Introduction to acoustic phonetics

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Introduction to acoustic phonetics"

Transcription

1 Introduction to acoustic phonetics Dr. Christian DiCanio University at Buffalo 10/8/15 DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 1 / 28

2 Pressure & Waves Waves Sound waves are fluctuations in pressure that travel through a medium, e.g. air, water. These fluctuations cause air molecules to compress together and spread apart (rarefy). Assuming that the sound wave is periodic, the regions of compression will be evenly spaced. Small displacements in the air spread outward and when they come in contact with one s eardrum, they cause it to move. Demo: DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 2 / 28

3 Pressure & Waves Longitudinal waves involve a displacement of the medium parallel to the propagation of the wave. Sound waves in air are longitudinal waves. Transverse waves involve a displacement of the medium perpendicular to the propagation of the wave. The ripples on a pond are a good example. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 3 / 28

4 Pressure & Waves Waveforms Detecting and graphing these changes in air pressure over time gives us a waveform, or plot of the wave: The sound waveform represents displacements from normal atmospheric pressure (the horizontal line) DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 4 / 28

5 Pressure & Waves Musical instruments (and vocal cords) produce periodic waves, with regular, self-reinforcing repetitions. Perceived as having a note. Periodic sound waves have periods at even intervals and are perceived as tones (given that they fall within one s range of hearing). Aperiodic (random, non-repetitive) sound waves are perceived as noise. Doors slamming, wind blowing, and rain falling are each examples of aperiodic sounds. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 5 / 28

6 Frequency In a periodic wave, the same cycle (pressure displacement pattern) repeats. The frequency is the number of cycles per second, measured in hertz (Hz.) The period is the time required for one complete cycle. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 6 / 28

7 Frequency Frequency is the inverse of the period duration. The frequency F is the number of cycles per second (Hz), and the period T is the time it takes to complete one cycle, often measured in milliseconds (ms.). Hence F T = 1, F = 1 T, and T = 1 F Example: if T =.01 seconds, then F = 1.01 s = 100 Hz DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 7 / 28

8 Frequency The frequency F, wavelength λ, and speed C of a wave are related by the formula F λ = C. C is a constant representing the speed at which vibrations may travel in different medias. The speed of sound C in the air is about 350 meters/second, but can fluctuate depending on the temperature. If it is colder, sound moves more slowly. If it is warmer, sound moves faster. Example: Suppose the wavelength λ is one meter That means in one second we would measure 350 cycles In this case F = C/λ = 350/1 = 350 Hz DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 8 / 28

9 Frequency The speed of sound depends on the density of the medium Air Water Rock Density (g/cm 3 ) Speed (m/s) Which sound has a shorter wavelength, 1 khz in the air or 3 khz in the water? Air: λ = C/F = 350/1000 = 0.35m Water: λ = C/F = 1500/3000 = 0.5m Answer: 1 khz in the air has a shorter wavelength DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 9 / 28

10 Frequency Frequency range of human hearing is about 25-16,000 Hz Examples of wavelengths at various frequencies: Sound Freq. F Wavelength λ Lowest C on piano 32.7 Hz m Middle C on piano 262 Hz 1.29 m Violin A string 440 Hz 0.76 m Four octaves above middle C 4,186 Hz 8.25 cm F 0 of human males Hz m F 0 of human females Hz m Highest audible tone 20,000 Hz 1.7 cm DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 10 / 28

11 Frequency Frequency bandwidth of various media DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 11 / 28

12 Frequency Frequency and Pitch Frequency is a physical measure. Pitch is psychoacoustic. Frequency is the basis of perceived pitch. Pitch is what we hear, not what is produced. Reflects the interval between successive harmonics in a periodic wave. Each musical octave has twice the frequency of the octave below it. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 12 / 28

13 Amplitude & Intensity The amplitude of a wave is the degree by which the peak is displaced. The difference in displacement reflects how much individual molecules in the medium are compressed when a wave travels through the medium. Measured in micro-pascals (µpa), but for sound the decibel scale is used, which reflects the perceived loudness or intensity of a sound. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 13 / 28

14 Amplitude & Intensity Sound Pressure (µpa) Hearing threshold 20 Whisper 200 Quiet office 2,000 Conversation 20,000 City bus 200,000 Subway platform 2,000,000 Rock concert 20,000,000 DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 14 / 28

15 Amplitude & Intensity The decibel scale expresses the difference between two intensities I 1 and I 2 as 10 log I 2 I 1 db For example, a whisper is 10 log = 20 db Example Pressure Intensity Decibels Sound µp a µp a 2 db Hearing threshold Whisper , Quiet office 2, Conversation 20, City bus 200, Subway platform Rock concert Jet engine DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 15 / 28

