RECENT TRENDS IN ILLEGAL DRUG USE IN NEW ZEALAND,

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1 RECENT TRENDS IN ILLEGAL DRUG USE IN NEW ZEALAND, Findings from the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) C. Wilkins J. Prasad K. Wong M. Rychert Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation School of Public Health Massey University, PO Box 6137, Wellesley St, Auckland, New Zealand October 2014

2 SHORE and Whariki Research Centre ISBN

3 Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables Acknowledgements Executive Summary Introduction Aims of IDMS Methodology Survey of frequent drug users Secondary data sources Analysis Weighting of the sample Demographics Introduction Gender Age Ethnicity Employment status Education Sexual orientation Marital status Accommodation Physical health Mental health Summary of demographic characteristics Drug use patterns Introduction SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 3

4 3.2 Lifetime use of drug types by frequent methamphetamine users Lifetime use of drug types by frequent ecstasy (MDMA) users Lifetime use of drug types by frequent injecting drug users Current drug use of the frequent methamphetamine users Current drug use of the frequent ecstasy (MDMA) users Current drug use of the frequent injecting drug users Summary of drug patterns Emerging drug types Introduction Drug types used for first time in past six months Summary of emerging drugs Methamphetamine Introduction Knowledge of methamphetamine trends Availability of methamphetamine Price of methamphetamine Price of pseudoephedrine Strength of methamphetamine Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine Purchase of methamphetamine Seizures of methamphetamine Methamphetamine laboratories Pseudoephedrine and ephedrine seizures Summary of methamphetamine trends Crystal methamphetamine Introduction Knowledge of crystal methamphetamine trends Availability of crystal methamphetamine Price of crystal methamphetamine Strength of crystal methamphetamine Perceptions of the number of people using crystal methamphetamine Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

5 6.7 Summary of crystal methamphetamine trends Ecstasy Introduction Knowledge of ecstasy trends Drug types perceived to be in ecstasy Availability of ecstasy Price of ecstasy Strength of ecstasy Perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy Purchase of ecstasy Seizures of ecstasy Summary of ecstasy trends Cannabis Introduction Knowledge of cannabis trends Availability of cannabis Price of cannabis Strength of cannabis Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis Purchase of cannabis Seizures of cannabis plants Summary of cannabis trends LSD Introduction Knowledge of LSD trends Availability of LSD Price of LSD Strength of LSD Perceptions of the number of people using LSD Seizures of LSD Summary of LSD trends SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 5

6 10. Street Morphine Introduction Knowledge of street morphine Availability of street morphine Price of street morphine Strength of street morphine Perceptions of the number of people using street morphine Purchase of street morphine Seizures of opioids Summary of street morphine trends Cocaine Introduction Knowledge of cocaine trends Availability of cocaine Price of cocaine Purity of cocaine Perceptions of the number of people using cocaine Seizures of cocaine Source: NDIB, Summary of cocaine trends Heroin Introduction Knowledge of heroin trends Availability of heroin Price of heroin Purity of heroin Perceptions of the number of people using heroin Summary of heroin trends Homebake morphine/heroin Introduction Knowledge of homebake morphine/heroin trends Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

7 13.3 Availability of homebake morphine/heroin Perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/ heroin Summary of homebake morphine/heroin trends Street methadone Introduction Knowledge of street methadone trends Availability of street methadone Perceptions of the number of people using street methadone Summary of street methadone trends Street BZP Introduction Knowledge of street BZP trends Availability of street BZP Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP Summary of street BZP trends Health risks and the social harm of drug use Introduction Drug-related life impacts Drug type responsible for drug-related life impacts Medical and health services Reasons for using drugs Drug Dependency Mental illness Summary of health risks and social harm from drug use Drug and alcohol treatment Introduction Extent needed help to reduce drug use Wanted help to reduce drug use but did not get it Barriers encountered when looking for help to reduce drug use Drug treatment history Drug type responsible for drug treatment SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 7

8 17.8 Calls to the Alcohol and Drug Help-line Source: ADANZ (ADANZ, 2014) Community Alcohol and Drug Services (CADS) Source: CADS (CADS, 2014) Summary of drug treatment Crime Introduction Property crime Drug dealing Fraud Crime involving violence Means used to pay for drug use Summary of crime Drug enforcement Introduction History of arrest, conviction and imprisonment Drug treatment as part of sentencing Recent arrest and imprisonment Offences arrested for in past 12 months Perceptions of the current level of drug enforcement Perceptions of the impact of drug enforcement Number of friends arrested Summary of drug enforcement Synthetic Cannabinoids Introduction Knowledge of synthetic cannabinoids trends Availability of synthetic cannabinoids Price of synthetic cannabinoids Strength of synthetic cannabinoids Perceptions of the number of people using synthetic cannabinoids Purchase of synthetic cannabinoids Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

