have the studies examined teachers knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between teachers knowledge about grammar and teachers activities (Borg, 2003; Sanchez, 2010). According to Ur (1999), regarding the learners, grammatical rules enable them to know and apply how such sentence patterns should be put together. The teaching of grammar should also eventually focus attention on the way grammatical points or sentence patterns are correctly used. In other words, teaching grammar should enclose language structure or sentence patterns, meaning and use. Previous studies on students' and teachers' attitudes and perceptions of grammar instruction in the context of language teaching and learning suggest an inconsistency between students and teachers. While students advocate explicit grammar teaching and error correction, teachers support communicative practices with less deliberate focus on grammar (e.g., Brindley, 1984; Kumaravadivelu, 1991; Leki, 1995; Schultz, 1996, 2001; Spratt, 1999). Several studies have been conducted on explicit and implicit grammar teaching, and teachers and students preferences in relation to the two approaches. For instance, Doughtys study (as cited in Ellis, 1995) provides real evidence of the positive effect of grammar teaching. The value of meaning-oriented teaching with explicit grammatical explanation was 2

3 also evidenced by Ellis (1993) and DeKeyser (1995). Scarcella (1996) insists on the role of form-focused teaching and corrective feedback to provide students with a structured setting of Standard English instruction. In spite of all the work that has been conducted on first- and second-language acquisition, we know surprisingly little about how languages are learnt, and even less about how they can be taught more efficiently Deductive Approach In this approach the learners are told the grammatical items and will work from that. Eisenstein (1987) believes that with this approach, learners be in control during practice and are less likely of drawing an incorrect conclusion related to how the target language is functioning Inductive Approach An inductive approach originates from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoning progression begins from particulars to generalities (Felder & Henriques, 1995). The teacher provides students with examples showing how the concept is used after which they analyze and notice how the concept works for them. Learners study examples and from the examples induce the grammar rules. They do not need to see the rule before doing the examples. 3. Methodology The present study dealt with quantitative research questions and the null or non-directional hypotheses. As it was a quasi-experimental research conducted in a real classroom setting not under laboratory type conditions in which pre-test and post-test used and where there was no random assignment of subjects to groups. The aim of present study is to compare the influence of inductive approach of teaching grammar and deductive approach of teaching grammar on English grammar knowledge of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. The difference in performance rates among the students in the two groups in comparison to each other is expected to provide valuable insights into the outcome and effects of inductive versus deductive grammar teaching Statistical Population, Sample, and Sampling Method The subjects of the current study were all enrolled at public high school located in Chabahar/Iran. A total of 65 female students took part in this study. Their ages ranged from 17 to 18. The homogeneity of students proficiency level was established via the administration of a Nelson proficiency test. Then they were divided into two groups before the initiation of the study: one experimental group with a total of 33 students and one control group with a total of 32 students. The study was carried out for three sessions each week in 90 minutes by the researcher. The researcher herself taught them English language grammar Procedures The whole processes lasted about a term and classes met three times a week. The teaching phase lasted five weeks, each had 90 minutes. The first session was on introduction of approaches, the efficacy of this 3

4 project, and the consent forms. The second session was related to performing pretest and again we had a session for posttest. There was another class for reviewing previous grammatical topics by using power point software for both groups before posttest session. Students in two classes received the same amount of time, and practice. Although students in control group had the same input as that of the counterparts, the approaches were different (i.e., no interaction to raise students notice of grammatical forms). In addition, while the grammatical rules were presented to students in control group, students in experimental group were engaged in rule-searched tasks. The course design was based on the inductive and deductive strategies. The materials with the target grammatical sentences were presented with translations. For the inductive strategy group, instead of teaching the rule explicitly, the researcher asked the participants to induce what they had learned from the sentences. For instance, the researcher first gave the subjects several sentences (or a text) and then asked them to identify the differences among the sentences. The instructor invited students to share their own findings. For the deductive strategy group, the researcher taught the students the rules by explaining the sentences and rule directly. Practice questions were used to check their understanding of the grammatical rules. Finally at the end of treatment period the instructor gave them a proficiency posttest. A posttest similar to pretest was utilized as a posttest. It was used to check the potential differences in grammatical knowledge performance of the subjects over time at the end of the treatment. The posttest contained 50 multiple choice items that were the same/similar to as the pretest. 4. Instrument The researcher in the present study used two student and parental consent forms and then Nelson Proficiency Test which was chosen from Nelson English Language Tests( Book 1 Elementary ) was applied for the purpose of ensuring students' homogeneity based on their performance on the Nelson test as a pre-test. At the end of treatment period, the researcher used Power Point software for reviewing grammatical rules for both groups. Next, another similar Nelson Proficiency Test as post-test was given to the participants. Finally the researcher used SPSS software, T-test for analyzing the raw data. The researcher herself taught them English language using input handout for experimental group that obtained from and library.com and the control group received an input handout in English and to some extent in Persian describing the grammatical points similar to a text book description. 5. Data Analysis Method Statistical procedures used to analyze all the data in this study included mean scores, Paired sample t-test, and Independent sample t-test. They were used to process the data gained from each of the research instruments. The 20 th version of SPSS software was used for statistical analysis of the data collected from all of the research steps. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study, three tests were administered to the subjects: Nelson proficiency test, treatment period, and posttest. Statistical procedures used to analyze all of the data included mean scores, Paired sample t-test, Independent sample t-test. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis. To achieve a general understanding of the differences between the two groups, mean scores were used before performing the main statistical test to answer the research questions. The groups were compared by the use of mean differences. 4

5 6. Results Table 1. Group Statistics for Comparison between Pre-test Scores of Control and Experimental Groups groups N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean performance experimental control The group statistics is displayed in Table 1. As indicated in this Table, the number of subjects in experimental group is 33 and in control is 32. Moreover, the subject's pre-test mean scores are (16.69) for the experimental and (16.71) for the control group. The value of Std. Deviation for experimental group is (3.45) and for the control group is (3.06). As the Table 1 shows, subjects were at the same level of the language proficiency. 5

6 Table 2. Results of Independent Samples T-test for the Performance of two Groups on the Pre-test performance Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper An independent t-test is conducted to compare the pre-test scores of two groups. As it can be seen in Table 2, level of significance is 0.97 > Since the level of significance is bigger than 0.05, there is no significant difference between the groups in pretest. Therefore, it can be claimed that any measurable changes in the posttest is unlikely to be the effect of preexisting differences between two groups and can be attributed to the different treatments that these groups encountered. Table 3. Group Statistics for Comparison between Post-test Scores of Control and Experimental Groups groups N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean performance experimental control

