# Digital Logic. The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer.

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1 Digital Logic 1 Data Representations 1.1 The Binary System The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer. The system we use to write numbers is called decimal (or denary). In the DECIMAL system fifty two is written as 52. In the BINARY system fifty two is written as Converting from Binary to Decimal How can we convert numbers from the binary system to the decimal system? Follow this example. We have Note that this number is a sequence of 8 bits, so it is a byte. Add the weights as seen in the diagram. Add all weights that are associated with the bits that are equal to 1. Weights Number Add This amounts to 150. Sometimes we use subscripts to indicate whether a number is binary of decimal as shown here: A binary number: A decimal number: The method we have seen here is called the positional notation method Exercise Convert the following binary numbers to decimal. a b c Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 1

2 1.3 Converting from Decimal to Binary Suppose we want to convert the decimal number 149 to binary. One way we can do this is by repeatedly dividing the number by 2 and then taking the remainder digits to get the solution. An example is shown here: remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder 0 0 remainder 1 Quotient after dividing by 2 Remainder after dividing by 2 After performing this process you have to read the remainders FROM BOTTOM TO TOP. This gives us that the decimal number 149 is equal to the binary number Exercise Convert the following decimal numbers to binary. a. 108 b. 53 c Number Bases Positional number systems depend on a special number called a base. A positional number system (like the decimal and binary systems) is such that a digit represents a number according to the position where it is e.g. in the number 2725 the first 2 (from the left) represents 2000 while the second 2 represents 20. Note that: 2725 = 2x x x = 2x x x x10 0. The base number of the decimal system is 10. Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 2

3 Working on the same principles we can show that the base number of the binary system is 2. Let us investigate the number = 1x x64 + 0x32 + 1x16 + 0x8 + 1x4 + 1x2 + 0x = 1x x x x x x x x2 0. Note also that the base number shows us how many different symbols are required to express a number i.e. in the decimal system we need 10 symbols (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) while in the binary system we need 2 (0 and 1). 1.5 Adding and Subtracting Binary Numbers The following example shows two numbers being added: Carry First number Second number Result of addition 1 Step 1: gives 1 Carry 1 First number Second number Result of addition 0 1 Carry 1 1 First number Second number Result of addition Step 2: gives 0 carry 1 Carry First number Second number Result of addition Step 3: gives 0 carry Proceeding in this way we get: Carry First number Second number Result of addition Step 4: gives 1 carry 1 Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 3

4 1.5.1 Exercise in Addition Add the following binary numbers. Then check your result by using decimal numbers. a and b and The following example shows subtraction: Borrow First number Second number Result of subtraction 1 Step 1: 1 0 gives 1 Borrow First number Second number Result of subtraction 0 1 Borrow First number Second number Result of subtraction 0 1 Borrow 2 First number Second number Result of subtraction Step 2: 1 1 gives 0 Step 2: 1 1 gives Proceeding in this way we get Borrow First number Second number Result of subtraction Step 3: 0-1 means that we have to borrow Exercise in Subtraction Perform the following binary subtractions. Then check your results by using decimal numbers: a b Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 4

5 1.6 Hexadecimal Numbers Hexadecimal numbers are based on the number 16. A hexadecimal number uses 16 symbols which are 0, 1, 2 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F. A stands for ten, B stands for eleven, C stands for twelve etc. The term hexadecimal is shortened to hex. Why are hexadecimal numbers used? Since large binary numbers use a long sequence of ones and zeros, hexadecimal numbers can be used as substitutes. They are much shorter than binary numbers. An example of a hex (hexadecimal) number: 3C90B. 1.7 Conversion from decimal to hexadecimal The following example shows how the decimal number 400 is converted to hex. Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 5

6 1.8 Conversion from Hex to Binary In the following example the hex number 190 is converted to binary. 1.9 Conversion from binary to hex It is easy to convert from an integer binary number to hex. This is accomplished by the following two steps: 1. Break the binary number into 4-bit sections from the LSB (least significant bit) to the MSB (most significant bit). 2. Convert the 4-bit binary number to its Hex equivalent. The following example shows how the binary value is converted to hex A F B Conversion from hex to decimal Let us convert 8A1D to decimal. Multiply 8x16x16x16. This gives A 1 D Multiply 13 by 1. This gives 13. Multiply 10x16x16. This gives Multiply 1 by 16. This gives 16. Finally add This gives Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 6

