B5 B8 ANWERS DNA & ) DNA

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1 Review sheet for test B5 B8 ANWERS DNA review 1. What bonds hold complementary bases between 2 strands of DNA together? Hydrogen bonds 2. What bonds exist between sugars and phosphates? Covalent bonds 3. Describe how DNA is like a ladder. Sides (made of deoxyribose sugare & phosphate) and rungs (made of nitrogenous bases) 4. Explain the 3 steps of DNA replication. 1) DNA helicase unzips DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds that exist between the 2 strands of DNA; 2) DNA polymerase assists with correct placement of incoming DNA nucleotides; 3) DNA polymerase assist with covalently bonding of the backbone of the new strand 5. Why is DNA replication termed semi-conservative? has half the parent strand and half is new therefore the parent strand is half conserved in each new double helix 6. What role does DNA polymerase play in DNA replication? Covently bonds backbone of new strand and proofreads to ensure correct base pairing 7. Define recombinant DNA. DNA of 2 species combined (therapeutic intent) 8. What is a transgenic organism? Organism with foreign DNA inserted 9. What are 3 uses for recombinant DNA? Bacteria, plants, animals, xenoplantation 10. Explain how gene therapy is used to help those with genetic diseases. What are some problems? Expensive, hard to control placement of insertion, eugenics, can be dangerous to health Protein Synthesis review 11. Describe the process by which mrna is formed for protein synthesis. DNA opened, complementary RNA nucleotide bind with DNA strand (gene) with the help of RNA polymerase, strand then leaves through nuclear pore and moves into cytoplasm. 12. What is the process called? Transcription 13. What enzyme is responsible for unzipping DNA for mrna to be assembled off of it? DNA helicase 14. What is the process by which a protein forms at a ribosome called? Translation 15. What is the function of the following in protein synthesis? - template b) mrna copy of gene/dna that moves into cytoplasm c) trna brings aa s to ribosome d) rrna with proteins is called a ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis 16. Where are the following usually found in cells? a) mrna nucleus & cytoplasm b) trna - cytoplasm c) rrna made is nucleolus, functions in cytoplasm (ribosome) 17. What is a polyribosome and what is its function? Many ribosomes working together to mark large protein quickly 18. Give one role of each of the following in the process of translation a) Ribosome site that synthesizes proteins b) trna brings aa c) mrna recipe or instructions on how to make specific protein 19. Describe the difference between a codon and an anticodon codon is on mrna; anticodon is on trna; 20. Describe anticodon to codon complementary base pairing. trna s anticodon with its specific aa will base pair with mrna s codon that has been created from the gene/dna 21. What bonds form between amino acids? peptide 22. What mrna sequence signals the end of an amino acid sequence? STOP which codes for a release factor protein 23. If this is the strand of DNA.complete the rest: DNA: TAA CGC AAG CCC TGG GAC mrna: AUU GCG UUC GGG ACC CUG trna: UAA CGC AAG CCC UGG GAC AA s: Iso Ala Phe Gly Thr Leu 24. Give one example of an environmental mutagen and explain how it could cause a change in the production of mrna in a cell. Chemical, radiation, biological causes mutations that affect proteins. 25. What is the anticodon for tryptophan. mrna codon is UGG so trna anticodon is ACC 26. Describe one way in which each of the following pairs of molecules are functionally related in the process of protein synthesis. and mrna: DNA has code for proteins in its genes; mrna is the copy of that gene b) mrna and trna: mrna has template to make proteins & trna brings the aa s that correspond to that message sent from the DNA c) trna and amino acids: trna picks up correct aa & takes to ribosome d) Protein and rrna: rrna, along with proteins, makes up ribosome which is the site of protein synthesis