7 According to Table 3, the mean of experimental group is (18.48) and the mean of control group is (16.78). The value of Std. Deviation for experimental group is (3.27) and for the control group is (2.76). The means of two groups show they are different. Table 4. Results of Independent Samples T-test for the Performance of two Groups on the Post-test performance Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper To compare posttests in both groups independent t-test was used. As can be seen in Table 4, the level of significance found to be.02. As the level of significance is smaller than 0.05, 0.02 < 0.05, it can therefore be concluded that there is a significant difference between experimental and control groups in the posttest. It means that experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in the posttest. Table 5. Paired Samples Statistics for Control Group Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Pair 1 pretest posttest

8 Table 5 shows paired samples statistics. In this table the mean of subjects is (16.71) for the pre-test and (16.78) for the post-test. Regarding what is displayed in table 5, the mean of post-test scores (16.78) is greater than the mean of pre-test scores (16.71). The standard deviation for the pre-test is (3.06) and for the post-test is (2.76). So, this difference of means between pre-test and post-test of control groups is not significant statistically. It was found that the students in experimental group performed better on post-test compared to pre-test and it shows the grammatical progress which due to inductive teaching approach. Table 6. Paired Samples Test for Control Group Pair 1 pretest - posttest Paired Differences Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Sig. (2- Mean Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df tailed) To compare pre and posttest, paired sample t-test was used. As it is shown in Table 6, it reveals that the mean difference of the control group s grammar knowledge (MD=.06250) was not statistically significant, p= 0.87 > Since level of significance is bigger than 0.05, it can be concluded that there is not a significant difference between pre and posttest in the control group. Table 7. Paired Samples Statistics for Experimental Group Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Pair 1 pretest posttest The paired samples statistics is displayed in Table 7. As indicated in this table, the subjects' pre-test mean score are (16.69) and (18.48) for the post-test. Regarding what is displayed in Table 7, the mean of posttest scores (18.48) is greater than the mean of pre-test scores (16.69). The students in experimental group performed better than students in control group and it was due to inductive teaching approach. 8

9 Table 8. Paired Samples Test of Experimental Group Paired Differences 95% Confidence Std. Std. Error Interval of the Difference Mean Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df Sig. (2-tailed) Pair 1 pretest - posttest In order to compare pre and posttest of the experimental group, paired sample t-test was used. The statistical results of Table 8 revealed that mean difference of the experimental group s grammar knowledge (MD= 1.78) was statistically significant, p 0.00 < Since level of significance is smaller than 0.05, it can be concluded that the experimental group improved its grammar knowledge in posttests in comparison with pre-test, grammar achievements of the experimental group can be attributed to the treatment. Posttest is significantly higher than pretest. The results of the paired sample test showed that inductive approach was significantly more effective on students grammar knowledge. 6. Discussion & Conclusion The findings of the present study have implications for teacher training. Teacher training is relevant to students training to become teachers as well as teachers who encounter diversity in the classroom. The findings of the study point to the following implications: 1. EFL Curriculum designers should show an understanding of learners and teachers difficulties, and provide enough guidance and help in the curriculum document and the teachers book showing how the potential difficulties could be addressed in planning their classroom tasks. 2. According to the findings of the study, it is concluded that curriculum designers should allocate more time for teaching grammar class by using inductive approach. 3. EFL teachers would do well to understand and address their learners concerns in planning their lessons and classroom tasks, and use supplementary materials such as Power point software, if necessary, to help learners cope with the difficulties. In order to make a grammar lesson efficacious, and interesting a teacher should use some well-developed and engaging techniques in the classroom. Since teaching is a "developing art" (Penny Ur, 1987, p. 13), which requires innovative and stimulating opinions to enrich its effectiveness, we must not hesitate to 9

10 apply such sources in our classrooms. The examination of teaching and classroom practices in the present study can be used as a model for language teachers to involve in self-examination. In addition, because the teacher is a significant factor to determining the effect of new methods (Archer, 1998). The findings and conclusions of this study can give grammar teachers a way to develop their skills skillfully in the future. There were statistical significant differences in learning English grammar between the experimental and the control group due to the method in favor of the Inductive method. Based on the findings, the following conclusions were reached: 1) The Inductive approach has superiority over the deductive approach in teaching English grammar. 2) The Inductive approach proved better learning of grammar since students themselves induce the grammatical points which reflects on their proficiency performance. By referring to statistical findings of this study, it can therefore be concluded that inductive approach lead to the improvement of students grammar knowledge ability. In sum, this study provides teachers with sufficient information on inductive approach utilized by Iranian elementary EFL learners. The findings of the current study allow teachers to get a general understanding of the application of inductive approach. Nevertheless, more research is still needed to be done on the effect of various teaching grammar approaches on students grammar achievements. 7. Suggestions In accordance with the findings of the study, the researcher offered the following recommendations: Curriculum Designers and Decision Makers should enhance the Iranian curriculum inductive grammar that tackles different aspects in English grammar. They should take into account the activation of inductive grammar while planning the curricula practices included in the English Books. They should enrich the teachers with methods and techniques that enhance inductive teaching grammar. Teachers are kindly recommended to use the inductive approach. The inductive approach can be used in teaching English grammar to make an appropriate learning environment inside classrooms. Curriculum designers should take into their consideration holding in-service courses based on the inductive teaching grammar approach and application of this approach instead of deductive for learners' better comprehension of grammatical rules. Further research is needed in the area of grammar teaching. It was also suggested that research should be conducted on the effectiveness of the inductive approach on different dimensions of English achievement and other school subjects. It would be valuable to examine teachers and pupils opinions on teaching grammar, as it is they who use the textbooks and the grammar tasks in the EFL classroom. The present study investigated the effectiveness of the teacher s methodology of grammar teaching in language learning. There are still several possible items left to explore in the future. Firstly, different types of participants can be studied in future research. Secondly, the size of the two groups of classes observed in this study was 32 students in each group. Because there were a large number of students in each class, the classroom was required to follow a lecture presentation to some extent. 10

