Part 1. Interactions among living things

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1 Part 1 Interactions among living things

2 Interactions Among Living Things Environment- All of the living and non-living things with which an organism may interact. Ecology- The study of the relationships and interactions of living things with one another and their environment. Ecosystem- All of the living and non-living things in a given area that interact with one another. Community- The living part of any ecosystem- all the different organisms that live together. Population- A group organisms of the same type, or species. Species- Group of similar organisms that can produce offspring. Habitat- The place in which an organism lives. Producer- The source of all food in an ecosystem. Producers are able to use sunlight to turn simple raw materials into food. *photosynthesis* Consumer- An organism that feeds directly or indirectly on producers. Decomposer- Break down dead organisms into simpler substances. Food Chain- A series of events in which food and energy are transferred from one organism to another in an ecosystem. Food Web- A group of food chains interconnected. Competition- The struggle among living things to get the proper amount of food, water, and energy. Predator- Organism that kills and eats other organisms.

3 Prey- Organism that is killed and eaten by a predator Symbiosis- Relationship in which an organism lives on, near, or in another organism, and at least one of the organisms benefits. Niche- Role of an organism in its community or environment. Commensalism- Type of symbiosis. One organism benefits and the other is not affected. Mutualism- Type of symbiosis. Relationship is helpful to both organisms. Parasitism- Type of symbiosis. Relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed. Parasite- Organism that feeds on other living organisms. Host- Organism in which/ on which another organism lives. Autotroph- Organisms that use energy ( sunlight) to create ( photosynthesis) their own food. Another name for producer. Heterotroph- Organisms that must consume other organisms for the food and energy they need to survive. Consumers and decomposers.

4 Section Review 26-1 ( pg ) Interactions among Living Things 1. An consists of all the living and nonliving things which an may interact. 2. Organisms obtain,, and other resources they need to live and grow from their. 3. All of the and things in an are interconnected. 4. Define the term ecology. 5. An consists of all the living and nonliving things in a given area that interact with each other. 6. The living part of any ecosystem is called a. 7. Each kind of living ( a particular organism ) thing makes up a. 8. The place where an organism lives is called it s. 9. Explain the difference between community and population.

5 Interactions among Living Things 26-2 ( pg ) 1. Three terms that indicate how organisms obtain energy and how they interact in their community are,, and. 2. Organisms that can make their own food by photosynthesis are called. 3. Producers use a source of energy ( ) to turn simple raw materials ( ) into food ( ). 4. are the source of all food in an ecosystem. 5. An organism that feeds directly or indirectly on a producer is called a. 6. Plant eaters are known as. 7. Animals that eat other animals are called. 8. Organisms that eat BOTH plants and animals are called. 9. break down dead organisms into simpler substances. 10. A represents a series of events which food and energy are transferred from one organism in an ecosystem to another. 11. The first link in a chain is always a. The second link is a. The third link and most links after that are almost always. 12. A number of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem produces a.

6 Interactions Among Living Things 26-3 (pg ) 1. Each organisms role in a community is called a. 2. An organism niche includes. List 5 things 3. The struggle among organisms to obtain the resources needed to survive is called. 4. Three examples of resources are,, and. 5. Living things that catch and kill other organisms are called. 6. The organisms that are eaten are called. 7. is a close relationship between two organisms in which one organism lives near, on, or in another organism and in which at least one organism benefits. 8. The three categories of symbiosis are. 9. is a symbiotic relationship in which only one of the organisms in the relationship benefits. 10. is a symbiotic relationship in which both of the organisms benefit. 11. is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the second organism is harmed. 12. The feeds on the organism.

7 Interactions Among Living Things Section 26-4 Paragraph Summaries 1. Paragraph 1, p Paragraph2, pg Paragraph3, pg Paragraph4, pg Paragraph5, pg Paragraph6, pg Paragraph7, pg Paragraph8, pg Paragraph 9, pg Paragraph 10,pg Paragraph 11, pg. 688

8 Chapter Review Multiple Choice pg.692 (1-8) True/False pg.692 (1-8)

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10 2. a. What autotrophs are found in the food web? b. What heterotrophs are found in the food web? 3. List one food chain that is part of the food web. 4. Add one or more organisms to this web. How many additional links did this create? Explain. 5. Remove one organism from the food web. How many other organisms were affected? Explain. 6. Why is a complex food web better than a simple food chain for survival of a community?

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12 4. Why did the bird population begin to decrease the year after the rattlesnakes were 5. If a population of rattlesnakes existed in your community, would you support their elimination? Explain.

13 Population and the Environment Part A: Reindeer Population Procedure 1. In 1911, 25 deer- 4males and 21 females- were introduced onto the St. Paul Island of the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea near Alaska. The island is approximately 42 square miles, and is more than 200 miles from the mainland. On this island there were no predators of the deer, and no hunting was allowed. Using the following data make a graph of the deer population and answer the following questions. Use the graph paper provided to create your graph. 2. Data Year #of deer

14 Graph Make a line graph of the data. Be sure to include labels with your graph. 4. Questions 1. What was the population size at the beginning of the study? 2. What was the population in 1920? 3. What was the difference in the number of deer between 1912 and 1930? 4. What was the average annual increase ( AAI) in the number of deer between 1912 and 1930? * Show your work 5. What is the difference in population size between 1920 and 1930? 6. What was the average annual increase in the number of deer between 1920 and 1930?* Show your work

15 7. What was the average annual increase in the number of deer between 1930 and 1938? * Show your work 8. What was the greatest number of deer found on the island between 1910 and 1950? 9. In 1950, only 8 deer were still alive. What was the average annual decrease in the number of deer between 1938 and 1950? *Show your work 10. Could emigration or immigration have played a major role in the size of the deer population? Why or why not? 11. What affect might 2000 deer have on the island and its vegetation? 12. If some of the 8 deer still alive on the island in 1950 were males and some were females, what do you predict would happen to the population in the next few years? Why?

16 13. What evidence is there that the islands carrying capacity was exceeded? 14. What does this study tell you about unchecked population growth? 15. What difference might hunters or predators made?

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