9 20.8 Summary of synthetic cannabinoid trends Party Pills Introduction Knowledge of party pills trends Availability of party pills Price of party pills Strength of party pills Perceptions of the number of people using party pills Purchase of party pills Summary of party pills trends References Appendix 1: Lifetime drug use Appendix 2: Current drug use SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 9

10 List of Figures Figure 2 1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were male, Figure 2 2: Mean age of the frequent drug users, Figure 2 3: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were of European ethnicity, Figure 2 4: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were of Maori ethnicity, Figure 2 5: Proportion of the frequent drug users who were unemployed or on a sickness benefit, Figure 2 6: Proportion of the frequent drug users who had no educational qualifications, Figure 2 7: Mean score of perception of physical health by frequent drug user group, Figure 2 8: Mean score of perception of mental health by frequent drug user group, Figure 3 1: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever used oxycodone, anti-depressants, synthetic cannabis and opium poppies, Figure 3 2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever used cocaine, crystal methamphetamine (Ice) and BZP, Figure 3 3: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever used Ritalin (methylphenidate), non BZP party pills, anti-depressants, oxycodone and synthetic cannabis, Figure 3 4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever used BZP, methamphetamine, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine (Ice), Figure 3 5: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever used methamphetamine, non BZP pills, cocaine and synthetic cannabis, Figure 3 6: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever used antidepressants, oxycodone and codeine, Figure 3 7: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who had used antidepressants, crystal methamphetamine (ice), synthetic cannabis, tobacco and oxycodone in the previous six months, Figure 3 8: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who had used LSD, BZP, ecstasy and nitrous oxide in the previous six months, Figure 3 9: Mean number of frequent methamphetamine users had used ecstasy and benzodiazepines in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 3 10: Mean number of frequent methamphetamine users had used cannabis and crystal methamphetamine (ice) in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 3 11: Proportion of the frequent ecstasy users who had used methylphenidate (Ritalin ), anti-depressants, tobacco and synthetic cannabis in the previous six months, Figure 3 12: Proportion of the frequent ecstasy users who had used BZP, nitrous oxide, and LSD in the previous six months, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

11 Figure 3 13: Mean number of frequent ecstasy users had used synthetic cannabis, nitrous oxide, and ecstasy in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 3 14: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who had used methamphetamine, anti-depressants, oxycodone, Ritalin, morphine and synthetic cannabis in the previous six months, Figure 3 15: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who had used nitrous oxide, methadone, ecstasy and BZP in the previous six months, Figure 3 16: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had injected methamphetamine, methadone and BZP in the previous six months (of those who had used these drugs in the previous six months), Figure 3 17: Mean number of the frequent injecting drug users had used crystal methamphetamine (Ice) and methylphenidate (Ritalin ) in the previous six months (of those who had used these drug types in the previous six months), Figure 4 1: Proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a drug type for the first time, Figure 4 2: Proportion of frequent drug users who had tried a drug type for the first time by frequent drug user group, Figure 4 3: Drug types which the frequent ecstasy users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4 4: Pharmaceutical drugs that the frequent ecstasy users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4 5: Drug types that the frequent methamphetamine users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4 6: Drug types which the frequent injecting drug users had used for the first time (of those who had tried a drug for the first time), Figure 4 7: Proportion of frequent drug users who noticed a new drug type, Figure 5 1: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 2: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5 3: Mean score of the current availability of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5 4: Mean score of the change in the availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 5: Mean score of the change in the availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5 6: Mean price of a point of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 7: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 8: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5 9: Mean price of a point of methamphetamine by location, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 11

