1 PREVENTION Facilitator Guide
2 Contents Overview Training Materials Preparation Presentation Guidelines Lesson Plan Frequently Asked Questions Employee Introduction What is Heat Stress The Body s Reaction to Heat Heat Disorders Preventing Heat Stress Quiz Quiz Answers SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without written permission from Summit Training Source Inc. If you wish to purchase additional copies, please call our office at SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 1
3 Course Overview Heat sometimes is the product of the natural climate like the Sahara in mid-summer. It is also present in many work environments and job tasks, such as foundries, furnaces, production lines, manufacturing facilities, construction work, road repair, and electrical utilities. Whether exposure to heat is the result of mother nature or an artificial environment, the body s ability to adapt to its environment is essential. When temperatures increase, measures must be used to protect your most valuable resources your employees from falling victims to overheating. Heat stress can affect your employees safety and health. We all know from experience that too much heat makes us irritable, uncomfortable and less alert. This is a lethal combination for an accident waiting to happen. Accidents can also occur due to the slipperiness of sweaty palms, dizziness, or fogging safety glasses. The potential for burns from accidental contact with hot surfaces is a possibility. If severe enough, the health effects of heat stress can lead to permanent damage to vital organs. It can also be fatal. Engineering controls should be used, whenever possible, to keep the temperature at a comfortable level. When this is not possible, employees need to be educated on protective measures to prevent heat stress. It is vital that adaptive cooling techniques be understood so they become part of your employees self-protection awareness. It is good business as well as a humane approach to be sure employees are alert to the warning signals their bodies issue under heat stress and are prepared to respond for their personal health and safety and that of their co-workers, as well. This training program helps employees understand and use heat-response guidelines that include: What is Heat Stress? How the Body Becomes Overheated How the Body Cools Itself Warning Signs and Symptoms Treatment Prevention It s important that production schedules be met. But most important is that the health and well-being of workers who meet those schedules be protected. 2 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
4 Training Materials Collect all necessary materials and supplies before training begins. Here are some suggested materials and supplies. A training location that is free of distractions, has good lighting and a comfortable temperature. Desks and chairs arranged so that everyone will be able to see the viewing screen the facilitator, and each other. The video, a VCR, and a TV with a remote. Make sure the video is rewound. An employee handbook and pen/pencil for each trainee. Each handbook includes a quiz at the back which can be used to test comprehension and document training. Other supplies and equipment you may need - blackboard, chalk, paper, handouts, transparencies, overhead projector, markers, notepads, etc. Additional information, such as a copy of the regulation or other reference tools. Preparation A successful presentation requires preparation and planning. Give yourself plenty of days before the training session to get organized. Locate and schedule the training site as soon as possible. Notify trainees of the training date and time, the training schedule, and proper dress. Obtain all necessary equipment and supplies. Make sure you know how to operate the TV, VCR, and other equipment. Check that it is working properly and replace or repair any damaged equipment. Preview the videotape. Note any key points you want to expand on in your training. Review all training materials, including the facilitator guide, handouts, or any other reference materials. Prepare your presentation, including a lesson plan or outline of the training. Include the training goals and objectives. Some presentation guidelines are included on the next page. A sample lesson plan has been included on page 6 of this facilitator guide. A day or so before conducting the training session, you may want to have participants take the quiz as a pre-test. The results of this test can help you to determine weak areas to focus on during the training session. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 3
5 Presentation Guidelines How you present the training course can have a great impact on learning. By following these simple presentation guidelines and keeping your objectives in mind, you can effectively and efficiently get the most out of your training session. Organize training time efficiently. In today s busy work climate, it can be difficult to find the time needed for training. Because of this, it is important that when you do schedule training sessions you are organized and well prepared to use your time efficiently. Whether you use Summit s suggested Lesson Plan or not, it is important to have a lesson plan prepared that you can implement with relative ease. This ensures that time spent in training is productive and beneficial for everyone. Stress the purpose and goals of training. Training needs to be goal oriented. State the purpose of training in a clear, specific manner - whether it s to reduce injuries, increase production, improve quality, improve working conditions, etc. Review the goals