16 Amplitude & Intensity Intensity at a distance r is inversely proportional to r 2 Thus, doubling the distance reduces intensity by a factor of 4 In decibels, difference is 10 log 1 4 = 6.0 db However, in real life, reverberation (off of walls, floors, etc.) often prevents the intensity from decreasing this much DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 16 / 28

17 Simple and Complex Waves Simple and Complex Waves Sinusoidal wave: a periodic wave with one frequency component, also known as a sine wave. Sine waves are simple waves. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 17 / 28

18 Simple and Complex Waves Real-word sound waves (animal calls or human speech) appear to be and are, in fact, much more complex than sinusoidal waves. There is a regular pattern in this wave, but it is far more complex than a sine wave. The extra fluctuations in the wave signify that the air pressure is fluctuating in a much more complex fashion. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 18 / 28

19 Simple and Complex Waves From simple to complex When two or more simple waves are combined, they create a more complex wave. Similarly, complex waves can be decomposed into simple (sinusoidal) component waves. The complex wave is the sum of the component waves. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 19 / 28

20 Simple and Complex Waves How do waves combine together? When the peaks (pressure maxima) and valleys (pressure minima) of two waves coincide, we say the waves are in phase. The two pressure maxima/minima combine when both waves are produced to create a peak of greater amplitude (constructive interference). Positive pressure values and identical negative values cancel each other out (destructive interference). Waves of different phases but identical frequencies will still create another sine wave. superposition.html; Praat example DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 20 / 28

21 Simple and Complex Waves Complex waves have a number of different frequency components, all or some of which may be periodic. Each of these components may be represented as a single frequency value on a sound spectrum, which plots frequency on the x-axis and amplitude on the y-axis. A spectrum differs from a waveform, which does not indicate specific frequency components. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 21 / 28

22 Simple and Complex Waves Sound Spectrum (left) and Sound Waveform (right) showing the same waves. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 22 / 28

23 Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics Fundamental Frequency & Harmonics A periodic wave has a fundamental frequency, F 0, which is the frequency at which the entire wave repeats itself, its greatest common divisor. However, waves may have one or more harmonic frequencies, which are whole number multiples of F 0. The fundamental frequency of a periodic harmonic wave determines the perceived pitch. In this example, we have an F 0 of 100 Hz, and two harmonics: DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 23 / 28

24 Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics A plucked string vibrates at several frequencies at the same time. This produces a series of harmonics, called overtones in musical theory. Harmonic frequencies change the quality or timbre of the sound, but not the pitch. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 24 / 28

25 Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics Harmonics in a complex wave DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 25 / 28

26 Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics Middle C (262 Hz) on flute: A-sharp (116.5 Hz) on bass clarinet: DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 26 / 28

27 Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics In reality, perceived pitch is determined by the spacing of harmonics as much as by the F 0. If we remove the 100 Hz. component from the wave below, the F 0 and perceived pitch do not change (but timbre does). On telephones, recall that the bandwidth is cut off at the lower end of 250 Hz. But most human voices use a pitch range of Hz! DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 27 / 28

28 Spectrograms Spectrograms A spectrogram displays Time along the x-axis Component frequencies along the y-axis Relative intensity (amplitude) using darkness (the z-axis). More complex than a waveform or a spectrum because three dimensions are conveyed. DiCanio (UB) Acoustics 10/8/15 28 / 28

Basic Acoustics and Acoustic Filters

Basic Acoustics and Acoustic Filters Basic CHAPTER Acoustics and Acoustic Filters 1 3 Basic Acoustics and Acoustic Filters 1.1 The sensation of sound Several types of events in the world produce the sensation of sound. Examples include doors

More information

v = λ f this is the Golden Rule for waves transverse & longitudinal waves Harmonic waves The golden rule for waves Example: wave on a string Review

v = λ f this is the Golden Rule for waves transverse & longitudinal waves Harmonic waves The golden rule for waves Example: wave on a string Review L 23 Vibrations and Waves [3] resonance clocks pendulum springs harmonic motion mechanical waves sound waves golden rule for waves musical instruments The Doppler effect Doppler radar radar guns Review

More information

Mathematical Harmonies Mark Petersen

Mathematical Harmonies Mark Petersen 1 Mathematical Harmonies Mark Petersen What is music? When you hear a flutist, a signal is sent from her fingers to your ears. As the flute is played, it vibrates. The vibrations travel through the air

More information

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Waves - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves wave may be defined as a periodic disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another. ll waves require a source and a medium of propagation.

