REVISING DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (LIVE) 01 JULY 2015 Exam Questions

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1 REVISING DNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (LIVE) 01 JULY 2015 Exam Questions Question 1 (Adapted from Feb/March 2015 Paper 2 DBE, Question 1.4) The diagram below represents DNA replication. 1.1 Identify the following: (a) Molecules W and U (2) (b) Parts of molecule W labelled X and Y (2) (c) Bond Z (1) (d) Nitrogenous base V (1) 1.2 Where in the cell does this process take place? (1) 1.3 Name the phase of the cell cycle where replication takes place. (1) Question 2 (Adapted from November 2014 Paper 2 DBE, Question 2.1) Study the diagram below which shows a part of the process of protein synthesis. (8) Page1

2 2.1 Identify the stage of protein synthesis that is shown in the diagram above. (1) 2.2 Identify molecules X and Y. (2) 2.3 State the term for the group of three nitrogenous bases indicated by V. (1) 2.4 Give the nitrogenous bases on the DNA strand that codes for the bases UAU on molecule Y. (1) 2.5 Use the table below to identify amino acid W. trna GUC UAA AUA CCC GGG CAG Amino acid glutamine isoleucine tyrosine glycine proline valine 2.6 Name and describe the process that occurs in the nucleus to produce molecule Y. (6) Question 3 (Adapted from November 2014 Paper 2 DBE, Question 2.2) The diagram below shows the DNA profiles of six members of a family. The greater the similarity in the position of the bands in the DNA profiles of different individuals, the more closely they are related. The parents, Zinhle and Ayanda, have four children. Two of the children are their biological offspring while the other two children are adopted. 3.1 Which TWO children are the biological offspring of Zinhle and Ayanda? (2) 3.2 Give an explanation for your answer to QUESTION 3.1 using evidence from the DNA profiles. (2) 3.3 Apart from paternity testing, state TWO ways in which DNA profiling is of use to humans. (2) (6) Page2

3 Question 4 (Adapted from Feb/March 2015 Paper 2 DBE, Question 3.2) The table below shows a partial DNA sequence from a human, as well as a codon table that can be used to determine which amino acids are required to make a protein. Base triplet number Human DNA sequence ATG TGT CCA TTA ACG TGC ACA CODON TABLE Valine Cysteine Proline Leucine Threonine Tyrosine GUU, GUG, GUA UGU, UGC CCA, CCU UUG, CUC, CUG, UUA ACG, ACA UAC, UAU 4.1 State ONE way in which the DNA molecule is biologically important. (1) 4.2 Name the codon that is formed from base triplet number 2 on the DNA sequence. (1) 4.3 Write down the names of the amino acids coded for by base triplets 6 and 7. (2) 4.4 If a mutation changes base triplet 1 from ATG to ATA, why will this not change the protein formed? (2) 4.5 Describe the process of translation in protein synthesis. (5) (11) Question 5 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 1, Question 5, Pg 9) Tabulate THREE differences between DNA and RNA. (7) (Remember to give your table a suitable heading/caption. Compare the same characteristics for each of the columns.) Question 6 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 2, Question 1, Pg 13) Humans show differences in characteristics such as fingerprints. Humans have five main types of fingerprints as shown in the diagram below: (Hint: fingerprints and DNA fingerprints are not the same. You should know the difference) Page3

4 A fingerprint is a useful way of identifying people and classifying them into groups. A fingerprint is taken by rolling the right index finger onto an ink pad and then onto a piece of paper. During a discussion of this topic, a group of learners asked the following question: ''Which one of the five main types of fingerprints is most common amongst the learners of this school?'' 6.1 State any FOUR steps in the planning process that must be considered when planning an investigation to answer the question above. (4) 6.2 The learners carried out an investigation and the results are shown in the table below. (a) Give a caption for the table. (2) (Remember that a caption is a heading where the words types of fingerprints and learners would have to be included since these are the headings of the two columns.) (b) Learners came to the following conclusion: Most learners have the plain arch-type fingerprint. Is this a valid conclusion? (1) (Remember that validity is based on the numbers, the accuracy and similar conditions like ages, males/females as applicable, etc) (c) Give a reason for your answer to QUESTION 5.2 (b). (2) 6.3 State the following: (a) (b) TWO advantages of having a fingerprint database of every citizen and visitor in South Africa. (2) TWO disadvantages of having a fingerprint database of every citizen and visitor in South Africa (2) Page4