7 Exercise Perform the following conversions: a. Convert to hex. b. Convert to hex. c. Convert 3F7A16 to decimal. d. Convert 5BA16 to binary Classification of numbers Numbers can be classified as shown in the following tree structure. Unsigned numbers refer to a range of numbers where all numbers are positive while signed numbers refer to a range of numbers with numbers that are both positive and negative. Consider three bits. There are eight different combinations of ones and zeros (these are 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110 and 111). These eight combinations can be made to represent the range of numbers from 0 to 7 or the numbers from - 4 to 3. We say that the range from 0 to 7 is unsigned and the range from -4 to 3 is signed Sign and Magnitude In the Sign and Magnitude representation the leftmost bit is reserved to represent the sign. 1 indicates negative and 0 indicates positive. Let us take an example with 8 bits. sign Now let us consider 4 bits. All the numbers are represented in the following table. Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 7

8 Binary Decimal Sign & Magnitude Note that the value zero is repeated twice. The range of values is between -7 and 7. If we had one byte the minimum value would be (-12710) and the maximum would be (12710). Apart from the repeated zero another problem with sign and magnitude representation is that it is not good for computation e.g. making an addition of two numbers etc Two s Complement Another representation scheme to represent both positive and negative numbers is called two's complement. It is now the nearly universal way of doing this. Integers are represented in a fixed number of bits. Both positive and negative integers can be represented. How to Construct the Negative of an Integer in Two's Complement: Start with an N-bit representation of an integer. To calculate the N-bit representation of the negative integer: 1. Change every 0 to 1 and every 1 to 0). 2. Add one. Suppose we have one byte to represent a number, say -8710, in two s complement. This would be done in the following steps: Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 8

9 (1) Write 8710 in binary. This gives (2) Change all ones to zeros and all zeros to ones. This gives (this number is called one s complement) (3) Add gives Therefore = (in two s complement). To express a decimal number is two s complement follow the following algorithm: Start with a number N Is N negative? Express mod (N) in binary as usual. Change all zeros to ones and all ones to zeros. Express mod (N) in binary as usual. Add 1. Stop Exercise Express the following decimal numbers both in sign-and-magnitude and in two s complement (assume one byte of space): (a) 43 (b) -99 (c) -106 Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 9

10 Faster Computation of Two s Complement To work out the two s complement of a number do the following: 1. Start from the right hand side and move to the left hand side by considering all the bits. 2. If a bit is equal to zero write a zero, move to the next bit on the left and repeat step 2. If it is equal to one write a 1 and go to step From the next digit on the left to the leftmost digit convert all bits from 0 to 1 and from 1 to 0. Example 1 Express 5710 in two s complement = Example 2 Express in two s complement = = Maximum and Minimum Numbers If we consider one byte: The maximum number we can represent (in two s complement) is The minimum number is These are equivalent to 127 and So the range of values is [-128, 127] Subtracting using two s complement and additional Suppose we want to calculate 5-3. We follow these steps: 1. 5 is converted to binary. Call this f is converted to binary (two s complement). Call this t. 3. Add f and t but ignore the overflow bit. 4. You have the result. Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 10

11 Another example: Exercise Perform the following calculations using two s complement arithmetic. All numbers are memorized in one byte. (a) 99 56, (b) , (c) Fractions Suppose we know that the number is unsigned, what is its conversion in decimal? = 1x x x x x x x x2-4 = = In this representation: the maximum number is ( ), and the minimum number is This representation is called fixed-point representation 1.15 Maximum and minimum values This table shows some maximum and minimum values (on one byte). Minimum Maximum Decimal Binary Decimal Binary Unsigned integer (i.e. whole number) Signed integer (sign and magnitude) Signed integer (two s complement) Unsigned fractional number with fixed point representation (three decimal places) Signed fractional number with fixed point representation (three decimal places, sign and magnitude) Unsigned fractional number with fixed point representation (three decimal places, two s complement) Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 11