More information

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley. Chapter 20. Traveling Waves You may not realize it, but you are surrounded by waves. The waviness of a water wave is readily apparent, from the ripples on a pond to ocean waves large enough to surf. It

More information

Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal

Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal (Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23) Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal Hello viewers welcome

More information

General Physics (PHY 2130)

General Physics (PHY 2130) General Physics (PHY 2130) Lecture 28 Waves standing waves Sound definitions standing sound waves and instruments Doppler s effect http://www.physics.wayne.edu/~apetrov/phy2130/ Lightning Review Last lecture:

More information

Waves and Sound. AP Physics B

Waves and Sound. AP Physics B Waves and Sound AP Physics B What is a wave A WAVE is a vibration or disturbance in space. A MEDIUM is the substance that all SOUND WAVES travel through and need to have in order to move. Two types of

More information

The Sonometer The Resonant String and Timbre Change after plucking

The Sonometer The Resonant String and Timbre Change after plucking The Sonometer The Resonant String and Timbre Change after plucking EQUIPMENT Pasco sonometers (pick up 5 from teaching lab) and 5 kits to go with them BK Precision function generators and Tenma oscilloscopes

More information

physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves

physics 1/12/2016 Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter 20 Lecture physics FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS a strategic approach THIRD EDITION randall d. knight Chapter 20 Traveling Waves Chapter Goal: To learn the basic properties of traveling waves. Slide

More information

PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THE TEST. PLACE ALL MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS ON THE SCANTRON. (THANK YOU FOR SAVING A TREE.)

PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THE TEST. PLACE ALL MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS ON THE SCANTRON. (THANK YOU FOR SAVING A TREE.) PLEASE DO NOT WRITE ON THE TEST. PLACE ALL MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS ON THE SCANTRON. (THANK YOU FOR SAVING A TREE.) Sound Waves Test -- each multiple choice question is worth 3 points. 1. Sound waves are

More information

Waves-Wave Characteristics

Waves-Wave Characteristics 1. What is the wavelength of a 256-hertz sound wave in air at STP? 1. 1.17 10 6 m 2. 1.29 m 3. 0.773 m 4. 8.53 10-7 m 2. The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of

More information

Waves. Overview (Text p382>)

Waves. Overview (Text p382>) Waves Overview (Text p382>) Waves What are they? Imagine dropping a stone into a still pond and watching the result. A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another in wave fronts.

More information

Chapter 11. Waves & Sound

Chapter 11. Waves & Sound Chapter 11 Waves & Sound 11.2 Periodic Waves In the drawing, one cycle is shaded in color. The amplitude A is the maximum excursion of a particle of the medium from the particles undisturbed position.

More information

Dr. Abdel Aziz Hussein Lecturer of Physiology Mansoura Faculty of Medicine

Dr. Abdel Aziz Hussein Lecturer of Physiology Mansoura Faculty of Medicine Physiological Basis of Hearing Tests By Dr. Abdel Aziz Hussein Lecturer of Physiology Mansoura Faculty of Medicine Introduction Def: Hearing is the ability to perceive certain pressure vibrations in the

More information

Giant Slinky: Quantitative Exhibit Activity

Giant Slinky: Quantitative Exhibit Activity Name: Giant Slinky: Quantitative Exhibit Activity Materials: Tape Measure, Stopwatch, & Calculator. In this activity, we will explore wave properties using the Giant Slinky. Let s start by describing the

More information

Describing Sound Waves. Period. Frequency. Parameters used to completely characterize a sound wave. Chapter 3. Period Frequency Amplitude Power

Describing Sound Waves. Period. Frequency. Parameters used to completely characterize a sound wave. Chapter 3. Period Frequency Amplitude Power Parameters used to completely characterize a sound wave Describing Sound Waves Chapter 3 Period Frequency Amplitude Power Intensity Speed Wave Length Period Defined as the time it take one wave vibrate

More information

Ch 25 Chapter Review Q & A s

Ch 25 Chapter Review Q & A s Ch 25 Chapter Review Q & A s a. a wiggle in time is called? b. a wiggle in space & time is called? a. vibration b. wave What is the period of a pendulum? The period is the time for 1 cycle (back & forth)

More information

Waves-Wave Characteristics

Waves-Wave Characteristics 1. What is the wavelength of a 256-hertz sound wave in air at STP? 1. 1.17 10 6 m 2. 1.29 m 3. 0.773 m 4. 8.53 10-7 m 2. The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of

More information

The Physics of Sound

The Physics of Sound The Physics of Sound 1 The Physics of Sound Sound lies at the very center of speech communication. A sound wave is both the end product of the speech production mechanism and the primary source of raw

More information

Basic Concepts of Sound. Contents: Definitions db Conversion Sound Fields db ± db

