CHAPTER 14 WAVE & Sound

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1 CHAPTER 14 WAVE & Sound

2 COURSE CONTENT Properties of waves Definition Types of waves Wavelength Amplitude Frequency

3 Waves are everywhere in nature Sound waves, visible light waves, radio waves, microwaves, water waves, sine waves, telephone chord waves, stadium waves, earthquake waves, waves on a string, 3

4 What is a wave? a WAVE is a disturbance that transfers energy (i.e. travels) through a medium from one location to another. What carries waves? a medium a medium is the material through which a wave travels. A medium can be a gas, liquid, or solid 4

5 Sound Wave Sound 1. Is a form of energy produced & transmitted by vibrating matter 2. Vibration - Back and forth movement of atoms of matter (i.e. compressions & rarefractions) 3. Travels in waves 4. Travels more quickly through solids than liquids or gases

6 WAVES a disturbance that transfers energy Carries energy from one place to another Classified by what they move through 1. Mechanical Waves the energy is transferred by vibrations of medium (medium = matter) e.g. ocean waves move through water 2. Electromagnetic waves (EM Waves) - the energy moves through disturbances in the electromagnetic field (i.e vacuum) at the speed of light. - Produced whenever charged particles are accelerated.

7 MECHANICAL WAVES require a medium (the material through which the disturbance is moving) to transmit energy travel through & gradually lose energy to that medium Examples: water, sound, rope, & spring waves Mechanical Media: water, air, wood, concrete, rope, spring Two types of mechanical waves: Longitudinal & Transverse

8 TRANVERSE WAVES Vibration is perpendicular to the direction of the motion of the wave Sideways or up & down Examples: S-type earthquake waves Electromagnetic (EM) or light waves

9 LONGITUDINAL WAVES Vibration is parallel to the direction of the motion of the wave Back and forth (compression & rarefraction) Also called compression or pressure wave Examples: P-type earthquake waves Sound waves Rarefraction (expansion) Compression

10 CHARACTERISTICS OF WAVES Waves are described according to their Amplitude measures DISPLACEMENT size of the disturbance Wavelength λ distance of a repeating unit Also called a cycle Velocity v speed = how fast wave travels

11 WAVE STRUCTURE CREST (peak) AMPLITUDE resting to max peak WAVELENGTH TROUGH

12 AMPLITUDE Distance between rest & crest or rest & trough Gives indication of power or strength of wave (magnitude of earthquake = Richter scale) Does not affect velocity of wave Determines loudness (sound) or brightness (EM wave)

13 WAVELENGTH λ Distance between any two repeating points on a wave crest-crest, trough-trough, expansion-expansion, compression-compression Determines what colours we see; what notes we hear (pitch) Shorter wavelengths have more cycles per minute because they aren t as long

14 VELOCITY v the rate at which the energy travels; speed & direction Depends on medium Mechanical waves travel faster through dense mediums EM Waves are faster through less dense mediums

15 Frequency ƒ How often number of wavelengths that pass any point per second measured in wavelengths/second or cycles/second Hertz (Hz) = number of wavelengths in 1 second Frequency is related to velocity: v = ƒ λ

16 PERIOD T How long Amount of time for one wavelength to pass a point Related inversely to frequency Period = 1 Frequency 1 = 1 T f

17 PROBLEMS Answer the following questions. Show the equation, work &final answer with correct units. 1. What is the wavelength of a sound wave with a frequency of 0.05 KHz? (Speed of sound is 1231 Km/h). 2. A sound wave in a steel rail has a frequency of 620 Hz and a wavelength of 10.5 x 10 6 μm. What is the speed of sound in steel? 3. Determine the frequency of a microwave 6.0 cm in length. ( A microwave is an electromagnetic wave. It travels through space at a speed of 3.0 x 10 8 m/s) 4. What is the period of the microwave in problem 3?

18 Sound See study guide for: transmission of sound Human hearing Noise THE END

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