Building a cloud with Openstack. Iqbal Mohomed March 25 th 2015

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1 Building a cloud with Openstack Iqbal Mohomed March 25 th 2015

2 About me EducaDon University of Toronto x 3 B.Sc. Hons 2000 (SoOware Engineering, Economics, Math) MSc 2004 PhD 2008 SoOware Engineer Nortel Motorola CaseWare Researcher Post- Research Silicon Valley ( ) Research Staff T.J. Watson Research Center (2010- current)

3 About me EducaDon University of Toronto x 3 B.Sc. Hons 2000 (SoOware Engineering, Economics, Math) MSc 2004 PhD 2008 SoOware Engineer Nortel Motorola CaseWare Researcher Post- Research Silicon Valley ( ) Research Staff T.J. Watson Research Center (2010- current) Disclaimer: All statements are my own and do not represent my employer

4 INTRODUCTION TO OPENSTACK

5 What is OpenStack? Open source Private Cloud sooware that gives you Infrastructure- as- a- service (IAAS) Base pla`orm offered by several public cloud vendors so that end users have a common UX, APIs, logical building blocks, etc. Community- driven, open cloud architecture

6 Gecng hands- on with Openstack InteracDng with the cloud Web- based GUI (Horizon) CLI Python client library (use virtualenv!) REST interface Basic OperaDons Images Security Groups Virtual Machines

7 Source: hgp://docs.openstack.org/icehouse/training- guides/content/index.html

8 BUILDING BLOCKS

9 VirtualizaDon is Key Enabler Compute VirtualizaDon Virtual Machines (e.g. VMWare, kvm, xen) OperaDng System level VirtualizaDon (e.g. Docker) Network VirtualizaDon Virtual Switches (OpenVswitch, Linux Bridge) Network namespaces SoOware routers, tunnels, etc. Storage VirtualizaDon iscsi, NFS, LVM (Logical Volume Manager) Object storage systems via overlays

10 What is hard about building a cloud? TradiDonal Distributed Systems problems Scalability Fault tolerance Remember: If we have a complex management plane, need to scale/harden that too! Management funcdons Take components OOS, enforce quotas, meter resource usage, isoladon and muld- tenancy support OperaDonal Visibility A cloud is a service and not a product. Standards/ tracking of updme. Failures will happen - > MTTR

11 Containers Primer Basic idea: chroot jails Changes apparent root directory for a process and its descendants Namespaces Process namespaces enabling isoladng groups of processes Network namespaces allow isoladon of network stacks/network devices OS level support Resource allocadon to process groups via CGroups Security/access control via AppArmour, SELinux

12 Source: hgp://man7.org/linux/man- pages/man7/namespaces.7.html

13 Enterprise Networking Review Network Interface Cards (NICs); servers typically have muldple NICs; link aggregadon is important in high value applicadons (teaming, bonding, etc.) Ethernet is common; HPC systems udlize technologies such as infiband and ROCE (RDMA over converged Ethernet) Switches vs. Routers RouDng in sooware (e.g. Vyaga/Vyos); Devices that speak Openflow; SDN controllers VLANs essendal to isolate traffic

14 Virtual Networking Primer Virtual Switches (layer 2 switching) Linux Bridge (brctl) OpenVswitch (ovs) Tunnels: GRE, VXLAN iptables provides fine- grained firewall control Network namespaces can be used to encapsulate network services DHCP, RouDng

15 UNDER THE HOOD

16 Source: hgp://docs.openstack.org/icehouse/training- guides/content/index.html Core Openstack Components

17 ON THE HORIZON

18 Microservices Split monolithic applicadons into many small services that speak HTTP or other lightweight messaging protocol Enable independent deployment, upgrade and scaling out of individual services Services can be implemented in different languages and even udlize varying data Ders Fits agile development/squads model of development RealisDcally, it requires automadon support for deployment A new way of doing SOA or something more?

19 Cluster compudng Clouds are too complicated to run for small, fast moving orgs; cluster management is perhaps simpler Typical soludons forget about muld tenancy Scheduler, scaling/autoscaling and auto recovery are key services New players: Docker s Swarm, Google s Kubernetes, Mesos, CoreOS with fleet Excellent fit for microservices Grid compudng makes a come back?

20 @iqbalmohomed slowping.com THANK YOU

21 Useful Tools Vagrant A CLI to various hypervisors (e.g. Virtual Box, VMWare fusion). Not essendal but makes development easier Devstack Lets you run a basic version of Openstack on a single machine Used by many Openstack developers as it requires few resources, can stay current with the latest code, can have muldple devstacks screen Used by devstack to run the various Openstack processes

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