Basic Concepts of Sound. Contents: Definitions db Conversion Sound Fields db ± db Basic Concepts of Sound Contents: Definitions db Conversion Sound Fields db ± db BA 7666-11, 1 Abstract This lecture introduces sound and sound measurements by describing sound pressure, sound level and

More information

Physiology of Hearing Dr. Hesham Kozou Is hearing important? Communica i ti ttion Language Localization sound sources

Physiology of Hearing Dr. Hesham Kozou Is hearing important? Communica i ti ttion Language Localization sound sources Physiology of Hearing Dr. Hesham Kozou Undergraduate Round Courses 2008-2009 2009 Is hearing important? Communication Hearing is essential to Language Localization Determining the location of unseen sound

More information

Chapter 21 Study Questions Name: Class:

Chapter 21 Study Questions Name: Class: Chapter 21 Study Questions Name: Class: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. If a fire engine is traveling toward you, the Doppler

More information

Solution Derivations for Capa #13

Solution Derivations for Capa #13 Solution Derivations for Capa #13 1 Identify the following waves as T-Transverse, or L-Longitudinal. If the first is T and the rets L, enter TLLL. QUESTION: A The WAVE made by fans at sports events. B

More information

Acoustic Terms, Definitions and General Information

Acoustic Terms, Definitions and General Information Acoustic Terms, Definitions and General Information Authored by: Daniel Ziobroski Acoustic Engineer Environmental and Acoustic Engineering GE Energy Charles Powers Program Manager Environmental and Acoustic

More information

1) The time for one cycle of a periodic process is called the A) wavelength. B) period. C) frequency. D) amplitude.

1) The time for one cycle of a periodic process is called the A) wavelength. B) period. C) frequency. D) amplitude. practice wave test.. Name Use the text to make use of any equations you might need (e.g., to determine the velocity of waves in a given material) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes

More information

Building Design for Advanced Technology Instruments Sensitive to Acoustical Noise

Building Design for Advanced Technology Instruments Sensitive to Acoustical Noise Building Design for Advanced Technology Instruments Sensitive to Acoustic Noise Michael Gendreau Colin Gordon & Associates Presentation Outline! High technology research and manufacturing instruments respond

More information

Sound and stringed instruments

Sound and stringed instruments Sound and stringed instruments Lecture 14: Sound and strings Reminders/Updates: HW 6 due Monday, 10pm. Exam 2, a week today! 1 Sound so far: Sound is a pressure or density fluctuation carried (usually)

More information

Resonance in a Closed End Pipe

Resonance in a Closed End Pipe Experiment 12 Resonance in a Closed End Pipe 12.1 Objectives Determine the relationship between frequency and wavelength for sound waves. Verify the relationship between the frequency of the sound, the

More information

Standing Waves on a String

Standing Waves on a String 1 of 6 Standing Waves on a String Summer 2004 Standing Waves on a String If a string is tied between two fixed supports, pulled tightly and sharply plucked at one end, a pulse will travel from one end

More information

PHYSICS 202 Practice Exam Waves, Sound, Reflection and Refraction. Name. Constants and Conversion Factors

PHYSICS 202 Practice Exam Waves, Sound, Reflection and Refraction. Name. Constants and Conversion Factors PHYSICS 202 Practice Exam Waves, Sound, Reflection and Refraction Name Constants and Conversion Factors Speed of sound in Air œ $%!7Î= "'!*7/>/

More information

Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals

Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals 1 Analog and Digital Signals, Time and Frequency Representation of Signals Required reading: Garcia 3.1, 3.2 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic 2 Data vs. Signal Analog vs. Digital Analog Signals

More information

Trigonometric functions and sound

Trigonometric functions and sound Trigonometric functions and sound The sounds we hear are caused by vibrations that send pressure waves through the air. Our ears respond to these pressure waves and signal the brain about their amplitude

More information

Teaching Fourier Analysis and Wave Physics with the Bass Guitar

Teaching Fourier Analysis and Wave Physics with the Bass Guitar Teaching Fourier Analysis and Wave Physics with the Bass Guitar Michael Courtney Department of Chemistry and Physics, Western Carolina University Norm Althausen Lorain County Community College This article

More information

16.2 Periodic Waves Example:

16.2 Periodic Waves Example: 16.2 Periodic Waves Example: A wave traveling in the positive x direction has a frequency of 25.0 Hz, as in the figure. Find the (a) amplitude, (b) wavelength, (c) period, and (d) speed of the wave. 1

More information

Hearing. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Auditory system. 1.2 Psychoacoustics