12 Figure 5 10: Mean price of a gram of methamphetamine by location, Figure 5 11: Mean score of the change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 12: Mean score of the change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by location, Figure 5 13: Mean score of the change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by location, Figure 5 14: Mean score of the current strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 15: Mean score of the current strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5 16: Mean score of the change in strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 17: Mean score of the change in strength of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5 18: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 5 19: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 5 20: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase methamphetamine in one hour or less, Figure 5 21: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase methamphetamine in one hour or less by location, Figure 5 22: Kilograms of methamphetamine and crystal methamphetamine seized in New Zealand, Figure 5 23: Number of methamphetamine laboratories dismantled in New Zealand, Figure 5 24: Thousands of (equivalent) tablets of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine seized in New Zealand, Figure 6 1: Mean score of the current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6 2: Mean score of the change in availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6 3: Mean price of a point of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6 4: Mean price of a gram of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6 5: Mean score of the change in the price of crystal methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 6 6: Mean score of the current strength of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

13 Figure 6 7: Mean score of the perceptions of the number of people using crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 1: Mean score of the current availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 2: Mean score of the current availability of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 3: Mean score of the change in the availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 4: Mean score of the change in the availability of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 5: Mean price of a tablet of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 6: Mean price of a tablet of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 7: Mean price of a pill of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 8: Mean score of the change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 9: Mean score of the change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by location, Figure 7 10: Mean score of the current strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 11: Mean score of the current strength of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 12: Mean score of the change in strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 13: Mean score of the change in strength of ecstasy by location, Figure 7 14: Mean score of perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Figure 7 15: Mean score of perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by location, Figure 7 16: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased ecstasy weekly or more often, Figure 7 17: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased ecstasy weekly or more often by location, Figure 7 18: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased ecstasy weekly or more often by location, Figure 7 19: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase ecstasy in one hour or less, Figure 7 20: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase ecstasy in one hour or less by location, Figure 7 21: Thousands of (equivalent) ecstasy tablets seized in New Zealand, Figure 8 1: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8 2: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users by location, Figure 8 3: Change in availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 8 4: Change in availability of cannabis by location, Figure 8 5: Price of an ounce of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 13

14 Figure 8 6: Mean price paid for an ounce of cannabis (NZD) by location, Figure 8 7: Mean price paid for an ounce of cannabis (NZD) by location, Figure 8 8: Mean score of the current strength of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 1: Mean score of the current availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 2: Mean score of the change in availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 3: Mean price of a tab of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 4: Mean score of the current strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 5: Change in the mean score of the strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Figure 9 6: Number of tabs of LSD and other synthetic psychedelics seized in New Zealand, Figure 10 1: Current availability of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 10 2: Current availability of street morphine in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 3: Change in availability of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 10 4: Change in availability of street morphine in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 5: Current mean price paid for 100 milligrams of street morphine (NZD), Figure 10 6: Current mean price paid for 100 milligrams of street morphine in Wellington and Christchurch (NZD), Figure 10 7: Change in the price of street morphine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 10 8: Change in the price of street morphine in the past six months in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 9: Current strength of street morphine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 10 10: Current strength of street morphine in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 11: Perceptions of the number of people using street morphine in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 12: Proportion of frequent drug users who purchased street morphine weekly or more often in Wellington and Christchurch, Figure 10 13: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase street morphine in one hour or less, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

15 Figure 10 14: Proportion of frequent drug users who could purchase street morphine in one hour or less, Figure 11 1: Mean score of the current availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 2: Mean score of the change in availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 3: Mean price of a gram of cocaine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 4: Mean score of the change in price of cocaine in the previous six months by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 5: Mean score of the current purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 6: Mean score of the perceptions of the number of people using cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Figure 11 7: Grams of cocaine seized in New Zealand, Figure 13 1: Mean score of the perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Figure 14 1: Current availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15 1: Current availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15 2: Change in the availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 15 3: Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Figure 16 1: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been given a drug without their knowledge, passed out, no money for rent/food, sexually harassed, and slept rough due to their drug use, Figure 16 2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had their drink spiked, physically hurt themselves, and damaged a friendship due to their drug use, Figure 16 3: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had damaged property, stole property, and took sick leave due to their drug use, Figure 16 4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who were physically/verbally threatened, physically assaulted, and had their drink spiked due to their drug use, Figure 16 5: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who upset a family relationship, and had unprotected sex due to their drug use, Figure 16 6: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had no money for food or rent, stole property, got into debt and physically hurt themselves due to their drug use, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 15