and objectives of the training so trainees know what is expected of them. Capture their attention. Training needs to be interesting and compelling to hold trainees attention. To help motivate learners, give them specific evidence that their effort makes a difference, and provide feedback on their progress. Also, remember that the first experience with a new subject usually forms a lasting impression on the learner. By making that experience a positive one, you can help ensure your audience retains the information learned. Make new learning experiences pleasant. For some adults, past experiences with education were unpleasant and not helpful. Adults learn best when they feel comfortable. By making the learning environment open and friendly, you can help adults to feel secure in their new learning experience. Offer support and feedback as often as possible, and be ready to provide extra attention to those who may require it. Ask if there are any questions. When most adults learn new information that conflicts with what they already know, they are less likely to integrate those new ideas. It is very important to make sure participants fully understand the training and do not have any unresolved questions. Provide for a question and answer period so participants can resolve those questions, and/or answer questions throughout the training session. 4 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
6 Lesson Plan The key to any successful training program is to be well organized and knowledgeable about your subject. As a qualified trainer, your job is to effectively communicate a great deal of information in a well organized manner. By preparing a lesson plan, you can ensure that each minute of the training session is productive. 1. Introduce Yourself & the Training Topic Research proves that audience retention is higher when programs are given a brief introduction before viewing them. Prepare an introduction which identifies: reasons for the training, training objectives, desired outcomes, and how the training will be beneficial. 2. Provide An Overview of the Training Session Topics covered in training When a Q & A period will be provided Any training activities (demonstrations, group activities, etc.) When the quiz will be given 3. Show the Video: Heat Stress Prevention 4. Discussion Topics & Exercises You may wish to include discussion topics and exercises in your training session. Some key points or exercises to include might be: Explain & demonstrate your facility s procedures for treating heat stress disorders. Identify your facility s procedures for contacting professional medical assistance in the event of a heat stress disorder that requires professional treatment. 5. Questions and Answers Provide for a Q & A session to answer any questions. It may be necessary to review some of the material when providing answers. The employee handbook, the regulation, and other reference tools can be helpful. 6. Testing Each employee handbook includes a quiz at the back which can be used to test comprehension and document employee training. Answers to the quiz are provided on a separate page. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 5
7 Frequently Asked Questions Is water enough to replenish what you lose in sweating? In most cases, water is enough. But in situations where your are working strenuously in a hot environment, you may need to replace the salt your body is losing through sweating. If you have ever experienced heat cramps, you know how painful they can be. Heat cramps are caused by a lack of sodium in the muscles, causing the affected muscle to cramp. The average american diet usually contains more than enough sodium to replace the sodium lost during sweating. But under strenuous work conditions, you may need to replace the nutrients lost with a sports drink or a.5% solution of salt water. What can I do to relieve a heat cramp? Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms that are caused by lack of salt in the body. They usually result from sweating heavily and drinking large amounts of water without replacing the body s salt loss. Cramps usually affect tired muscles first, and sometimes don t hit until after work hours. Replace the salt your body has lost by drinking a.5% solution of salt water or a sport drink. Rest in a cool place away from the sun. Lightly massaging the cramped muscles can bring some relief. Does an older person have to take more precautions? As you get older, your body s ability to self-regulate its internal body temperature decreases, and you are affected more easily by changes in temperature. Conditions that might cause a teenager to develop heat cramps could cause an older person to develop heat exhaustion or even heat stroke. Limit your exposure to the heat, drink plenty of fluids, and don t overdo it. Check with your doctor if you are taking any medications or have an existing medical condition that could further affect your body s response to the heat. 6 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