Hearing. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Auditory system. 1.2 Psychoacoustics Hearing Sources: Rossing. (1990). The science of sound. Chapters 5 7. Karjalainen. (1999). Kommunikaatioakustiikka. Moore. (1997). An introduction to the psychology of hearing. Contents: 1. Introduction

More information

T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p

T = 1 f. Phase. Measure of relative position in time within a single period of a signal For a periodic signal f(t), phase is fractional part t p Data Transmission Concepts and terminology Transmission terminology Transmission from transmitter to receiver goes over some transmission medium using electromagnetic waves Guided media. Waves are guided

More information

Waves: Recording Sound Waves and Sound Wave Interference (Teacher s Guide)

Waves: Recording Sound Waves and Sound Wave Interference (Teacher s Guide) Waves: Recording Sound Waves and Sound Wave Interference (Teacher s Guide) OVERVIEW Students will measure a sound wave by placing the Ward s DataHub microphone near one tuning fork A440 (f=440hz). Then

More information

Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

More information

Noise. CIH Review PDC March 2012

Noise. CIH Review PDC March 2012 Noise CIH Review PDC March 2012 Learning Objectives Understand the concept of the decibel, decibel determination, decibel addition, and weighting Know the characteristics of frequency that are relevant

More information

Scheme of Work 9 Picture this. Overall learning objectives. Overall learning outcomes. Curriculum learning objectives

Scheme of Work 9 Picture this. Overall learning objectives. Overall learning outcomes. Curriculum learning objectives Scheme of Work 9 Page 1/8 Overall learning objectives Developing a sense of scale and proportion with regard to measurement of frequency. Understanding of concepts of sound and ultrasound with use of wave

More information

Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

More information

Acoustics: the study of sound waves

Acoustics: the study of sound waves Acoustics: the study of sound waves Sound is the phenomenon we experience when our ears are excited by vibrations in the gas that surrounds us. As an object vibrates, it sets the surrounding air in motion,

More information

Lecture 1-6: Noise and Filters

Lecture 1-6: Noise and Filters Lecture 1-6: Noise and Filters Overview 1. Periodic and Aperiodic Signals Review: by periodic signals, we mean signals that have a waveform shape that repeats. The time taken for the waveform to repeat

More information

The Physics of Guitar Strings

The Physics of Guitar Strings The Physics of Guitar Strings R. R. McNeil 1. Introduction The guitar makes a wonderful device to demonstrate the physics of waves on a stretched string. This is because almost every student has seen a

More information

Chapter 15, example problems:

Chapter 15, example problems: Chapter, example problems: (.0) Ultrasound imaging. (Frequenc > 0,000 Hz) v = 00 m/s. λ 00 m/s /.0 mm =.0 0 6 Hz. (Smaller wave length implies larger frequenc, since their product,

More information

08/19/09 PHYSICS 223 Exam-2 NAME Please write down your name also on the back side of this exam

08/19/09 PHYSICS 223 Exam-2 NAME Please write down your name also on the back side of this exam 08/19/09 PHYSICS 3 Exam- NAME Please write down your name also on the back side of this exam 1. A sinusoidal wave of frequency 500 Hz has a speed of 350 m/s. 1A. How far apart (in units of cm) are two

More information

Estimation of Loudness by Zwicker's Method

Estimation of Loudness by Zwicker's Method Estimation of Loudness by Zwicker's Method Loudness is one category in the list of human perceptions of sound. There are many methods of estimating Loudness using objective measurements. No method is perfect.

More information

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

More information

Resonance and the Speed of Sound

Resonance and the Speed of Sound Name: Partner(s): Date: Resonance and the Speed of Sound 1. Purpose Sound is a common type of mechanical wave that can be heard but not seen. In today s lab, you will investigate the nature of sound waves

More information

What is the essence of waviness? The Wave Model. Waves: examples. Particles. Wave. 1. Ripples on a pond. Think of a leaf, or a cork on the water

What is the essence of waviness? The Wave Model. Waves: examples. Particles. Wave. 1. Ripples on a pond. Think of a leaf, or a cork on the water Chapter 20: Traveling Waves 20.1 The wave model 20.2 One-dimensional waves 20.3 Sinusoidal waves 20.4 Waves in 2- & 3-dimensions 20.5 Sound and Light Waves 20.6 Power and Intensity 20.7 Doppler Effect

More information

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES 1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

More information

The Nature of Sound Waves

The Nature of Sound Waves Name: The Nature of Sound Waves Read from Lesson 1 of the Sound and Music chapter at The Physics Classroom: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/u11l1a.html http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/u11l1b.html