16 Figure 16 7: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had accessed a General Practitioner, counsellor and social worker in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16 8: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had accessed an Accident and Emergency Department and had been admitted to hospital in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16 9: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who received First Aid, accessed an ambulance and were admitted to hospital in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16 10: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had been admitted to hospital, received First Aid and accessed a General Practitioner in relation to drug use in the past six months, Figure 16 11: Selected reasons provided by the frequent methamphetamine users for using drugs, Figure 16 12: Selected reasons provided by the frequent injecting drug users for using drugs, Figure 16 13: Selected reasons provided by the frequent ecstasy users for using drugs, Figure 16 14: Proportion of frequent drug user group who were assessed as drug dependent, Figure 16 15: Proportion of frequent drug users who had ever suffered from a mental illness by frequent drug user group, Figure 16 16: Proportion of frequent drug users who had stayed in a psychiatric facility overnight or longer by of frequent drug user group, Figure 16 17: Proportion of frequent drug user group who are currently receiving treatment for a mental illness, Figure 17 1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who felt they needed at least some help to reduce their drug use by frequent drug user group, Figure 17 2: Proportion of the frequent methamphetamine users who reported fear of service, fear of police and fear of losing friends as barriers to seeking help (of those who were unable to find help), Figure 17 3: Proportion of the frequent injecting drug users who reported no transport to get there or didn t know where to go as barriers to seeking help (of those who were unable to find help), Figure 17 4: Proportion who were currently in drug treatment by frequent drug user group, Figure 17 5: Proportion of callers to the Alcohol and Drug Help-line by drug type calling about, Figure 17 6: Proportion of clients screening positive for problematic substance use by substance type, Figure 18 1: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

17 Figure 18 2: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, Figure 18 3: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who sold drugs, committed property crime and committed fraud in the previous month, Figure 18 4: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who committed a violent crime in their lifetime, in the previous six months, and in the previous month, Figure 18 5: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who committed a violent crime in their lifetime, in the previous six months, and in the previous month, Figure 18 6: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who used social welfare benefits, credit from dealers, and borrowed money to pay for drug use, Figure 18 7: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who made drugs themselves, used someone else s prescription, their own prescription and doctor shopped to pay for drug use, Figure 18 8: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who made drugs themselves and used someone else s prescription to pay for drug use, Figure 18 9: Proportion of frequent injecting users who used a prescription (own name), someone else s prescription and doctor shopping to pay for drug use, Figure 19 1: Proportion of frequent drug users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19 2: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19 3: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19 4: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had ever been arrested, convicted and imprisoned, Figure 19 5: Proportion of convicted frequent drug users who received alcohol and drug treatment as part of sentence, Figure 19 6: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19 7: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19 8: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had been arrested and imprisoned in the previous 12 months, Figure 19 9: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had been arrested for a violent crime, property crime and driving under the influence of alcohol and other drugs in the previous 12 months, Figure 19 10: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had been arrested for a violent crime, disorderly conduct, and use/possession of drugs in the previous 12 months, Figure 19 11: Proportion of frequent drug users who noticed police activity toward drug users in the past six months, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 17

18 Figure 19 12: Mean score of change in police activity toward drug users in the past six months for frequent methamphetamine users, frequent injecting drug users and frequent ecstasy users, Figure 19 13: Proportion of frequent drug users who thought police activity had made it more difficult for them to obtain drugs in the past six months, Figure 19 14: Proportion of frequent drug users who had a friend(s) arrested in the past six months, Figure 20 1: Mean score of the current availability of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Figure 20 2: Mean score of the change in the availability of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Figure 20 3: Mean score of the change in the price of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Figure 20 4: Mean score of perceived change in the number of people using synthetic cannabinoids by location, List of Tables Table 1 1: Distribution of IDMS respondents by site for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and Table 1 2: Distribution of IDMS respondents by module for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and Table 1 3: Weighted distribution of respondents by site for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and Table 1 4: Weighted distribution of respondents by module for the 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and Table 2 1: Ethnicity of the frequent drug users, Table 2 2: Employment status of the frequent drug users, Table 2 3: Highest educational achievement of the frequent drug users, Table 2 4: Frequent drug users sexual orientation, Table 2 5: Frequent drug users by marital status, Table 2 6: Frequent drug users by current accommodation type, Table 2 7: Frequent drug users self-assessment of current physical health, Table 2 8: Frequent drug users self-assessment of current mental health, Table 4 1: Drug types the frequent ecstasy users used for the first time in the past six months (of those who reported using a drug for the first time in previous six months), Table 4 2: Drug types used by frequent methamphetamine users for the first time in the past six months (of those who reported using a drug for the first time in previous six months), Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