2 27. What is the purpose of transcription during protein synthesis? Recipe from nucleus to cytoplasm 28. What occurs during translation? Protein made see steps in your notes 29. In an experiment conducted to study protein synthesis, radioactive thymine and radioactive uracil were added to a culture of human cells. A few hours later, the culture was analyzed and radioactive mrna was found. a) Explain how an mrna molecule is produced - transcription b) Explain why the mrna produced is radioactive radioactive uracil as a nucleotide to make up mrna c) In a different experiment, radioactive uracil was added to a culture of human cell undergoing DNA replication. What will be the characteristic of the resulting DNA in terms of radioactivity? Explain. DNA would not be radioactive because DNA is not make with uracil 30. Name the process shown above and explain how the molecule that is produced is used to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Transcription; mrna (molecule X) contains triplet codons needed to instruct which trna anticodon to base pair. Each trna will bring its specific aa to build protein based on the instructions sent from DNA 31. A segment of hemoglobin has the following sequence of amino acids: Leucine-threonine-proline-glutamate-glutamate The same segment of hemoglobin found in people who have sickle-cell anemia has the following sequence: Leucine-threonine-proline-valine-glutamate Using the codon chart in your text, explain how DNA is different in people with sickle-cell anemia. Glutamate s codon is GAG whereas valine s codon is GUG which means that in DNA there was a point mutation (substitution) from T to A at the second base with the triplet 32. Complete the following table. TRANSLATION REPLICATION Product Polypeptide chain DNA strand Location Cytoplasm nucleus 33. What is the specific function of ribosomes? Protein synthesis 34. What organelle is involved in producing rrna which is used to make ribosomes? nucleolus 35. How do polyribosomes and ribosomes differ in their structure and function? Polyribosomes are just many ribosomes working on one mrna strand at once. Both still synthesize proteins. 36. The heredity material found in cells is b) rrna 37. Which is not a major function of the genetic material? a) Store information b) Catalyze chemical reactions c) mrna d) ATP c) Replicate itself d) Undergo mutations 38. In the Watson-Crick model of DNA, the steps of the ladder are composed of a) Sugars b) A purine and a pyrimidine 39. That amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of in DNA a) cytosine c) guanine b) uracil d) thymine 40. Which of the following have nitrogenous bases correctly paired in DNA? a) Adenine-guanine; thymine-cytosine b) Adenine-uracil; guanine-cytosine c) Adenine-cytosine; guanine thymine d) Adenine- thymine; guanine-cytosine 41. The enzyme used to join complementary DNA nucleotides together is polymerase b) RNA polymerase c) Two purines d) Two pyrimidines c) Helicase d) Lipase

3 42. Which of the following is not true about DNA? a) Has a double helix b) Bases are held together by hydrogen bonds c) Contains adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil d) Has a deoxyribose sugar 43. Which of the following statements about DNA replication is not correct a) Unwinding of the DNA molecule occurs as hydrogen bonds break b) Each base is paired with another exactly like it c) The process is known as semi conservative replication because the old strand is conserved in the new molecule d) Complementary base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds 44. A nucleotide contains and RNA b) A sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base c) Complementary purines and pyrimidines d) RNA, protein, and lipids 45. DNA serves as the template for the direct synthesis of b) trna c) enzymes d) proteins 46. Which of the following is not true about RNA? a) RNA transfers messages from DNA to ribosomes b) RNA contains the sugar ribose c) RNA forms a double helix d) RNA is single stranded 47. Prior to protein synthesis, the DNA a) Attracts trna s with appropriate amino acids b) Serves as a template for the production of mrna c) Adheres to ribosomes for protein synthesis d) Contains anticodons that become codons 48. Which of the following nucleotide bases is found only in RNA, not in DNA? a) Guanine c) Thymine b) Adenine d) Uracil 49. The function of transfer RNA is to a) Carry amino acids to ribosomes b) Transfer nucleotides to the nucleus c) Turn DNA on and off d) Act as a site for protein synthesis 50. The genetic code consists of bases that stand for one amino acid a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) Messenger RNA is produced in the a) Cytoplasm b) Ribosomes c) Nucleus d) Endoplasmic reticulum 52. In modern biochemical genetics, the flow of inherited information is from a) protein RNA DNA c) DNA protein RNA b) DNA RNA protein d) RNA DNA protein 53. Which is directly responsible for the sequence of amino acids in a protein? a) The sequence of anticodons b) The number of codons in mrna c) The sequence of codons in mrna d) The enzyme that attaches the amino acid to trna 54. Transcription of part of a DNA molecule with a nucleotide sequence of A-A-A-C-A-A-C-T-T results in a mrna molecule with the complementary sequence of : a) G-G-G-A-G-A-A-C-C b) U-U-U-G-U-U-G-A-A c) T-T-T-G-A-A-G-C-C d) C-C-C-A-C-C-T-C-C 55. During the process of transcription, the information in a) Protein is converted into RNA information b) DNA is converted into protein information c) DNA is converted into RNA information d) RNA is converted into DNA information 56. If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AAGCAA, the complementary DNA strand has which of the following sequences? a) UUCGUU b) TTCGTG c) AAGCAA d) TTCGTT 57. For translation to take place, which of the following would not be required to be present? b) mrna c) ribosome d) rrna