More information

5-Minute Refresher: SOUND AND HEARING

5-Minute Refresher: SOUND AND HEARING 5-Minute Refresher: SOUND AND HEARING Sound Key Ideas Sound is a type of energy that involves the vibration of molecules in a medium, such as air or water. Sound is transmitted through a medium as a pressure

More information

Experiment 1: SOUND. The equation used to describe a simple sinusoidal function that propagates in space is given by Y = A o sin(k(x v t))

Experiment 1: SOUND. The equation used to describe a simple sinusoidal function that propagates in space is given by Y = A o sin(k(x v t)) Experiment 1: SOUND Introduction Sound is classified under the topic of mechanical waves. A mechanical wave is a term which refers to a displacement of elements in a medium from their equilibrium state,

More information

Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals. Introduction

Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals. Introduction Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org) for use CECS 474, Fall 2008. 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper

More information

Standing Waves Physics Lab I

Standing Waves Physics Lab I Standing Waves Physics Lab I Objective In this series of experiments, the resonance conditions for standing waves on a string will be tested experimentally. Equipment List PASCO SF-9324 Variable Frequency

More information

AP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity.

AP1 Waves. (A) frequency (B) wavelength (C) speed (D) intensity. Answer: (A) and (D) frequency and intensity. 1. A fire truck is moving at a fairly high speed, with its siren emitting sound at a specific pitch. As the fire truck recedes from you which of the following characteristics of the sound wave from the

More information

STANDING WAVES & ACOUSTIC RESONANCE

STANDING WAVES & ACOUSTIC RESONANCE REFERENCES & ACOUSTIC RESONANCE R.H. Randall, An Introduction to Acoustics, (Addison-Wesley, 1951), Sect. 7-1, 7-. A.B. Wood, A Textbook of Sound, (Bell & Sons, 1944), pp.179 et seq. Berkeley Physics Course,

More information

Data Transmission. Data Communications Model. CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies. Presentation B

Data Transmission. Data Communications Model. CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies. Presentation B CSE 3461 / 5461: Computer Networking & Internet Technologies Data Transmission Presentation B Kannan Srinivasan 08/30/2012 Data Communications Model Figure 1.2 Studying Assignment: 3.1-3.4, 4.1 Presentation

More information

The Design and Implementation of Multimedia Software

The Design and Implementation of Multimedia Software Chapter 10 Auditory Content The Design and Implementation of Multimedia Software David Bernstein Jones and Bartlett Publishers www.jbpub.com David Bernstein (jbpub.com) Multimedia Software Jones and Bartlett

More information

Musical Analysis and Synthesis in Matlab

Musical Analysis and Synthesis in Matlab 3. James Stewart, Calculus (5th ed.), Brooks/Cole, 2003. 4. TI-83 Graphing Calculator Guidebook, Texas Instruments,1995. Musical Analysis and Synthesis in Matlab Mark R. Petersen (mark.petersen@colorado.edu),

More information

The Tuning CD Using Drones to Improve Intonation By Tom Ball

The Tuning CD Using Drones to Improve Intonation By Tom Ball The Tuning CD Using Drones to Improve Intonation By Tom Ball A drone is a sustained tone on a fixed pitch. Practicing while a drone is sounding can help musicians improve intonation through pitch matching,

More information

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering

Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering , pp.287-292 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2014.9.8.26 Doppler Effect Plug-in in Music Production and Engineering Yoemun Yun Department of Applied Music, Chungwoon University San 29, Namjang-ri, Hongseong,

More information

Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital

Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 3.1 Analog vs. Digital Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 1 3.1 Analog vs. Digital 2 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998

More information

Light (and other electromagnetic radiation) and Sound

Light (and other electromagnetic radiation) and Sound Light (and other electromagnetic radiation) and Sound Introduction Teacher Guidelines L1-3 Light and sound can seem mysterious. It is easy to know when light and sound are present and absent but difficult

More information

Spectrum Level and Band Level

Spectrum Level and Band Level Spectrum Level and Band Level ntensity, ntensity Level, and ntensity Spectrum Level As a review, earlier we talked about the intensity of a sound wave. We related the intensity of a sound wave to the acoustic

More information

Standing Waves and the Velocity of Sound

Standing Waves and the Velocity of Sound Chapter 8 Standing Waves and the Velocity of Sound 8.1 Purpose In this experiment we will be using resonance points of a sound wave traveling through an open tube to measure the speed of sound in air.