8 Employee Introduction When you are exposed to heat, constant exertion combines with higher temperatures to make things uncomfortable and sometimes even dangerous. That s a possibility not only when the climate heats up, but in work settings that may be enclosed or in artificial environments which can produce intense heat. If that s part of your work experience, it s important to your health and safety to learn how to recognize heat stress and how to deal with it. Your body has a built-in, automatic response that adapts to heat changes up to a point. When temperatures go beyond that point, you need to be prepared. The guidelines in this handbook and the video will help you understand how your body reacts to heat, how to recognize symptoms of heat stress, and how to effectively treat and prevent the symptoms. This handbook will cover: What is Heat Stress? The Body s Reaction to Heat Heat Disorders (causes, symptoms and treatment) Preventing Heat Stress Protecting your good health away from the workplace eating a healthful diet and getting enough sleep is fundamental to staying healthy on the job. Other things you can do to guard against those times of heat stress include avoiding alcohol and wearing clothing of a material and color suited to the conditions of your work environment. Use these guidelines to stay in tune with your work environment. You ll be healthier and more comfortable. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 7
9 What is Heat Stress? Your body is constantly working to maintain a normal internal temperature of about 98.6º Fahrenheit. But when heat causes your temperature to rise faster than your body can cool itself off, you can become vulnerable to heat stress. Heat stress is any condition caused when environmental conditions overwhelm your body s temperature regulating abilities. Your body can t cool itself off fast enough causing you to overheat. The main factors in heat stress are temperature, humidity, air movement, physical activity, clothing worn, and the radiant temperature of the surroundings. Temperature alone seldom causes heat stress. It is usually a combination of factors. When heat is combined with other stresses such as hard physical labor, loss of fluids and fatigue, the potential for heat stress increases. The three most common types of heat stress are heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Other heat disorders include dehydration and what is known as heat syncope a condition where the victim experiences dizziness and fainting. Depending on the severity and type of heat stress, symptoms can range from heavy sweating, dizziness and fatigue, to clamminess, lack of sweating, unconsciousness, and even collapse. You do not need to be in a tropical climate or a hot desert to suffer the effects of heat stress. Heat stress disorders can occur in boiler rooms, confined spaces, during HAZMAT rescue operations, and in many other work situations. Anyone can suffer from heat stress. While some people are at greater risk of developing symptoms than others, anyone could become a victim of heat illness if environmental conditions overwhelm your body s ability to regulate its temperature. The key to preventing heat stress is awareness. 8 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
10 The Body s Reaction to Heat To understand how heat stress occurs, let s look at how the body regulates its temperature. Your body continuously works to maintain its core temperature at 98.6º Fahrenheit (37º Celsius). The body compensates for small upward or downward changes in temperature by activating its built-in thermoregulatory system, controlled by temperature sensors in the skin. When the body is hot it has to get rid of excess heat. It does this in two ways: Increasing Blood Circulation Sweating The body first tries to lower internal body temperature by increasing the blood circulation to the skin so excess heat can escape through the skin. But if the body s muscles are being used for physical activity, less blood is available to flow to the skin. Sweating is another way the body releases heat. When increased blood flow does not lower the core temperature, the body will produce sweat. When this moisture reaches the skin surface, it evaporates and cools the body down. Sweating is only effective if humidity levels are low enough to allow evaporation to take place, and if the fluids lost by the body are replaced. If the body cannot reduces its temperature through increased blood circulation and sweating, it will begin to store the heat. When this happens, you run the risk of serious potential health hazards. When you continue to labor at the same pace in growing heat, your body loses fluids and becomes fatigued. The growing heat stress results in poorer job performance by lowering your alertness and slowing physical responses. As the brain loses vital blood fuel that has gone off to fight the heat, you may no longer be able to even recognize your body s warning symptoms. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 9
11 Heat Disorders Heat related illnesses can range from heat rashes and sunburns to cramps, exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat rashes, sunburns and heat cramps can be painful and uncomfortable, but they are not life threatening. Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are more serious conditions, however. If a co-worker suffers from a heat illness, your ability to recognize the symptoms and apply the proper treatment can be vital to saving a life. Heat Rash Causes & Symptoms Early warnings of approaching heat stress often are overlooked as routine heat discomfort. An example is heat rash. Some call it prickly heat, which comes when the skin remains wet as sweat does not evaporate. If you feel dizzy or faint, it likely comes from standing erect and motionless in heat. Not moving causes blood to pool in the lower part of the body; often it can be offset by walking. But don t ignore the warning, as it can lead to three more serious levels of heat stress: Treatment Heat rash involves discomfort more than danger. It s common during humid periods of heat when sweat on the skin is slow at evaporating. This clogs the sweat ducts, and a skin rash appears. Relief comes from bathing the affected areas, then drying the skin. Fainting Causes & Symptoms Fainting can occur if a person is not used to the hot heat. Lack of physical movement can also feed a faint. A worker who stands in one place in heat may suffer from blood pooling the tendency for blood to flow through heat-enlarged blood vessels and collect in the lower areas of the body, leaving the brain without adequate replenishment. Treatment At the first sign of dizziness or fainting, lie down. If that is not possible, sit down and put your head between your legs. As your head clears, get back on your feet and start moving around to prevent continued blood pooling. 10 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