11 Therefore, the methodology that the teacher applied and the interaction between the teacher and the students might have been different if the class size were smaller. References Archer, J. (1998). The link to higher scores. Retrieved September 20, 2010, from Education Week on the Web (Special Issue: Technology Counts '98): Brindley, G. (1984). Needs analysis and objective setting in the adult migrant education program. NSW Adult Migrant Education Service, Sydney. Borg, S. (2001). Self- perception and practice in teaching grammar. ELT Journal, 55, Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36(2), Borg, S. (2006). Teacher cognition and language education: Research and practice. London: Continuum. Borg, S. (2010). Contemporary themes in language teacher education. Foreign Languages in China, 7(4), DeKeyser, R. M. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistic system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Pedagogical choices in focus on form. In Doughty, C. and Williams, J. (Eds.). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition, pp Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Ellis, R. (1993). Second language acquisition and the structural syllabus. TESOL Quarterly, 27, Erlam, R. (2003). The effects of deductive and inductive instruction on the acquisition of direct object pronouns in French as a second language. The Modern Language Journal, 87, Eisenstein, M. (1987). Grammatical explanations in ESL: Teach the student, Not the method. In M. Long & J. Richards (Eds.), Methodology in TESOL (pp ). New Jersey: Heinle & Heinle Publishers. Fowler, S. W., & Coe, N. (1976). Nelson English Language Tests: Book 1 Elementary. Great Britain. Kumaravadivelu, B. (1991). Language learning tasks: teacher intention and learner interpretation. ELT Journal, 45 (2), Larsen-Freeman, D. (2003). Teaching Language: From Grammar to Grammaring. Boston: Heinle, & Heinle. Leki, I. (1995). Good writing: I know it when I see it. In In D. Belcher and G. Braine (eds.) Academic Writing in a Second Language. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing. Sanchez, H. S. (2010). An investigation into the relationships among experience, teacher cognition, context, and classroom practice in EFL grammar teaching in Argentina. Unpublished PhD thesis: The University of Warwick. Savage. L.K. (2010). Grammar Matters; Teaching Grammar in Adult ESL Programs: New York: Cambridge University Press. Scarcella, R. (1996). Secondary education in California and second language research: Instructing ESL students in the 1990s. The CATESOL Journal, 9(1), Schultz, R. (1996). Focus on form in the foreign language classroom: Students' and teachers' views on error correction and the role of grammar. Foreign Language Annals, 29(3), Schulz, R.A. (2001). Cultural differences in student and teacher perceptions concerning the role of grammar instruction and corrective feedback: USA Colombia. The Modern Language Journal, 85(2), Spratt, M. (1999). How good are we at knowing what learners like? System, 27, Thornbury, S. (1997). About Language: Tasks for Teachers of English. Combridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 11

12 Thornbury, S. (1998). Comments on M arianne Celce-Murcia, Zolta n D o rnyei and Sarah Thurrell s Direct approaches in L2 instruction: a turning point in communicative language teaching? A reader reacts.... TESOL Quarterly 32 (1), Ur. P. (1987). A Course in Language Teaching. 1st edition. Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. (1999). Grammar practice activities: A practical guide/or teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zur, O. (2013). Simple English Stories. Retrieved from http: // 12

Journal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Literature of Islamic Azad University of Iran, 1 (1), 79-85, Winter 2009

Journal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Literature of Islamic Azad University of Iran, 1 (1), 79-85, Winter 2009 Journal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Literature of Islamic Azad University of Iran, 1 (1), 79-85, Winter 2009 Using Word-Search-puzzle Games for Improving Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian

More information

Effects of Different Response Types on Iranian EFL Test Takers Performance

Effects of Different Response Types on Iranian EFL Test Takers Performance Effects of Different Response Types on Iranian EFL Test Takers Performance Mohammad Hassan Chehrazad PhD Candidate, University of Tabriz chehrazad88@ms.tabrizu.ac.ir Parviz Ajideh Professor, University

More information

The Effect of Explicit Feedback on the Use of Language Learning Strategies: The Role of Instruction

The Effect of Explicit Feedback on the Use of Language Learning Strategies: The Role of Instruction Yıl/Year: 2013 Cilt/Volume: 2 Sayı/Issue: 5 Sayfalar/Pages: 1-12 The Effect of Explicit Feedback on the Use of Language Learning Strategies: The Role of Instruction Mohammad Rahi Islamic Azad University,

More information

Chapter 2 Probability Topics SPSS T tests

Chapter 2 Probability Topics SPSS T tests Chapter 2 Probability Topics SPSS T tests Data file used: gss.sav In the lecture about chapter 2, only the One-Sample T test has been explained. In this handout, we also give the SPSS methods to perform

More information

The Impact of Input Enhancement through Multimedia on the Improvement of Writing Ability

The Impact of Input Enhancement through Multimedia on the Improvement of Writing Ability The Impact of Input Enhancement through Multimedia on the Improvement of Writing Ability Roya Khoii 1, Azin Tabrizi 2 1 Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran, 2 Young Researchers Club,

More information

Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means)

Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means) Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means) The objectives of this lesson are to learn: the definition/purpose of independent t-test when to use the independent t-test the use of SPSS to complete an independent

More information

International Journal of Instruction DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT 1

International Journal of Instruction DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT 1 International Journal of Instruction July 2011 Vol.4, No.2 e-issn: 1308-1470 www.e-iji.net p-issn: 1694-609X DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT 1 Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

More information

The effects of beliefs about language learning and learning strategy use of junior high school EFL learners in remote districts

The effects of beliefs about language learning and learning strategy use of junior high school EFL learners in remote districts The effects of beliefs about language learning and learning strategy use of junior high school EFL learners in remote districts ABSTRACT Ching-yi Chang Leader University, Taiwan Ming-chang Shen Leader

More information

International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2013, 3(12): 2469-2476. International Journal of Asian Social Science

International Journal of Asian Social Science, 2013, 3(12): 2469-2476. International Journal of Asian Social Science International Journal of Asian Social Science ISSN(e): 2224-4441/ISSN(p): 2226-5139 journal homepage: http://www.aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?id=5007 THE EFFECT OF USING GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD ON

More information

Using ipad to Facilitate English Vocabulary Learning

Using ipad to Facilitate English Vocabulary Learning Using ipad to Facilitate English Vocabulary Learning B. T. Wang, C. W. Teng, and H. T. Chen Abstract With the development of new technologies, such as Web pages, Apps or social network, the language learning

More information

DEVELOPING EFL LEARNERS' NARRATIVE WRITING THROUGH USING SHORT STORIES- THE CASE OF AL-BAHA UNIVERSIY STUDENTS. Ahmed Abdalla Saeed Adam