5 Question 7 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 5, Pg 48) The diagram below represents a part of the process of protein synthesis. 7.4 With reference to the diagram and the table above: Question Name the amino acid labelled P. (2) State the base sequence of the molecule labelled Q. (2) What name is given to the triplet of trna bases that codes for each amino acid. (1) Describe how the composition of the protein molecule changes if the base sequence at X is UGU instead of UCA. (2) (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 6, Pg 50) The table below shows the DNA base triplets that code for different amino acids. [14] Page5

6 The following is a part of a sequence of amino acids that form a particular protein molecule: 8.1 Name the process by which mrna is formed from a DNA template. (1) 8.2 How many mrna codons would be involved in forming the portion of protein shown above? (1) 8.3 Write down the sequence of the first THREE mrna codons (from left to right) for this portion of the protein. (3) 8.4 The following is a sequence of base triplets in DNA: GAA GTA TTT AAA If guanine, found in the first base triplet, is removed, explain how this would affect the structure of the protein. (2) Name the process that occurs when the sequence of bases in DNA changes. (1) [8] Question 9 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 7, Pg 51) Describe the process of protein synthesis. [20] Solutions to Exam Questions Question 1 (Adapted from Feb/March 2015 Paper 2 DBE) 1.1 (a) W Nucleotide (b) U DNA (2) X Phosphate/phosphate ion Y Deoxyribose sugar (2) (c) Z Hydrogen bond (1) (d) V Adenine (1) 1.2 Nucleus (1) 1.3 Interphase (1) Question 2 (Adapted from November 2014 Paper 2 DBE, Question 2.1) 2.1 Translation (1) 2.2 X - trna/ transfer RNA Y - mrna/ messenger RNA (2) 2.3 Anticodon (1) 2.4 ATA (1) 2.5 Tyrosine (2) The process is transcription* (1) - The double stranded DNA molecule unwinds/unzips - When the hydrogen bonds break - One strand is used as a template - to form mrna - Using free nucleotides from the nucleoplasm - The mrna is complementary to the DNA/ A-U, C-G - This process is controlled by enzymes Any (4) *indicates a compulsory mark 1* (5) Page6

7 Question 3 (Adapted from November 2014 Paper 2 DBE, Question 2.2) 3.1 Lindiwe and Bandile (Mark first TWO only) (2) 3.2 They have DNA bands which correspond with the banding patterns from both parents/ Zinhle and Ayanda (2) To investigate crimes/ resolve disputes Question 4 - To identify organisms from their remains - To identify family relationships other than paternity, e.g. siblings or cousins - To test for the presence of specific alleles/ genes that cause a genetic disorder - To establish matching tissues for organ transplants (Mark first TWO only) Any 2 (2) (Adapted from Feb/March 2015 Paper 2 DBE, Question 3.2) DNA carries hereditary information - DNA contains coded information for protein synthesis (Mark first ONE only) (Any 1) (1) 4.2 ACA (1) 4.3 Threonine; Cysteine (must be in correct order) (2) Both ATG and ATA - Code for the same amino acid/tyrosine (2) The anticodon on the trna matches the codon on the mrna Question 5 - trna brings the required amino acid - to the ribosome - amino-acids are joined by peptide bonds - to form the required protein (Any 5) (5) (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 1, Question 5, Pg 9) Table showing the differences between DNA and RNA. DNA Double strand Deoxyribose sugar Thymine RNA Single strand Ribose sugar Uracil Page7

8 Question 6 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 2, Question 1, Pg 13) 6.1 Hypothesis formulation Formulate hypothesis on what the most common type of fingerprint might be Identify dependent and independent variables Sample selection Method of data collection Data representation Determine the sample size of learners to be used Learn how to identify the different fingerprint types correctly Organise an ink-pad and paper to take an imprint of the fingerprint Arrange a time and place to take fingerprints Design a table to record the number that have each fingerprint type (Mark first FOUR only) any (4) NOTE: Answers must be contexualised to the specific investigation on fingerprint types i.e. include if you will need to source equipment, determine date, a time and a venue 6.2 (a) (b) (c) Number of learners with different fingerprint types No Results indicate that most learners have the plain whorl type of fingerprinting any 2 OR Results indicate that learners with a plain arch type do not make up the largest number any 2 OR Results are not in line with the conclusion (2) (1) (2) 6.3 (a) Advantages Can be used to identify criminals lost children deceased bodies Immigration control can be more strict (Mark first TWO only) any (2) (b) Disadvantages Falsely incriminated/ (people can be framed) Infringing on the rights of people/invasion of privacy It is costly Incorrect capture of data/human error Not all personscan be fingerprinted e.g. amputees (Mark first TWO only) (2) Page8