12 1.16 Floating-point representation A number can be represented in two parts: mantissa and exponent. This is what we do in numbers in standard form e.g. instead of writing we write 4.36 x Likewise instead of writing we write 2.9 x In the first example 4.36 is called the mantissa and 14 is called the exponent. In binary numbers we can use the same principle. However the base 10 is replaced by 2. e.g is expressed as x In practice if we had 8 bits to represent the mantissa and 8 bits to represent the exponent the number would be represented as (mantissa) and (exponent) with the added assumption that there is a binary point in the mantissa after the leftmost bit. Example 1 Find the decimal value of the number with a mantissa equal to and an exponent of Both the mantissa and the exponent are expressed in two s complement where the mantissa has a fractional part (there is an assumed binary point between the first and second bit from the left) while the exponent is an integer = = = 1910 Therefore number = x 2 19 = Example 2 Conditions same as in example 1 but mantissa is equal to and exponent equal to = = Therefore number = x = Exercise Given the conditions in examples 1 and 2 find the decimal value of the following binary floating-point numbers: (a) Mantissa = , exponent = (b) Mantissa = , exponent = (c) Mantissa = , exponent = (d) Mantissa = , exponent = Normalisation Let us consider an example where a floating point number has a mantissa of 5 bits and an exponent of 3 bits. Let us assume that both numbers have a two s Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 12

13 complement representation. Also let us assume that between the two leftmost bits of the mantissa there is a fractional point. These are some examples of numbers: Mantissa Exponent Mantissa Exponent Value Out of these numbers the first and the fifth are in a form called normalised. In these the mantissa starts with 0.1 or 1.0. Note that: If the mantissa starts with 0.1 then the mantissa is a value greater than or equal to 0.5 but less than 1. If the mantissa starts with 1.0 then the mantissa is a value greater than or equal to -1 but less than 0. The following table shows the largest and smallest numbers (not necessarily normalised) of the scheme described above: Mantissa Exponent Mantissa Exponent Value Largest value Smallest non-negative value Smallest positive (not zero) value Smallest value Largest negative value The following table shows the largest and smallest numbers in the normalised form: Mantissa Exponent Mantissa Exponent Value Largest value Smallest positive value Largest negative value Smallest value Converting a decimal number into a normalised floating-point binary number Example 1 Convert in floating-point binary such that (i) both mantissa and exponent are in two s complement and (ii) mantissa has 16 bits and exponent has 8 bits. Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 13

14 Convert to binary = = (this is calculated by the method shown in the following table) Example 2 Therefore = Normalise this number = x 2 6 Solution: mantissa = (16 bits) exponent = (8 bits) Convert in floating-point binary such that (i) both mantissa and exponent are in two s complement and (ii) mantissa has 16 bits and exponent has 8 bits Example 3 Convert to binary = Normalise this number =0.112 x 2-4 Solution: mantissa = (16 bits) 410 = = exponent = (8 bits) Convert in floating-point binary such that (i) both mantissa and exponent are in two s complement and (ii) mantissa has 16 bits and exponent has 8 bits. Convert to binary = Normalise this number = x 2 5 mantissa = (16 bits) find the two s complement of the mantissa Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 14

15 Example 4 mantissa = (16 bits) exponent = (8 bits) Convert in floating-point binary such that (i) both mantissa and exponent are in two s complement and (ii) mantissa has 16 bits and exponent has 8 bits Exercise Convert to binary = Normalise this number = x 2-3 mantissa = (16 bits) exponent = (8 bits) Find two s complement of both mantissa and exponent mantissa = (16 bits) exponent = (8 bits) Convert the following decimal numbers in floating-point binary such that (i) both mantissa and exponent are in two s complement and (ii) mantissa has 16 bits and exponent has 8 bits. a) b) c) d) Digital Logic 1 Advanced Computing Page 15

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