DEVELOPING EFL LEARNERS' NARRATIVE WRITING THROUGH USING SHORT STORIES- THE CASE OF AL-BAHA UNIVERSIY STUDENTS. Ahmed Abdalla Saeed Adam DEVELOPING EFL LEARNERS' NARRATIVE WRITING THROUGH USING SHORT STORIES- THE CASE OF AL-BAHA UNIVERSIY STUDENTS Ahmed Abdalla Saeed Adam Assistant professor, Department of English language & literature,

More information

EFFECT OF REFLEX PROGRAM ON MATH FACT FLUENCY SCORES OF STUDENTS RECEIVING SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TARA PACKER. Submitted to

EFFECT OF REFLEX PROGRAM ON MATH FACT FLUENCY SCORES OF STUDENTS RECEIVING SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TARA PACKER. Submitted to REFLEX PROGRAM 1 EFFECT OF REFLEX PROGRAM ON MATH FACT FLUENCY SCORES OF STUDENTS RECEIVING SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES By TARA PACKER Submitted to The Department of Professional Educational Faculty Northwest

More information

The Effect of Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks on EFL Learners Performance

The Effect of Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks on EFL Learners Performance The Effect of Grammar Consciousness-Raising Tasks on EFL Learners Performance Seyyed Mohammad Reza Amirian (Corresponding author) Assistant Professor of TEFL Department of English Language and Literature

More information

The effect of songs on vocabulary retention of preschool young English language learners

The effect of songs on vocabulary retention of preschool young English language learners International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 2017 July, Volume 6 Number 3, 63-72 The effect of songs on vocabulary retention of preschool young English language learners Madani, Davood

More information

The Effect of Audio-Visual Materials on Iranian Second Grade High School Students Language Achievement

The Effect of Audio-Visual Materials on Iranian Second Grade High School Students Language Achievement International Journal of Language and Linguistics 2015; 3(2): 69-75 Published online March 21, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijll) doi: 10.11648/j.ijll.20150302.15 ISSN: 2330-0205 (Print);

More information

COMPUTER-ASSISTED AUDIO-VISUAL ACTIVITIES, ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR LEARNING AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG THE FIRST GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

COMPUTER-ASSISTED AUDIO-VISUAL ACTIVITIES, ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR LEARNING AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG THE FIRST GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS COMPUTER-ASSISTED AUDIO-VISUAL ACTIVITIES, ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR LEARNING AND SELF-ESTEEM AMONG THE FIRST GRADE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS *Fatemeh Alipanahi 1 and Mastaneh Jafari 2 1 Department of English language,

More information

Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan

Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan Teachers' Perspectives about the Effect of Tawjihi English Exam on English Instruction at the Second Secondary Stage in Jordan Dr. Mohammad Abd Alhafeez Ali Ta'amneh Assistant Professor of Teaching English

More information

Teacher s and Students Scaffolding in an EFL Classroom

Teacher s and Students Scaffolding in an EFL Classroom Teacher s and Students Scaffolding in an EFL Classroom Warithorn Samana Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand E-mail: warithorn.saa@dpu.ac.th Doi:10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n8p338 Abstract Scaffolding is a teaching

More information

Editorial. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

Editorial. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension Metacognition and Reading Comprehension Alireza Karbalaei* Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University, Safashahr Branch, Safashahr, Irán 1. Introduction The importance of learning to read

More information

Problems of English for Specific Purpose course for medical students in Iran

Problems of English for Specific Purpose course for medical students in Iran 48 Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Problems of English for Specific Purpose course for medical students in Iran Alireza Boniadi, Islamic Azad University of Uromia Morteza Ghojazadeh, Tabriz

More information

Effects of Recognition Task and Production Task on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners

Effects of Recognition Task and Production Task on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2013 Available online at www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X / Vol, 4 (2): 356-363 Science Explorer Publications Effects of Recognition Task and Production

More information

Using L1 in Teaching Vocabulary to Low English Proficiency Level Students: A Case Study at the National University of Laos

Using L1 in Teaching Vocabulary to Low English Proficiency Level Students: A Case Study at the National University of Laos Vol. 2, No. 3 English Language Teaching Using L1 in Teaching Vocabulary to Low English Proficiency Level Students: A Case Study at the National University of Laos Soulignavong Latsanyphone (Corresponding

More information

A Dual Focus on Form and Meaning in EFL Communicative Instruction

A Dual Focus on Form and Meaning in EFL Communicative Instruction A Dual Focus on Form and Meaning in EFL Communicative Instruction I-Shou University, Kaohsiung Abstract This paper examines an issue concerning the relative merits and drawbacks of focusing on form (accuracy)

More information

USING READING IN CONTENT AREA STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING IN FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES

USING READING IN CONTENT AREA STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING IN FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education, Vol. 23, No. 2, Fall/Winter, 2005 USING READING IN CONTENT AREA STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING IN FAMILY AND CONSUMER SCIENCES Lynne Bell

More information

Researcher s Name: Chau Van Don, Vice Head of Scientific Management and International Cooperation Office, Phu Yen University, Vietnam.

Researcher s Name: Chau Van Don, Vice Head of Scientific Management and International Cooperation Office, Phu Yen University, Vietnam. Integrating Multiple Intelligences Activities in Developing English Speaking Skills for English Major Students at Phu Yen University, Vietnam Researcher s Name: Chau Van Don, Vice Head of Scientific Management

More information

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK-AIDED REMEDIAL TEACHING ON STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE OPTICS UNIT

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK-AIDED REMEDIAL TEACHING ON STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE OPTICS UNIT A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK-AIDED REMEDIAL TEACHING ON STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES AT THE OPTICS UNIT Chen-Feng Wu, Pin-Chang Chen and Shu-Fen Tzeng Department of Information Management,

More information

An Investigation of the Effects of G5 Mnemonic Technique in Learning Vocabulary among Iranian EFL Learners

An Investigation of the Effects of G5 Mnemonic Technique in Learning Vocabulary among Iranian EFL Learners An Investigation of the Effects of G5 Mnemonic Technique in Learning Vocabulary among Iranian EFL Learners Mitra Taghinezhad Vaskeh Mahalle Department of English Language Teaching and Litrature, Ahar Branch,

More information

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS. four research questions. The first section demonstrates the effects of the strategy

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS. four research questions. The first section demonstrates the effects of the strategy CHAPTER 4 RESULTS This chapter presents the statistical analysis of the collected data based on the four research questions. The first section demonstrates the effects of the strategy instruction on the

More information

THE EFFECT OF EXTENSIVE READING ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN EFL LEARNERS IN DEHDASHT LANGUAGE INSTITUTE

THE EFFECT OF EXTENSIVE READING ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN EFL LEARNERS IN DEHDASHT LANGUAGE INSTITUTE Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, Volume 5 Number 4 2010 THE EFFECT OF EXTENSIVE READING ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN EFL LEARNERS IN DEHDASHT LANGUAGE INSTITUTE Abdolreza PAZHAKH & Rahmatollah

More information

THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE APPROACHES OF TEACHING ON JORDANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' USE OF THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH.

THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE APPROACHES OF TEACHING ON JORDANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' USE OF THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH. THE EFFECTS OF DEDUCTIVE AND INDUCTIVE APPROACHES OF TEACHING ON JORDANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' USE OF THE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE IN ENGLISH. Mohammed, Azmi Adel, Jaber, Hanna Abu, College Student Journal,

More information

Reassessing the ESP Courses Offered to Engineering Students in Iran (A Case Study)

Reassessing the ESP Courses Offered to Engineering Students in Iran (A Case Study) Reassessing the ESP Courses Offered to Engineering Students in Iran (A Case Study) By: Zahra Amirian, PhD in TEFL And Mansoor Tavakoli, PhD in TEFL Zahra Amirian holds a PhD in TEFL from the University

More information

The Effect of Animated Cartoons on Teaching English Grammar: A Study of St Louis Nursery and Primary School, Ikere -Ekiti, Nigeria

The Effect of Animated Cartoons on Teaching English Grammar: A Study of St Louis Nursery and Primary School, Ikere -Ekiti, Nigeria The Effect of Animated Cartoons on Teaching English Grammar: A Study of St Louis Nursery and Primary School, Ikere -Ekiti, Nigeria Bankole Faloye, Oladunni Olufunso Deji-Afuye College of Education, Nigeria

More information

A PRELIMINARY COMPARISON OF STUDENT LEARNING IN THE ONLINE VS THE TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT

A PRELIMINARY COMPARISON OF STUDENT LEARNING IN THE ONLINE VS THE TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT A PRELIMINARY COMPARISON OF STUDENT LEARNING IN THE ONLINE VS THE TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT Dr. Lori Willoughby Dr. Linda Cresap Minot State University Minot ND willough@minotstateu.edu cresap@minotstateu.edu

More information

The Effects of Classroom Interaction on Vocabulary Development. Mastoor Al-Kaboody. Northern Arizona University

The Effects of Classroom Interaction on Vocabulary Development. Mastoor Al-Kaboody. Northern Arizona University The Effects of Classroom Interaction on Vocabulary Development Mastoor Al-Kaboody Northern Arizona University CLASSROOM INTERACTION ON VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT 2 Abstract A partial replication of Plonsky

More information

Review on the changing role of grammar teaching in second language instruction

Review on the changing role of grammar teaching in second language instruction Enriketa Söğütlü Hëna e Plotë Bedër University English Language and Literature Department Lecturer esogutlu@beder.edu.al Review on the changing role of grammar teaching in second language instruction Abstract

More information

USING PODCASTS TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE ARABIC CLASSROOMS FATIMA AHMED

USING PODCASTS TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE ARABIC CLASSROOMS FATIMA AHMED ABSTRACT USING PODCASTS TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE ARABIC CLASSROOMS FATIMA AHMED This study investigated the use of podcasts to improve listening comprehension in children s Arabic classrooms.

More information

Helping EFL Students Improve their Writing

Helping EFL Students Improve their Writing International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 2 [Special Issue January 2014] Helping EFL Students Improve their Writing Iman Muwafaq Muslim English Department College of Education for

More information

Utilization of a Local Dialect and a Task Activity: Making the Best Use of the Focus on Form and Forms Approaches

Utilization of a Local Dialect and a Task Activity: Making the Best Use of the Focus on Form and Forms Approaches Utilization of a Local Dialect and a Task Activity: Making the Best Use of the Focus on Form and Forms Approaches Noriko Imai (Kochi Minami Junior High School) and Hide Takashima (Tokyo University of Foreign

More information

Implementing Reading Strategies based on Collaborative Learning Approach in an English Class

Implementing Reading Strategies based on Collaborative Learning Approach in an English Class 91 Implementing Reading Strategies based on Collaborative Learning Approach in an English Class Ornprapat Suwantharathip Bangkok University ABSTRACT The present study investigated the effects of reading

More information

Teaching Phonetics with Online Resources

Teaching Phonetics with Online Resources Teaching Phonetics with Online Resources Tien-Hsin Hsing National Pingtung University of Science of Technology, Taiwan thhsin@mail.npust.eud.tw Received October 2014; Revised December 2014 ABSTRACT. This

More information

Bibliografía. Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Bibliografía. Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Bibliografía Baker, C. (1992). Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism, 3rd. Edition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Berumen,

More information

Using Clicker Technology in a Clinically-based Occupational Therapy Course: Comparing Student Perceptions of Participation and Learning

Using Clicker Technology in a Clinically-based Occupational Therapy Course: Comparing Student Perceptions of Participation and Learning Using Clicker Technology in a Clinically-based Occupational Therapy Course: Comparing Student Perceptions of Participation and Learning Thomas Mernar, PhD, OTR Acknowledgements I would like to thank The

More information

Scientific Research Base February, By amy russo and Laura Anderson With Katy Pike

Scientific Research Base February, By amy russo and Laura Anderson With Katy Pike Reading Eggspress grammar Program Scientific Research Base February, 2015 By amy russo and Laura Anderson With Katy Pike 1 Reading Eggspress grammar Program Scientific Research Base February, 2015 Grammar

More information

The Effectiveness of Activities for Teaching EFL Writing in a Context of Vietnam

The Effectiveness of Activities for Teaching EFL Writing in a Context of Vietnam 2011, Nepal English Language Teachers Association (NELTA), ISSN: 2091-0487 The Effectiveness of Activities for Teaching EFL Writing in a Context of Vietnam Abstract Duy Khang Nguyen, Phan Thi Tuyet Van,

More information

USING TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ESL STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION AND MOTIVATION

USING TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ESL STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION AND MOTIVATION The 2015 WEI International Academic Conference Proceedings Athens, Greece Abstract USING TECHNOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING ESL STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION AND MOTIVATION Alia Raja Alfaleh Riyadh School District,

More information

Predictability of Vocabulary Size on Learners EFL Proficiency: Taking VST, CET4 and CET6 as Instruments