12 Heat Cramps Causes & Symptoms Heat cramps are painful muscle spasms that are caused by lack of salt in the body. They usually result from sweating heavily and drinking large amounts of water without replacing the body s salt loss. While water is needed to keep the body from dehydrating, drinking large quantities of it dilutes the body s fluids. This shortage of salt in the muscles causes sudden, painful spasms in the affected areas. Cramps usually affect tired muscles first, and sometimes don t hit until after work hours. Treatment Cramps may hurt, but they alert you that you need to ease up the work pace before the problem advances to the more dangerous areas of heat exhaustion and stroke. Replace the salt your body has lost by drinking a.5% solution of salt water or a sport drink. Rest in a cool place away from the sun. Lightly massaging the cramped muscles can bring some relief. Heat Exhaustion Causes & Symptoms Continued loss of fluid and salt from sweating can lead to heat exhaustion. The victim sometimes mistakes the symptoms for the flu. Symptoms can include heavy sweating, cool and moist skin, and a weak pulse. Other symptoms can include possible fainting, weakness, dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision and a normal or slightly high body temperature. The advanced stages of heat exhaustion can cause vomiting or loss of consciousness. Treatment Heat exhaustion is a step away from heat stroke, and treatment can be more effective because the victim often remains conscious. Move the victim into a cooler, shaded area. Recline the victim with the feet elevated. Loosen clothing. A conscious person can replenish lost body fluids by drinking cool beverages, slowly but steadily. Avoid the use of ice or cold liquids. The victim may be helped by pouring cool water over their body. If untreated, heat exhaustion can develop into heat stroke. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 11
13 Heat Disorders (continued) Heat Stroke Causes & Symptoms Heat stroke is the most serious of the heat illnesses. When sweating no longer helps the body regulate its internal temperature, the body has no choice but to halt cooling efforts and store the heat. There are two main types of heat stroke: classic and exertional. Classic heat stroke may take days to develop and usually affects the poor, elderly, chronically ill, overweight, and alcoholics. Victims of classic heat stroke are not usually sweating. Exertional heat stroke affects healthy people who work or play hard in a warm environment. These victims are usually sweating when they develop heat stroke. Because it occurs rapidly, there usually isn t time for severe dehydration to occur. The skin will be hot, and it may or may not be dry. It is often red or spotted. The victim may be slightly confused and disoriented. Body temperature may be 105ºF or higher. Other symptoms are delirium, convulsions, or even unconsciousness. Treatment Heat stroke is a medical emergency. If a heat stroke victim does not receive the proper treatment quickly enough, death can occur. Do whatever you can to cool the victim off immediately. This includes moving the person into the shade, submerging him in water or pouring water on him, and fanning the victim. Avoid ice or very cold water, which constrict the blood vessels of the skin and prevent heat from escaping through the skin. While someone is cooling the victim down, another person should call for medical attention. If the victim is still conscious, try to get him to take sips of cool water. 12 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
14 Preventing Heat Stress Understanding and recognizing the causes and symptoms of heat stress disorders is an important part of heat stress safety. But the key is using measures to prevent heat stress from occurring in the first place. Heat stress is a stress on the body. The heat can affect your physical abilities and mental alertness. So it is not surprising that accidents in the workplace increase as the temperature rises. Let s take a look at what you can do to prevent heat stress. Reduce the Environmental Temperature Engineering measures should be the first means of controlling this hazard. The most effective control measure when indoors is reducing the temperature of the work area. When this is not possible, other measures such as shielding or ventilation should be used. Use a fan or open a window to increase air movement. Drink Plenty of Fluids The loss of fluids is the major contributor to heat illnesses. Under normal conditions your body loses about two quarts of water every day. When exposed to excess heat while working, a person can lose almost two quarts in one hour through sweating. This is why it is important to drink plenty of liquids before, during and after working in warm environments. If you know you will be working in a warm environment, you should begin drinking fluids before you start work. While working, you should drink at least eight ounces of fluid every 20 to 30 minutes even if you don t feel thirsty. Thirst is not a good indicator of when to drink fluids. If you wait until you are thirsty before you drink, you will be more likely to become dehydrated. Avoid alcoholic beverages and caffeine drinks because they increase water loss and cause dehydration. The best fluids to drink are water and sports drinks. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 13
