2 Intro Write the following questions on a blank piece of paper (don t answer yet) 1. What is the difference between a mechanical and electromagnetic wave? 2. What is the difference between a transverse and longitudinal wave? 3. What do all waves transfer? 4. What don t waves transfer?
3 23) analyze the properties of waves (GPS, HSGT) 23a) describe waves as a means of transporting energy (GPS) 23b) explain the production and propagation of waves created by simple harmonic motion (i.e., pendulum/spring motion) (GPS) 23c) compare and contrast mechanical and electromagnetic waves (GPS) 23d) compare and contrast longitudinal and transverse waves (GPS) 23e) explain the relationship between wavelength, frequency and wave speed (GPS) 23f) demonstrate and explain the general wave properties of reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction (GPS) 23g) explain the relationship between the phenomena of interference and the principle of superposition (GPS) 23h) demonstrate and explain wave phenomena using various types of equipment (i.e., ripple tank, slinky, soft rope, signal generator and oscilloscope) (GPS) 24) analyze the properties of sound (GPS, HSGT) 24a) explain the relationship between wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed as applied to sound waves (GPS) 24b) demonstrate apparent frequency changes due to Doppler Effect (GPS) 24b1) solve problems of apparent frequency changes due to Doppler Effect (GPS) 24c) use the law of reflection as it applies to echoes (GPS) 24d) explain the relationship of the speed of sound to temperature and elasticity of a medium (GPS) 24e) illustrate interference of sound waves to produce harmonics and resonance in various types of musical instruments, sound recordings, stringed instruments, open and closed pipes, and percussion (GPS) 24f) identify ranges for infrasonic, ultrasonic, and audible sounds 24g) describe applications of sound to sonar, ultrasound, and bats (GPS)
4 Section 1: Intro to Waves
5 Waves Are disturbances that move through an empty space or through medium (material) Waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Particles of medium move in simple harmonic motion Mechanical: Through a medium Electromagnetic: Through empty space
6 Mechanical wave: Caused by a disturbed medium and move by action reaction of particles ex: water wave, sound A medium is matter particles like gas (ex. air), liquid (ex. Water), and solid (ex. earth) Two types of mechanical waves that require a medium Transverse Wave Longitudinal Wave
7 Electromagnetic wave: Move through empty space (no medium) Created by moving electrons Ex. radio waves, microwaves, light Types Electromagnetic Waves Through empty space
8 In order to start and transmit a wave, a source of disturbance (vibration) and a disturbed medium are required. Mechanical caused by vibrating particles Like seen here Electromagnetic by vibrating electrons
9 Damping: A decrease in the amplitude of a wave Caused by energy loss or the spreading out of the wave over a larger area.
10 Wave pulse is a single wave disturbance Wave train (continuous wave) - is a series of pulses at intervals
11 Section 2: Types of Mechanical Waves Transverse Longitudinal
12 Perpendicular to the direction of travel Direction of travel Transverse Wave: Wave particles move perpendicular to the direction the wave travels Ex. vibrating string of a musical instrument
13 Parts of a transverse wave (ג) Wavelength Crest amplitude Equilibrium Position amplitude (ג) Wavelength (ג) Wavelength Trough
14 Crest- highest point on a transverse wave Trough- lowest point on a transverse wave Equilibrium position- center around which simple harmonic motion occurs Amplitude- from the equilibrium position to the crest or trough
15 Longitudinal Wave: Particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave travels ex. sound wave Direction of travel Particles vibrate parallel to the direction of travel
16 Parts of a Longitudinal Wave: Compression- point where the particles are closest together Rarefaction- point where the particles are furthest apart Rarefaction Compression
17 So, a couple of questions 1. What starts a wave? 2. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
18 More Questions 1. What do all waves transfer? 2. What don t waves transfer? 3. What starts a wave? 4. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
19 More Questions 1. What do all waves transfer? Energy 2. What don t waves transfer? 3. What starts a wave? 4. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
20 More Questions 1. What do all waves transfer? Energy 2. What don t waves transfer? Matter 3. What starts a wave? 4. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
21 More Questions 1. What do all waves transfer? Energy 2. What don t waves transfer? Matter 3. What starts a wave? Disturbance in a medium 4. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
22 More Questions 1. What do all waves transfer? Energy 2. What don t waves transfer? Matter 3. What starts a wave? Disturbance in a medium 4. Sound is a (mechanical or electromagnetic) (transverse or longitudinal) wave.
23 Relationship between Wavelength, Frequency and Wave Speed
24 velocity ( v ): speed of the wave. unit: m/s (meter/second) frequency ( f ): vibrations per second of the wave unit: Hz (hertz) wavelength ( ג ): length of one wave pulse unit: m (meter)
25 Lets revisit our old equation V= d t What is the velocity of an object that moves 25 meters in 3 seconds?
26 Lets revisit our old equation V= d t What is the velocity of an object that moves 25 meters in 3 seconds?
27 Now lets look at the new equation you can use as well. new old V= d Example what is the velocity of a wave that has a frequency of 3Hz and a wavelength of 5m? t
28 Now lets look at the new equation you can use as well new old V= d t
29 Now lets look at the new equation you can use as well new old V= d t
30 Now lets look at the new equation you can use as well new old V= d t
31 Now lets look at the new equation you can use as well new old V= d t
32 Relationship between frequency and wavelength. Wavelength and frequency are inversely related As frequency goes up the wavelength gets shorter (assuming no change in velocity) Click for animation
33 Period (T) vs. Frequency (f) Period (T) seconds for one cycle (unit s) Frequency (f) cycles for one second (unit Hz) If you know one you can solve for the other
34 Example 1 Wave Math The frequency of a wave is 560 Hz. What is its period?
35 The frequency of a wave is 560 Hz. What is its period?
36 Example 2 Wave Math A girl floats in the ocean and watches 12 wave crests pass her in 46 s. Calculate the wave: a) frequency b) period
37 A girl floats in the ocean and watches 12 wave crests pass her in 46 s. Calculate the wave: a) frequency b) period
38 Example 3 Wave Math The period of a wave is 0.044s. How many cycles will the energy source make in 22s? cycles second
39 The period of a wave is 0.044s. How many cycles will the energy source make in 22s?
40 Example 4 Wave Math A distance of 0.33 m separates a wave crest from the adjacent trough, and the vertical distance from the top of a crest to the bottom of a trough is 0.24m. A. What is the wavelength? B. What is the amplitude? 0.33m 0.24m
41 Example 4 Wave Math A distance of 0.33 m separates a wave crest from the adjacent trough, and the vertical distance from the top of a crest to the bottom of a trough is 0.24m. A. What is the wavelength? B. What is the amplitude? 0.33m 0.66m
42 Example 4 Wave Math A distance of 0.33 m separates a wave crest from the adjacent trough, and the vertical distance from the top of a crest to the bottom of a trough is 0.24m. A. What is the wavelength? B. What is the amplitude? 0.24m 0.12m
43 Example 5 Wave Math What is the speed of a 256 Hz sound with a wavelength of 1.35 m?
44 Example 5 Wave Math What is the speed of a 256 Hz sound with a wavelength of 1.35 m?
45 Example 6 Wave Math You dip your finger into a pan of water 14 times in 11s, producing wave crests separated by 0.16 m. A. What is the frequency? B. What is the period? C. What is the velocity?
46 Example 6 Wave Math You dip your finger into a pan of water 14 times in 11s, producing wave crests separated by 0.16 m. A. what is the frequency B. What is the period C. Velocity
47 Assignment to work on: CP Worksheet Packet Section 3 Honors Worksheet Packet Section 3 Book Problems 4,5,6 pg
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