Predictability of Vocabulary Size on Learners EFL Proficiency: Taking VST, CET4 and CET6 as Instruments Studies in Literature and Language Vol. 10, No. 3, 2015, pp. 18-23 DOI:10.3968/6679 ISSN 1923-1555[Print] ISSN 1923-1563[Online] www.cscanada.net www.cscanada.org Predictability of Vocabulary Size on Learners

More information

An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember

An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember 1 An Analysis of the Eleventh Grade Students Monitor Use in Speaking Performance based on Krashen s (1982) Monitor Hypothesis at SMAN 4 Jember Moh. Rofid Fikroni, Musli Ariani, Sugeng Ariyanto Language

More information

THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM. English Language & Applied Linguistics SECOND TERM ESSAY

THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM. English Language & Applied Linguistics SECOND TERM ESSAY THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM English Language & Applied Linguistics SECOND TERM ESSAY Student Number: 1277536 MA - TEFL/TESL 2012/2013 Title of option(s) for which work is being submitted: Business English

More information

The Evaluation of Iranian High School English Textbook from the Prospective of Teachers

The Evaluation of Iranian High School English Textbook from the Prospective of Teachers The Evaluation of Iranian High School English Textbook from the Prospective of Teachers Batoul Sabzalipour 1, Mansour Koosha 2 Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch,

More information

Learning preferences of students attending and not attending language institutes

Learning preferences of students attending and not attending language institutes Learning preferences of students attending and not attending language s Sara Jalali Urmia University, Faculty of Humanities, English Department, s.jalali@urmia.ac.ir Masoumeh Samadi Urmia University, Faculty

More information

The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar on the Achievement of Secondary Students in Jordan

The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar on the Achievement of Secondary Students in Jordan The International Arab Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 6, No. 4, October 2009 431 The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning in Teaching English Grammar on the Achievement of Secondary Students

More information

Two Related Samples t Test

Two Related Samples t Test Two Related Samples t Test In this example 1 students saw five pictures of attractive people and five pictures of unattractive people. For each picture, the students rated the friendliness of the person

More information

Textbook Evaluation: An Investigation into Touchstone Series

Textbook Evaluation: An Investigation into Touchstone Series ISSN 1799-2591 Theory and Practice in Language Studies, Vol. 2, No. 12, pp. 2655-2662, December 2012 Manufactured in Finland. doi:10.4304/tpls.2.12.2655-2662 Textbook Evaluation: An Investigation into

More information

Difficulties in Learning Prepositions and Possible Solutions

Difficulties in Learning Prepositions and Possible Solutions Linguistic Portfolios Volume 1 Article 14 2012 Difficulties in Learning Prepositions and Possible Solutions Kristen Lorincz St. Cloud State University Rebekah Gordon St. Cloud State University Follow this

More information

A Study on Teachers Feedback of English Major Compositions

A Study on Teachers Feedback of English Major Compositions US-China Foreign Language, ISSN 1539-8080 April 2011, Vol. 9, No. 4, 247-253 A Study on Teachers Feedback of English Major Compositions NING Zhen-ye Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, China The paper

More information

The Effect of the After-School Reading Education Program for Elementary School on Multicultural Awareness

The Effect of the After-School Reading Education Program for Elementary School on Multicultural Awareness , pp.369-376 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijunesst.2015.8.12.37 The Effect of the After-School Reading Education Program for Elementary School on Multicultural Awareness Jaebok Seo 1 and Mina Choi 2 1,2

More information

Impact of Short Story Books as Extensive Reading on Vocabulary Development among EFL Learners of Jahad-Daneshgahi Language Institute in Kerman

Impact of Short Story Books as Extensive Reading on Vocabulary Development among EFL Learners of Jahad-Daneshgahi Language Institute in Kerman 2014, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com Impact of Short Story Books as Extensive Reading on Vocabulary Development among EFL

More information

A Pilot Study of Some ROCMA Cadets Difficulties in English Speaking

A Pilot Study of Some ROCMA Cadets Difficulties in English Speaking WHAMPOA - An Interdisciplinary Journal 57(2009) 119-126 119 A Pilot Study of Some ROCMA Cadets Difficulties in English Speaking Wain-Chin Dana Chen 1 1 Department of Foreign Languages, ROC Military Academy

More information

The Role of Motivation in Learning English Language for Pakistani Learners

The Role of Motivation in Learning English Language for Pakistani Learners The Role of Motivation in Learning English Language for Pakistani Learners Abdur Rehman Department of English, University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus Hafiz Ahmad Bilal Department of English, University

More information

Cognitive Skills of Mathematical Problem Solving of Grade 6 Children

Cognitive Skills of Mathematical Problem Solving of Grade 6 Children Cognitive Skills of Mathematical Problem Solving of Grade 6 Children Irene Coto Culaste Central Mindanao University, Philippines ABSTRACT This study investigated the metacognitive dimensions on the cognitive

More information

Effects of Scaffolded Video Analysis on Pre-Service English Teachers Classroom Interactions and Professional Development

Effects of Scaffolded Video Analysis on Pre-Service English Teachers Classroom Interactions and Professional Development , pp.283-290 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2016.11.3.27 Effects of Scaffolded Video Analysis on Pre-Service English Teachers Classroom Interactions and Professional Development Yoonhee Choe Department

More information

Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya

Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya Learning English Language by Radio in Primary Schools in Kenya By Florence Y. Odera (PhD) P.O.Box 2303, Kisumu, Kenya E-mail: Odera_florence@yahoo.co.uk Introduction and background information One of the

More information

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES Using SPSS Topics addressed today: 1. Differences between groups 2. Graphing Use the s4data.sav file for the first part of this session. DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR

More information

Dr. Wei Wei Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Vietnam Campus January 2013

Dr. Wei Wei Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Vietnam Campus January 2013 Research Summary: Can integrated skills tasks change students use of learning strategies and materials? A case study using PTE Academic integrated skills items Dr. Wei Wei Royal Melbourne Institute of

More information

Do Intermediate Monolinguals and Bilinguals Use Different Learning Strategies?