More information

Lesson 11. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, December 8, 15

Lesson 11. Luis Anchordoqui. Physics 168. Tuesday, December 8, 15 Lesson 11 Physics 168 1 Oscillations and Waves 2 Simple harmonic motion If an object vibrates or oscillates back and forth over same path each cycle taking same amount of time motion is called periodic

More information

Electromagnetic (EM) waves. Electric and Magnetic Fields. L 30 Electricity and Magnetism [7] James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)

Electromagnetic (EM) waves. Electric and Magnetic Fields. L 30 Electricity and Magnetism [7] James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) L 30 Electricity and Magnetism [7] ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Faraday laid the groundwork with his discovery of electromagnetic induction Maxwell added the last piece of the puzzle Heinrich Hertz made the experimental

More information

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES 2011 Interference - 1 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES The objectives of this experiment are: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves. To observe interference phenomena

More information

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. Measuring inharmonicity through pitch extraction

Quarterly Progress and Status Report. Measuring inharmonicity through pitch extraction Dept. for Speech, Music and Hearing Quarterly Progress and Status Report Measuring inharmonicity through pitch extraction Galembo, A. and Askenfelt, A. journal: STL-QPSR volume: 35 number: 1 year: 1994

More information

Hearing Sound. The Human Auditory System. The Outer Ear. Music 170: The Ear

Hearing Sound. The Human Auditory System. The Outer Ear. Music 170: The Ear Hearing Sound Music 170: The Ear Tamara Smyth, trsmyth@ucsd.edu Department of Music, University of California, San Diego (UCSD) December 1, 2015 Sound interpretation in the auditory system is done by 1.

More information

What Audio Engineers Should Know About Human Sound Perception. Part 2. Binaural Effects and Spatial Hearing

What Audio Engineers Should Know About Human Sound Perception. Part 2. Binaural Effects and Spatial Hearing What Audio Engineers Should Know About Human Sound Perception Part 2. Binaural Effects and Spatial Hearing AES 112 th Convention, Munich AES 113 th Convention, Los Angeles Durand R. Begault Human Factors

More information

Lecture 1-10: Spectrograms

Lecture 1-10: Spectrograms Lecture 1-10: Spectrograms Overview 1. Spectra of dynamic signals: like many real world signals, speech changes in quality with time. But so far the only spectral analysis we have performed has assumed

More information

Voltage. Oscillator. Voltage. Oscillator

Voltage. Oscillator. Voltage. Oscillator fpa 147 Week 6 Synthesis Basics In the early 1960s, inventors & entrepreneurs (Robert Moog, Don Buchla, Harold Bode, etc.) began assembling various modules into a single chassis, coupled with a user interface

More information

Data and Computer Communications

Data and Computer Communications CT30A2003 Tietoliikennetekniikan perusteet Data and Computer Communications Chapter 3 Data Transmission Ninth Edition by William Stallings 1 Kommunikointijärjestelmä 2 Tiedonsiirto The successful transmission

More information

Sound Pressure Measurement

Sound Pressure Measurement Objectives: Sound Pressure Measurement 1. Become familiar with hardware and techniques to measure sound pressure 2. Measure the sound level of various sizes of fan modules 3. Calculate the signal-to-noise

More information

The Physics of Music: Brass Instruments. James Bernhard

The Physics of Music: Brass Instruments. James Bernhard The Physics of Music: Brass Instruments James Bernhard As a first approximation, brass instruments can be modeled as closed cylindrical pipes, where closed means closed at one end, open at the other Here

More information

1 of 10 11/23/2009 6:37 PM

1 of 10 11/23/2009 6:37 PM hapter 14 Homework Due: 9:00am on Thursday November 19 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View] Good Vibes: Introduction

More information

Practice Test SHM with Answers

Practice Test SHM with Answers Practice Test SHM with Answers MPC 1) If we double the frequency of a system undergoing simple harmonic motion, which of the following statements about that system are true? (There could be more than one

More information

Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 4. How are refraction and the speed of wave in different media related?

Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 4. How are refraction and the speed of wave in different media related? Wave Properties Student Worksheet Answer the following questions during or after your study of Wave Properties. 1. A person standing 385 m from a cliff claps her hands loudly, only to hear the sound return

More information

What is Sound? Simple Harmonic Motion -- a Pendulum. The Unit Circle. Sine Waves. Frequency

What is Sound? Simple Harmonic Motion -- a Pendulum. The Unit Circle. Sine Waves. Frequency What is Sound? As the tines move back and forth they exert pressure on the air around them. (a) The first displacement of the tine compresses the air molecules causing high pressure. (b) Equal displacement

More information

11.2 THE DOPPLER EFFECT Notes

11.2 THE DOPPLER EFFECT Notes 11.2 THE DOPPLER EFFECT Notes III. HOW THE DOPPLER EFFECT WORKS WITH SOUND A. SOUND FREQUENCY AND PITCH The frequency of sound waves is proportional to the pitch that we hear. DEMO Tuning Forks f = higher