9 Question 7 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 5, Pg 48) P - Threonine. (2) Q C C G (2) Anticodon (1) Amino acid will change. It will be cytosine instead serine therefore the structure and function of the protein will change. (2) Question 8 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 6, Pg 50) 8.1 Transcription (1) (1) 8.3 G C U C A U U G G (3) The amino acid will change and therefore the protein will be different. (2) Mutation. (1) Question 9 (Taken from Learner Workbook, Mindset Learn, Chapter 4, Question 7, Pg 51) Protein synthesis - the process: The process of protein synthesis occurs in two steps, namely transcription and translation Transcription* Translation* Double stranded DNA unzips When the hydrogen bonds break One strand is used as a template To form mrna Using free RNA nucleotides from the nucleoplasm The coded message for protein synthesis is thus copied onto mrna mrna moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and attaches to the ribosome The mrna sequence is coded in segments of 3 called codons trna collects amino acids Each trna contains an anticodon specific to the amino acid it carries trnas, with amino acids attached, become arranged on the mrna The anticodons on the trnas match complementary bases on the codons of mrna Amino acids become attached by peptide bonds to form the required protein Each trna is released to pick up more amino acids Synthesis Max (*1+8) Max (*1+7) (3marks) Page9

10 Multiple Choice Questions Question 1 The structure of one nucleotide is shown here. Which of the following diagrams shows 2 nucleotides correctly joined together? Question 2 The genetic information stored in a DNA molecule is directly dependent on the. A. size of the genes B. number of nucleotides C. order of the nucleotides D. the length of the helix Question 3 The shape of the DNA molecule was discovered by A. Franklin, using evidence obtained from Watson and Crick. B. Franklin, working independently of anyone else. C. Watson and Crick, working independently of anyone else. D. Watson and Crick, using some evidence obtained from Franklin. Question 4 The following diagram shows a molecule of DNA prior to replication If the solid line diagram represents an original strand of DNA, and the broken line diagram represents one of the new DNA strands, which of the following daughter DNA molecules will result from the replication of the DNA molecule shown above. Page10

11 Question 5 The diagram below shows part of a DNA molecule nitrogenous base Z nitrogenous base Y X Which of the following correctly represents parts X;Y and Z A. deoxyribose sugar, phosphate and hydrogen bond. B. phosphate, deoxyribose sugar and hydrogen bond. C. ribose sugar, nitrogenous base and peptide bond D. phosphate, ribose sugar and hydrogen bond. Question 6 If 10% of the bases in a molecule of DNA are adenine, what is the ratio of adenine to guanine in the same molecule? A. 1:1 B. 4:1 C. 1:3 D. 1:4 Question 7 A messenger RNA (mrna) molecule consists of 300 nitrogenous bases. The maximum number of amino acids that it can code for is: A. 300 B. 150 C. 100 D. 30. Page11

12 Question 8 The following are components/characteristics of nucleotides: 1. Deoxyribose 2. Uracil 3. Thymine 4. Single stranded Which of the above characteristics are components of DNA? A. 1 and 2 only B. 1 and 3 only C. 1, 2, and 3 D. 3 and 4 only Question 9 The 4 events below constitute a cause and effect sequence. 1. trna brings amino acids to the ribosomes 2. a protein is manufactured 3. under the influence of DNA, mrna is formed 4. mrna goes to the ribosomes What is the correct order for these events? A. 2, 3, 4, 1 B. 3, 2, 1, 4 C. 2, 1, 4, 3 D. 3, 4, 1, 2 Question 10 The following set of results shows the analysis of the DNA contained in the cells of a gland of a cow. Base Composition X Guanine Y Z Which of the following is the possible correct identification of the bases? X Y Z A cytosine adenine thymine B thymine adenine cytosine C adenine cytosine thymine D cytosine thymine adenine Solutions to Multiple Choice Questions B A D C B D C B D C Page12

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