Do Intermediate Monolinguals and Bilinguals Use Different Learning Strategies? Do Intermediate Monolinguals and Bilinguals Use Different Learning Strategies? Asieh Seifi Department of English, Golestan Payam Noor University, Iran E-mail: seifi_a61@yahoo.com Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi

More information

Journal of College Teaching & Learning September 2010 Volume 7, Number 9

Journal of College Teaching & Learning September 2010 Volume 7, Number 9 The Effect Of Viewing Subtitled Videos On Vocabulary Learning Madhubala Bava Harji, Multimedia University, Malaysia Peter Charles Woods, Multimedia University, Malaysia Zhinoos Kamal Alavi, Multimedia

More information

A Hands-on Approach to Teaching Civil Engineering Technology Design Courses: A Case Study

A Hands-on Approach to Teaching Civil Engineering Technology Design Courses: A Case Study Session: ENT 107-036 A Hands-on Approach to Teaching Civil Engineering Technology Design Courses: A Case Study Maher M. Murad Department of Civil Engineering Technology University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown

More information

Effects of Teaching through Online Teacher versus Real Teacher on Student Learning in the Classroom

Effects of Teaching through Online Teacher versus Real Teacher on Student Learning in the Classroom Effects of Teaching through Online Teacher versus Real Teacher on Student Learning in the Classroom Sirous Hadadnia Islamic Azad University-Mamasani Branch, Iran Norouz Hadadnia Zargan Office of Education,

More information

CAL Online Resources: Digests

CAL Online Resources: Digests Partners in Pedagogy: Collaboration Between University and Secondary School Foreign Language Teachers October 1999 Lina Lee, University of New Hampshire One of the challenges facing many foreign language

More information

Effect of Online Learning on Struggling ESL College Writers

Effect of Online Learning on Struggling ESL College Writers Effect of Online Learning on Struggling ESL College Writers Dr Reima Sado Al-Jarf King Saud University P. O. Box 69827, Riyadh 11557, Saudi Arabia Fax/Phone: 966-1-4682847 e-mail: reima2000_sa@yahoo.com

More information

Promoting Learner Autonomy and Language Awareness Through Blogging

Promoting Learner Autonomy and Language Awareness Through Blogging Promoting Learner Autonomy and Language Awareness Through Blogging Paul Dickinson Abstract The benefits of learner Weblogs, or blogs as they are more commonly known, have been reported in various educational

More information

Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching

Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Integrating Reading and Writing for Effective Language Teaching Ruwaida Abu Rass (Israel) Writing is a difficult skill for native speakers and nonnative speakers alike, because writers must balance multiple

More information

The African Symposium: An online journal of the African Educational Research Network

The African Symposium: An online journal of the African Educational Research Network EFFECT OF COMPUTER SIMULATION INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS STUDENTS RETENTION IN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION IN LAVUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA Ramatu Wodu

More information

Test at a Glance. About this test

Test at a Glance. About this test English to Speakers of Other Languages (0360) Test at a Glance Test Name English to Speakers of Other Languages Test Code 0360 Time 2 hours, with a 30-minute listening section Number of Questions 120,

More information

行 政 院 國 家 科 學 委 員 會 專 題 研 究 計 畫 成 果 報 告

行 政 院 國 家 科 學 委 員 會 專 題 研 究 計 畫 成 果 報 告 行 政 院 國 家 科 學 委 員 會 專 題 研 究 計 畫 成 果 報 告 認 知 模 式 性 向 語 言 能 力 與 索 引 工 具 在 連 用 語 教 學 上 的 分 析 研 究 計 畫 類 別 : 個 別 型 計 畫 計 畫 編 號 : NSC91-2411-H-009-014- 執 行 期 間 : 91 年 08 月 01 日 至 92 年 07 月 31 日 執 行 單 位 : 國 立

More information

The Effects of Read Naturally on Grade 3 Reading: A Study in the Minneapolis Public Schools

The Effects of Read Naturally on Grade 3 Reading: A Study in the Minneapolis Public Schools The Effects of Read Naturally on Grade 3 Reading: A Study in the Minneapolis Public Schools David Heistad, Ph.D. Director of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment Minneapolis Public Schools Introduction

More information

Who wants training? Arzu Mutlu, Dilara Altuğ, Esragül Torun, Sibel Özdemir, Yeşim Güven

Who wants training? Arzu Mutlu, Dilara Altuğ, Esragül Torun, Sibel Özdemir, Yeşim Güven Who wants training? Arzu Mutlu, Dilara Altuğ, Esragül Torun, Sibel Özdemir, Yeşim Güven The present study examined factors that were assumed to play an important role in training motivation. In order to

More information

Achievement in Physics Using Mastery Learning and Mind Mapping Approaches: Implication on Gender and Attitude

Achievement in Physics Using Mastery Learning and Mind Mapping Approaches: Implication on Gender and Attitude International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Volume 1, Issue 12, December 2014, PP 154-161 ISSN 2349-0373 (Print) & ISSN 2349-0381 (Online) www.arcjournals.org Achievement

More information

ENHANCING RECEPTIVE SKILLS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COURSES THROUGH CBLI APPLICATIONS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO ENGINEERING*

ENHANCING RECEPTIVE SKILLS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE COURSES THROUGH CBLI APPLICATIONS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO ENGINEERING* - 533 - Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi The Journal of International Social Research Cilt: 7 Sayı: 32 Volume: 7 Issue: 32 www.sosyalarastirmalar.com Issn: 1307-9581 ENHANCING RECEPTIVE SKILLS

More information

LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES OF STUDENTS AT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PUNJAB

LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES OF STUDENTS AT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PUNJAB Journal of Policy Research, 1(2), 55-61. http://rfh.org.pk/jur/magazine-category/jpr -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Felix B. Tan <f.tan@auckland.ac.nz> and Hazel Chan The University of Auckland, New Zealand. Introduction ABSTRACT

Felix B. Tan <f.tan@auckland.ac.nz> and Hazel Chan The University of Auckland, New Zealand. Introduction ABSTRACT 0(14/+0) %+'0%' 1.7/' E 1 E #..X EMMK Managing Self-instructed Learning within the IS Curriculum: Teaching Learners to Learn Felix B. Tan and Hazel Chan The University of Auckland,

More information

APEC Online Consumer Checklist for English Language Programs

APEC Online Consumer Checklist for English Language Programs APEC Online Consumer Checklist for English Language Programs The APEC Online Consumer Checklist For English Language Programs will serve the training needs of government officials, businesspeople, students,

More information

Identifying influences on attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration among pre-service educators

Identifying influences on attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration among pre-service educators Identifying influences on attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs towards technology integration among pre-service educators Jason T. Abbitt Miami University Mitchell D. Klett Northern Michigan University

More information

The Effect of Peripheral Learning Applied in English Instruction on English Idioms Learning