More information

Introduction to Waves. Essential Question: What are the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves? (S8P4a,d,f)

Introduction to Waves. Essential Question: What are the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves? (S8P4a,d,f) Introduction to Waves Essential Question: What are the characteristics of mechanical and electromagnetic waves? (S8P4a,d,f) Use the PowerPoint to fill in the Waves graphic organizer as we discuss the characteristics

More information

APPLICATION NOTE AP050830

APPLICATION NOTE AP050830 APPLICATION NOTE AP050830 Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers Pro-Wave Electronics Corp. E-mail: sales@pro-wave.com.tw URL: http://www.prowave.com.tw The purpose of this application note

More information

Chapter 6. Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements

Chapter 6. Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements Chapter 6 Single Sideband Transmitter Tests and Measurements This chapter deals with the basic tests and measurements that can be used to evaluate the performance of single sideband suppressed carrier

More information

Audible Alarm Basics Everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask by Dan O Brien, Sales Engineer, Mallory Sonalert Products, Inc.

Audible Alarm Basics Everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask by Dan O Brien, Sales Engineer, Mallory Sonalert Products, Inc. Audible Alarm Basics Everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask by Dan O Brien, Sales Engineer, Mallory Sonalert Products, Inc. From smoke detectors to automobiles, audible alarms (also known

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Schindler 3300 / Schindler 5300 Information on noise and vibration.

Schindler 3300 / Schindler 5300 Information on noise and vibration. Schindler 3300 / Schindler 5300. Content Introduction 1. Ride quality Jerk Car acceleration Vertical car vibration Lateral car vibration Sound in the car 2. Sound basics 3. Vibration basics 4. Structure-borne

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED SIMPLE CHORD ANALYSIS. UIUC Physics 193 POM

FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED SIMPLE CHORD ANALYSIS. UIUC Physics 193 POM FOURIER TRANSFORM BASED SIMPLE CHORD ANALYSIS Fanbo Xiang UIUC Physics 193 POM Professor Steven M. Errede Fall 2014 1 Introduction Chords, an essential part of music, have long been analyzed. Different

More information

A pulse is a collection of cycles that travel together. the cycles ( on or transmit time), and. the dead time ( off or receive time)

A pulse is a collection of cycles that travel together. the cycles ( on or transmit time), and. the dead time ( off or receive time) chapter 2 Pulsed Ultrasound In diagnostic ultrasound imaging, short bursts, or pulses, of acoustic energy are used to create anatomic images. Continuous wave sound cannot create anatomic images. Analogy

More information

Direct and Reflected: Understanding the Truth with Y-S 3

Direct and Reflected: Understanding the Truth with Y-S 3 Direct and Reflected: Understanding the Truth with Y-S 3 -Speaker System Design Guide- December 2008 2008 Yamaha Corporation 1 Introduction Y-S 3 is a speaker system design software application. It is

More information

TECHNICAL LISTENING TRAINING: IMPROVEMENT OF SOUND SENSITIVITY FOR ACOUSTIC ENGINEERS AND SOUND DESIGNERS

TECHNICAL LISTENING TRAINING: IMPROVEMENT OF SOUND SENSITIVITY FOR ACOUSTIC ENGINEERS AND SOUND DESIGNERS TECHNICAL LISTENING TRAINING: IMPROVEMENT OF SOUND SENSITIVITY FOR ACOUSTIC ENGINEERS AND SOUND DESIGNERS PACS: 43.10.Sv Shin-ichiro Iwamiya, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Kazuo Ueda, Kazuhiko Kawahara and Masayuki

More information

DIAMOND ROOM MEASUREMENT REPORT

DIAMOND ROOM MEASUREMENT REPORT DIAMOND ROOM MEASUREMENT REPORT Frequency response Frequencies between 20 and 20.000 Hz are sent out with the same amplitude to be offered to the signalpath. In theory we should receive a straight line

More information

Acoustic design according to room shape

Acoustic design according to room shape Acoustic design according to room shape The shape of the room defines the movement of the sound waves within the room. Placement of acoustic materials should be determined by the way the sound moves in

More information

Scientific Programming

Scientific Programming 1 The wave equation Scientific Programming Wave Equation The wave equation describes how waves propagate: light waves, sound waves, oscillating strings, wave in a pond,... Suppose that the function h(x,t)

More information

SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS CHAPTER 15

SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS CHAPTER 15 SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS CHAPTER 15 1. v = 40 cm/sec As velocity of a wave is constant location of maximum after 5 sec = 40 5 = 00 cm along negative x-axis. [(x / a) (t / T)]. Given y = Ae a) [A] = [M 0 L

More information