Built across Panama Allows ships to travel from Atlantic to Pacific Lake Titicaca (worlds highest navigable lake) Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela

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2 Built across Panama Allows ships to travel from Atlantic to Pacific Lake Titicaca (worlds highest navigable lake) Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela

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4 Major oil & natural gas deposits in Mexico & Venezuela Gold in Venezuela Silver in Mexico & Peru Copper in Chile Bauxite in Jamaica

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6 History and Government History and government in Central America and the Caribbean have been influenced by indigenous cultures, colonialism, slavery, and struggles for freedom. European conquests: The Spanish conquered the Native Americans in the Caribbean. The Columbian Exchange began after Columbus s arrival in the Americas. Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered Panama, which now boasts the Panama Canal.

7 Central America and the Caribbean A. Cuba B. Dominican Republic C. West Indies D. Hispaniola E. Panama F. Haiti G. Puerto Rico

8 History and Government (cont.) Gaining Independence: In 1804, Haiti won its independence from France. Other Caribbean countries were the last regions to gain independence. Some islands remain under foreign control today.

9 The pampas consist primarily of a. deserts. b. forests. c. rain forests. d. grasslands. Llanos and Pampas are a source of grazing cattle and sheep.

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11 History The first people in the region probably came from Asia over 40,000 years ago. In addition to gold and silver, plants, animals, and diseases were traded between the Americas and Europe. This is known as the Columbian Exchange.

12 History and Government (cont.) During the 1900s, many countries in Central America and the Caribbean experienced dramatic political, social, and economic changes: Panama Canal Zone is now control by Panama. The Canal allows ships to go from to the Pacifica and Atlantic Oceans 1959 revolution in Cuba, communist country 90 miles away from florida.

13 Caribbean Islands Many Caribbean Island are Volcanic peaks

14 The culture of Central America and the Caribbean has been influenced by traditions and beliefs of indigenous peoples and colonialism. Language Spanish is the primary language of Central America. In the Caribbean, many European languages are spoken. Countries in this region are predominately Catholic

15 South America A. Ecuador B. Peru C. Bolivia D. Rio de Janeiro E. Brasília F. São Paulo G. Buenos Aires H. Cuzco

16 South America s population has been shaped by ethnic diversity, physical geography, migration, and urban growth. South America is home to an ethnically diverse population: Indigenous cultures Africans Europeans Asians Most South Americans live on the continent s edges, sometimes called the populated rim. Africans first came to the Caribbean as enslaved workers.

17 Population Patterns (cont.) About 80% of the subregion s population is urban. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires are among the world s 15 largest cities. Many of these big cities have shanty towns built on marginal land. (destroyed by mudflows.) Most live on the coast

18 Population Patterns (cont.) Many people are leaving South America due to the following: A search for better wages and living conditions A desire to escape the violence of civil war

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20 Indigenous civilizations, colonization, independence, and authoritarian rule have influenced South America s history and government. The native American empires of Latin America were the Maya, Inca and the Aztec This has generated a unique blending beliefs and practices called syncretism.

21 History and Government (cont.) Colonization the Spanish and Portuguese were the first to colonize South America. Conquistadors were soldiers that claimed the new land for Spain. Independence by the mid-1800s, most countries had achieved their independence from Europe. Authoritarian rule some countries have democratic governments now, but still struggle with corrupt politics and other issues.

22 Cuba Cuba was settle by the Spanish displacing the local Indians called the Arawak. America own it after the Spanish American War in 1892 and it became independent in 1902 Communist took it over in Fidel Castro. Currently crawling to a market economy. You have to buy any property from the government.

23 Most of the countries gained independence through violent means. The violence disrupted economies and led to instability in the region. Today most Latin American countries are democratic, and citizens are working to stop corruption.

24 The culture of South America has been influenced by the arts, traditions, and beliefs of indigenous peoples, Europeans, and Africans. Language Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and French are spoken in different parts of the subregion. Religion mainly Roman Catholic Carnival is celebrated in several countries before the Roman Catholic observance of Lent

25 Culture (cont.) Family life in urban upper and middle classes, the family is more likely to consist of a nuclear household. Leisure soccer is a passion.

26 THE END

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