19 Table 4 3: Drug types used by the frequent injecting drug user for the first time in the past six months (of those who reported using a drug for the first time in previous six months), Table 4 4: New drug types noticed in previous six months, Table 4 5: New types of people reported using drugs, Table 5 1: Current availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 2: Current availability of methamphetamine by location, Table 5 3: Change in availability of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 4: Current price of methamphetamine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 5: Current median (mean) price for a point and gram of methamphetamine (NZD) by location, Table 5 6: Change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 7: Change in the price of methamphetamine in the past six months by location, Table 5 8: Current median (mean) price of pseudoephedrine (NZD), Table 5 9: Change in the price of pseudoephedrine in the past six months, Table 5 10: Current strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 11: Change in strength of methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 12: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 13: Perceptions of the number of people using methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users by location, Table 5 14: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on methamphetamine (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 15: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on methamphetamine (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users by location, Table 5 16: Time taken to purchase methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 17: Location from which methamphetamine purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 5 18: People from whom methamphetamine purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 1: Current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 19

20 Table 6 2: Mean score of the current availability of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 3: Current median (mean) price for crystal methamphetamine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 4: Change in the price of crystal methamphetamine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 5: Current purity of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 6: Change in strength of crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 6 7: Perceptions of the number of people using crystal methamphetamine by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 1: Drug types thought to be in ecstasy (of the people who thought they knew), Table 7 2: Current availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 3: Current availability of ecstasy by location, Table 7 4: Change in availability of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 5: Current price of ecstasy (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 6: Current median (mean) price for ecstasy (NZD) by location, Table 7 7: Change in the price of ecstasy in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 8: Current strength of ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 9: Change in strength of ecstasy (MDMA) by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 10: Perceptions of the number of people using ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 11: Frequency of purchase of ecstasy in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 12: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on ecstasy (NZD) on a typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 13: Time taken to purchase ecstasy by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 14: Location from which ecstasy purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 7 15: People from whom ecstasy purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 1: Current availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

21 Table 8 2: Change in availability of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 3: Current price of cannabis (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 4: Current median (mean) price for cannabis (NZD) by location, Table 8 5: Change in the price of cannabis in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 6: Current strength of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 7: Change in strength of cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 8: Perceptions of the number of people using cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 9: Frequency of purchase of cannabis in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 10: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on cannabis (NZD) on typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 11: Time taken to purchase cannabis by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 12: Location from which cannabis purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 8 13: People from whom cannabis purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 1: Current availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 2: Change in availability of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 3: Current median (mean) price for LSD (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 4: Change in the price of LSD in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 5: Current strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 6: Change in strength of LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 9 7: Perceptions of the number of people using LSD by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 1: Current availability of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 2: Change in availability of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 3: Current median (mean) price for street morphine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 4: Change in the price of street morphine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 21

22 Table 10 5: Current strength of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 6: Change in strength of street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 7: Perceptions of the number of people using street morphine, Table 10 8: Frequency of purchase of street morphine in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 9: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on street morphine (NZD) on typical occasion by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 10: Time taken to purchase street morphine by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 11: Location from which street morphine purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 12: People from whom street morphine was purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 10 13: Opioid products seized from Table 11 1: Current availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 2: Change in availability of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 3: Current price of cocaine (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 4: Change in the price of cocaine in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 5: Current purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 6: Change in purity of cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 11 7: Perceptions of the number of people using cocaine by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 1: Current availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 2: Change in availability of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 3: Current median (mean) price of heroin (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 4: Change in the price of heroin in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 5: Current purity of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 6: Change in purity of heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 12 7: Perceptions of the number of people using heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

23 Table 13 1: Current availability of homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 13 2: Change in availability of homebake morphine/heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 13 3: Perceptions of the number of people using homebake morphine/ heroin by combined frequent drug users, Table 14 1: Current availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 14 2: Change in availability of street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 14 3: Perceptions of the number of people using street methadone by combined frequent drug users, Table 15 1: Current availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 15 2: Change in availability of street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 15 3: Perceptions of the number of people using street BZP by combined frequent drug users, Table 16 1: Drug-related incidents by frequent drug user group, Table 16 2: Drug types mainly responsible for drug related incidents by frequent drug user group, Table 16 3: Proportion of frequent injecting drug users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, Table 16 4: Proportion of frequent methamphetamine users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, Table 16 5: Proportion of frequent ecstasy users who had accessed medical and health services in relation to drug use in the past six months, Table 16 6: Self-reported reasons for using drugs by frequent methamphetamine users, Table 16 7: Self-reported reasons for using drugs by frequent injecting drug users, Table 16 8: Self-reported reasons for using drugs by frequent ecstasy users, Table 17 1: Extent to which the frequent drug users felt they needed help to reduce their drug use by frequent drug user group, Table 17 2: Proportion of frequent drug users who had wanted help to reduce their drug use in the previous six months but had not got it, Table 17 3: Barriers experienced by the frequent methamphetamine users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 23