15 Preventing Heat Stress (continued) Wear the Proper Clothing Since sweating is an important cooling mechanism, the moisture vapor transport rating of material used for protective clothing should be considered when selecting and using personal protective equipment. When hazard protection is not a concern, select clothing that is light weight, loose and breathable. Wear light colors because they tend to reflect the heat. When working in the sun make sure you wear a hat. If you re working in the sun, don t give in to the temptation to remove some clothes. A sunburn may look healthy, but it greatly reduces the skin s ability to shed excess heat. Limit Your Exposure Most heat illnesses occur in the first few days of working in the heat. To prevent this, acclimation (adjusting to the heat) is very important. Gradually increase your exposure to warm temperatures. Most people are completely acclimated in four to seven days. Take more frequent breaks when working in the heat and at the first sign of heat stress symptoms. Don t overdo it. Work at a comfortable pace. If you can, alternate job tasks so you are not in the heat for extended periods of time. Schedule more physical tasks in the morning or evening when temperatures are cooler. Reduce manual labor by using mechanical assistance whenever possible. 14 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
16 Keep Healthy & Fit A healthy diet and body can help prevent heat illness. Excess weight traps heat in your body and forces your heart and glands to work harder to get rid of it. Exercise regularly and eat a healthy, balanced diet. Ask Your Doctor Consult your doctor about exposure to heat if you have an existing medical condition, or are taking medication, or are overweight. Other risk factors include alcohol consumption, caffeine, old age. Use Common Sense You know your own limitations better than anyone else. Pay attention to the signals your body gives you that let you know when to quit, slow down or take a break. The older we get, the harder it is for the body to cope with heat. Its internal temperature regulating mechanism doesn t function as well as it did when we were 10 or even 20 years old. Conditions that may cause a younger person to develop heat cramps could cause heat exhaustion in an older person. Pace yourself, drink plenty of fluids, take regularly breaks away from the heat, and use your common sense. SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 15
17 Notes 16 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
18 Heat Stress Prevention Quiz Name Date 1. Which of the following are automatic body responses to heat? Select all that apply. A. Sweating B. Increased blood circulation C. Increased muscle friction D. Shivering 2. Which condition is most serious? A. Heat stroke B. Heat cramps C. Heat exhaustion D. Dehydration E. Heat rash 3. What is a good liquid to drink to ease the pain of heat cramps? Select all that apply. A. Water B. Soda C. Sports drink D. A.5% solution of salt water 4 When the environment is humid, sweat evaporation increases. A. True B. False 5. Which are possible symptoms of heat exhaustion? Select all that apply. A. Heavy sweating B. Fainting C. Cool, moist skin D. Weak pulse 6. Drinking alcohol increases the chances of heat stress by causing the body to become dehydrated. A. True B. False 7. Heat stroke results in increased sweating: A. True B. False SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 17
19 8. Heat rashes are caused by sweating that clogs the skins pores. A. True B. False 9. Which response to stroke is harmful? A. Fanning the victim B. Using icy compresses C. Sprinkling with lukewarm water D. Submerging the victim in water 10. When working in a hot environment, you should drink 8 ounces of water every... A. hour. B. 45 minutes. C. 20 to 30 minutes. 11. You should avoid alcohol and caffeine drinks during exposure to heat. A. True B. False 12. What type of clothing should you wear? Select all that apply. A. Light colored B. Tight fitting C. Light weight D. Breathable materials 13. How can exposure to the heat be reduced? Select all that apply. A. Take frequent breaks B. Do physical tasks in the morning or evening C. Rotate job tasks D. Use mechanical assistance 14. What risk factors can affect your resistance to heat stress? Select all that apply. A. Overweight B. Old age C. Certain medical conditions D. Medications 15. Anyone can suffer from heat stress. A. True B. False 18 SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC.
20 Heat Stress Prevention Quiz Answers 1. A Sweating B Increased blood circulation 2. A Heat stroke 3. C Sports drink D A.5% solution of salt water 4. B False 5. A Heavy sweating B Fainting C Cool, moist skin D Weak Pulse 6. A True 7. B False 8. A True 9. B Using icy compresses 10. C 20 to 30 minutes. 11. A True 12. A Light colored C Light weight D Breathable materials 13. A Take frequent breaks B Do physical tasks in the morning or evening C Rotate job tasks D Use mechanical assistance 14. A Overweight B Old age C Certain medical conditions D Medications 15. A True SUMMIT TRAINING SOURCE INC. 21
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