The Effect of Peripheral Learning Applied in English Instruction on English Idioms Learning http://www.eab.org.tr Available online at: http://www.eab.org.tr/public/ijer/3/2/bulent_alci.pdf Educational Research Association The International Journal of Educational Researchers 2012, 3 (3) : 19-34

More information

The Learning And Teaching Of Second Foreign Languages For Language Majors: The Case Of Chinese And English In Ho Chi Minh City University Of Education

The Learning And Teaching Of Second Foreign Languages For Language Majors: The Case Of Chinese And English In Ho Chi Minh City University Of Education The Learning And Teaching Of Second Foreign Languages For Language Majors: The Case Of Chinese And English In Ho Chi Minh City University Of Education Tran Khai Xuan, MA, Chinese Department, HCMC University

More information

Chapter 7 Section 7.1: Inference for the Mean of a Population

Chapter 7 Section 7.1: Inference for the Mean of a Population Chapter 7 Section 7.1: Inference for the Mean of a Population Now let s look at a similar situation Take an SRS of size n Normal Population : N(, ). Both and are unknown parameters. Unlike what we used

More information

The Impact of Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (S-CMC) on the Oral Proficiency of Iranian EFL Learners

The Impact of Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (S-CMC) on the Oral Proficiency of Iranian EFL Learners The Impact of Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (S-CMC) on the Oral Proficiency of Iranian EFL Learners Abbas Ali Rezai * Assistant Professor of TEFL, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran & Nushin

More information

Paragraph Writing Challenges Faced by University EFL Learners

Paragraph Writing Challenges Faced by University EFL Learners International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL) Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2015, PP 23-27 ISSN 2347-3126 (Print) & ISSN 2347-3134 (Online) www.arcjournals.org Paragraph Writing

More information

Task-Based Language Learning and Student Motivation in Vocabulary Acquisition1

Task-Based Language Learning and Student Motivation in Vocabulary Acquisition1 Task-Based Language Learning and Student Motivation in Vocabulary Acquisition1 Le Ngoc Thanh Vinh Long Community College, Vietnam Nguyen Buu Huan Can Tho University, Vietnam Abstract This article explores

More information

186-Classroom Assessment -for -Learning in Secondary Schools in Kenya

186-Classroom Assessment -for -Learning in Secondary Schools in Kenya 186-Classroom Assessment -for -Learning in Secondary Schools in Kenya A paper presented at the 39 th Annual Conference of the International Association for Educational Assessment (IAEA) In Tel Aviv - Israel

More information

A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Mastery Learning Model On Achievement Of Pupil s Of Ix Class In Chemistry. Ms. Sarita* & Ms.

A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Mastery Learning Model On Achievement Of Pupil s Of Ix Class In Chemistry. Ms. Sarita* & Ms. A Study Of The Effectiveness Of Mastery Learning Model On Achievement Of Pupil s Of Ix Class In Chemistry Ms. Sarita* & Ms. Jyoti** *Assistant Professor, Department of Education, M.D.U, Rohtak **Research

More information

MATH 4100/Hazelwood Fraction Unit Post-test Analysis 1

MATH 4100/Hazelwood Fraction Unit Post-test Analysis 1 MATH 4100/Hazelwood Fraction Unit Post-test Analysis 1 EFFECTS OF THE SMALL GROUP TEACHING EXPERIENCE: ARE APSU PRE- SERVICE TEACHERS MAKING A DIFFERENCE IN CHILDREN S UNDERSTANDING OF FRACTIONS? At APSU,

More information

Research Proposal: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Online Learning as. Opposed to Traditional Classroom Delivered Instruction. Mark R.

Research Proposal: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Online Learning as. Opposed to Traditional Classroom Delivered Instruction. Mark R. 1 Running head: Effectiveness of Online Learning Research Proposal: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Online Learning as Opposed to Traditional Classroom Delivered Instruction Mark R. Domenic University

More information

Comparing Teachers' Citizenship Behavior in Public and Non-Profit Schools in Dorud County

Comparing Teachers' Citizenship Behavior in Public and Non-Profit Schools in Dorud County International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 18; October 2012 Comparing Teachers' Citizenship Behavior in Public and Non-Profit Schools in Dorud County Dr. Javad Mehrabi Department

More information

An Investigation on Learning of College Students and the Current Application Situation of the Web-based Courses

An Investigation on Learning of College Students and the Current Application Situation of the Web-based Courses 2011 International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT 2011) IPCSIT vol. 51 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore DOI: 10.7763/IPCSIT.2012.V51.127 An Investigation on Learning

More information

Bibliographies. Beaven, B. (2010). IATEFL 2009: Cardiff Conference Selections. Cardiff (pp. 10-220). Canterbury: IATEFL.

Bibliographies. Beaven, B. (2010). IATEFL 2009: Cardiff Conference Selections. Cardiff (pp. 10-220). Canterbury: IATEFL. Bibliographies Beaven, B. (2010). IATEFL 2009: Cardiff Conference Selections. Cardiff (pp. 10-220). Canterbury: IATEFL. Booch, G., Rumbaugh, J. & Jacobson, I. (1999). The Unified Modeling language user

More information

Effect of polya problem-solving model on senior secondary school students performance in current electricity

Effect of polya problem-solving model on senior secondary school students performance in current electricity European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education Vol. 3, o. 1, 2015, 97 104 Effect of polya problem-solving model on senior secondary school students performance in current electricity Olaniyan, Ademola

More information

Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL AVAILABLE IN EXETER AND DUBAI

Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL AVAILABLE IN EXETER AND DUBAI Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL AVAILABLE IN EXETER AND DUBAI The Programme The degree of Doctor of Education (EdD) in TESOL aims to provide experienced professionals within the field of language teaching

More information

Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Studies Conducted at Marzano Research Laboratory on Instructional Strategies

Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Studies Conducted at Marzano Research Laboratory on Instructional Strategies Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Studies Conducted at Marzano Research Laboratory on Instructional Strategies By Mark W. Haystead & Dr. Robert J. Marzano Marzano Research Laboratory Englewood, CO August, 2009

More information

THE USE OF AUDIOBOOKS IN EFL CLASSES TO IMPROVE READING AND LISTENING SKILLS

THE USE OF AUDIOBOOKS IN EFL CLASSES TO IMPROVE READING AND LISTENING SKILLS 1564 THE USE OF AUDIOBOOKS IN EFL CLASSES TO IMPROVE READING AND LISTENING SKILLS Res. Asst. Galip KARTAL, Selçuk University ELT Department, Selçuk University, Faculty of Education, ELT Department, Konya-TURKEY,

More information