24 Table 17 4: Barriers experienced by the frequent injecting drug users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), Table 17 5: Barriers experienced by frequent ecstasy users when trying to find help to reduce drug use (of those who were unable to find help), Table 17 6: Drug type(s) currently in treatment for by frequent drug user group, Table 18 1: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed property crime, Table 18 2: Proportion of the frequent drug users who sold illegal drugs, Table 18 3: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed fraud, Table 18 4: Proportion of the frequent drug users who committed violent crime, Table 18 5: Different means used by the frequent methamphetamine users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 18 6: Different means used by frequent ecstasy users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 18 7: Different means used by frequent injecting drug users to pay for drugs in the past six months, Table 19 1: Proportion of frequent drug users who were arrested for different criminal offences in the past 12 months by frequent drug user group, Table 19 2: Frequent methamphetamine users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19 3: Frequent ecstasy users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19 4: Frequent injecting drug users perceptions of the change in police activity in relation to drug users in the past six months (of those who noticed any change in police activity), Table 19 5: Proportion of frequent drug users who thought police activity had made it more difficult for them to obtain drugs in the past six months, Table 19 6: Change in the number of friends arrested in the past six months by frequent drug user group (of those who had a friend arrested), Table 20 1: Current availability of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 2: Change in availability of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 3: Current price of synthetic cannabinoids (NZD) by location, Table 20 4: Change in the price of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 5: Current strength of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 6: Change in strength of synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 7: Perceptions of the number of people using synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table of Contents SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

25 Table 20 8: Frequency of purchase of synthetic cannabinoids in past six months by location, Table 20 9: Median (mean) dollar amount spent on synthetic cannabinoids (NZD) on typical occasion by location, Table 20 10: Time taken to purchase synthetic cannabinoids by location, Table 20 11: Location from which synthetic cannabinoids were purchased in the past six months by location, Table 20 12: People from whom synthetic cannabinoids was purchased in the past six months by location, Table 21 1: Current availability of party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 2: Change in availability of party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 3: Current price of party pills (NZD) by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 4: Change in the price of party pills in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 5: Current strength of party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 6: Change in strength of party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 7: Perceptions of the number of people using party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 8: Frequency of purchase of party pills in past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 9: Time taken to purchase party pills by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 10: Location from which party pills were purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, Table 21 11: People from whom party pills were purchased in the past six months by combined frequent drug users, SHORE & Whariki Research Centre Table of Contents 25

26 Acknowledgements The Illicit Drug Monitoring System (IDMS) is conducted as part of the National Drug Policy. We gratefully acknowledge the support of a number of New Zealand government agencies including Police, Ministry of Health, Customs Service, Ministry of Justice, Department of Corrections, Ministry of Pacific Island Affairs and Te Puni Kōkiri. The development of the IDMS drew on the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) and Ecstasy and other drug Reporting System (EDRS) which are conducted by the National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) in Australia. We would like to acknowledge the New Zealand Needle Exchange who assisted us with the recruitment of frequent drug users for the study. We would also like to thank the following agencies and organisations who provided secondary data on drug use and drug related harm in New Zealand for this study: New Zealand Police National Drug Intelligence Bureau (NDIB) New Zealand Ministry of Health New Zealand Customs Service Alcohol Drug Association New Zealand (ADANZ) Community Alcohol and Drug Services (CADS) Last, but by no means least, we would like to thank all the interviewers who worked with us on the study, and the frequent drug users who agreed to be interviewed. The views expressed in this report are entirely our own. They do not necessarily reflect those of any government agency or other organisation. Correspondence Dr Chris Wilkins, Senior Researcher, Drugs Team Leader, Centre for Social and Health Outcomes Research and Evaluation (SHORE), Massey University, PO Box 6137, Wellesley Street, Auckland, New Zealand, tel , 26 Acknowledgements SHORE & Whariki Research Centre

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