4 58. Which of the following processes does not take place during translation? a) Attachment of ribosome to rrna b) Growth of a polypeptide chain c) Binding of trna molecules to the ribosome d) Production of mrna 59. Which is the process that synthesizes mrna? a) Translation b) Transcription c) Transposition d) Transformation 60. In the above diagram, if adenine is located on strand 4, then on strand 2 at the same location must be present a) Adenine c) Cytosine b) Thymine d) Guanine 61. In the diagram above, when replication is finished, strand 1 and 2 will have the same base composition as: a) Strands 2 and 3 c) Strands 3 and 4 b) Strands 1 and 3 d) Strands 1 and If a mutation occurred, then a) The code would change b) Some particular codon or codons would change c) Some particular anticodon or anticodons would change d) All of the above e) Only a and b 63. The of a trna molecule will attract the codon of a mrna molecule. sequence c) Amino acid binding site b) Anticodon d) RNA polymerase 64. How does the anticodon differ from the codon? The anticodon. a) Contains thymine, but the codon contains uracil b) Attaches to ribosomes, but the codon attaches to amino acids c) Is a sequence of three bases complementary to the bases of a codon d) Stands for a particular amino acid, but the codon codes for nucleotide bases 65. Which of the classes of RNA molecules is linked with proteins in forming the large and small subunits of a cytoplasmic structure? a) rrna b) trna c) mrna d) complementary RNA 66. All nucleotides are made up of 3 parts: a base, a sugar and phosphate group 67. In DNA the base adenine is always paired with a base thymine 68. DNA is double stranded. It is made up of two _nucleotide strands 69. In RNA the base thymine is replaced by _uracil 70. A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases within a DNA molecule 71. Each trna has an anticodon_ at one end and a specific aa at the other 72. DNA contains a _code for protein synthesis; it is a triplet code because three bases indicate one particular aa. During transcription, m_ RNA is produced having bases that are _complementary_ to the bases in DNA. Thus it is said that DNA serves as a _template_ for mrna production. The bases in DNA are called the code, and the bases in mrna are called codons_. mrna moves into the cytoplasm and becomes associated with the _ribosome which contain r_ RNA molecules. Also in the cytoplasm there are t RNA molecules with an _anticodon_ at one end and one of the twenty amino acids at the other. During translation the trna molecules bring amino acids to the ribosomes in the order dictated by the DNA code; thus the original sequence of bases in DNA orders the _sequence of amino acids in a protein.

5 73. Which of the following pairs in not a valid comparison between DNA and RNA DNA RNA a) double helix single-stranded b) replicates duplicates c) deoxyribose ribose d) thymine uracil 74. Put phrases 1-6 in order to describe protein synthesis. 1) mrna is produced in the nucleus 2) ribosomes move along mrna 3, 1, 6, 5, 2, 4 3) DNA has a code 4) polypeptide units 5) trna brings amino acids to ribosomes 6) mrna moves to ribosomes 75. Use the table of mrna codons to answer the questions below. a) The codon for tryptophan is UGG b) For leucine, there are 6 different codons c) The codon GAU is for asparate d) In a stop codon, if the second base is G, the first and third bases are _U_ and _A_ 76. Label (1) to (4) in the diagram below. Put the following phrases in the correct order, and write them in the correct area on the diagram 3 recombined plasmid is reintroduced into the bacterium 1 plasmid is removed from E. coli 4 recombined plasmid functions and replicates normally 2 foreign DNA is incorporated into the plasmid

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