# Integer Numbers. The Number Bases of Integers Textbook Chapter 3

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1 Integer Numbers The Number Bases of Integers Textbook Chapter 3

2 Number Systems Unary, or marks: /////// = 7 /////// + ////// = ///////////// Grouping lead to Roman Numerals: VII + V = VVII = XII Better: Arabic Numerals: = 12 = CMPE12 Summer

3 Positional Number System The value represented by a digit depends on its position in the number. Ex: 1832 CMPE12 Summer

4 Positional Number Systems Select a number as the base b Define an alphabet of b 1 symbols plus a symbol for zero to represent all numbers Use an ordered sequence of 2 or more digits d to represent numbers The represented number is the sum of all digits, each multiplied by b to the power of the digit s position p num digits Number = (d i b p ) i=0 CMPE12 Summer

5 Sexagesimal: A Positional Number System First used over 4000 years ago in Mesopotamia Base 60 (Sexagesimal), alphabet: 0..59, written as 60 different symbols But the Babylonians used only two symbols, 1 and 10, and didn t have the zero Needed context to tell 1 from 60! Example 5,45 60 = CMPE12 Summer

6 Babylonian Numbers CMPE12 Summer

7 Arabic/Indic Numerals Base 10 (decimal) The alphabet is 0..9 We use the Arabic symbols for the 10 digits Has the ZERO Numerals introduced to Europe by Leonardo Fibonacci in his Liber Abaci In in 1202 So useful! CMPE12 Summer

8 Arabic/Indic Numerals The Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci Also known for the Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 CMPE12 Summer

9 Base Conversion Three cases: I. From any base b to base 10 II. III. From base 10 to any base b From any base b to any other base c CMPE12 Summer

10 From Base b to Base 10 n-1 Value = Σ (d i b i ) i=0 Positional number systems make it easy CMPE12 Summer

11 From Base b to Base 10 Example: =? 10 CMPE12 Summer

12 From Base 10 to Base b Use successive divisions Remember the remainders Divide again with the quotients CMPE12 Summer

13 From Base 10 to Base b Example: =? 5 CMPE12 Summer

14 From Base b to Base c Use a known intermediate base The easiest way is to convert from base b to base 10 first, and then from 10 to c Or, in some cases, it is easier to use base 2 as the intermediate base (we ll see them soon) CMPE12 Summer

15 Number of Digits How many digits are required to represent a number x in base b? CMPE12 Summer

16 Roman Multiplication XXXIII (33 in decimal) XII (12 in decimal) CMPE12 Summer

17 Positional Multiplication (a lot easier!) CMPE12 Summer

18 Numbers for Computers There are many ways to represent a number Representation does not affect computation result Representation affects difficulty of computing results Computers need a representation that works with (fast) electronic circuits Positional numbers work great with 2-state devices Which base should we use for computers? CMPE12 Summer

19 Binary Number System Base (radix): 2 Alphabet: 0, 1 Binary Digits, or bits Example: = = CMPE12 Summer

20 Octal Number System Base (radix): 8 Alphabet: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, = = In C, octal numbers are represented with a leading 0. CMPE12 Summer

21 Hexadecimal Number System Base (radix): 16 Alphabet: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F In C: leading 0x (e.g., 0xa3) In LC-3: leading x (e.g., x3000 ) Hexadecimal is also known as hex for short Hex Decimal a 10 b 11 c 12 d 13 e 14 f 15 CMPE12 Summer

22 Examples of Converting Hex to Decimal A3 16 = 3E8 16 = CMPE12 Summer

23 Decimal To Binary Conversion: Method 1 Divide decimal value by 2 until the value is 0 Example: Divide 444 by 2; what is the remainder? Divide 222 by 2; what is the remainder? Result is 0: done Read backwards for binary representation CMPE12 Summer

24 Decimal To Binary Conversion: Method 2 Know your powers of two and subtract Example: What is the biggest power of two that fits? What is the remainder? What fits? What is the remainder? What is the binary representation? CMPE12 Summer

25 Knowing The Powers Of Two Know them in your sleep CMPE12 Summer

26 Binary to Octal Conversion Group into 3 starting at least significant bit Why 3? Add leading 0 as needed Why not trailing 0s? Write one octal digit for each group CMPE12 Summer

27 Binary to Octal Conversion: Examples (binary) (octal) (binary) (octal) CMPE12 Summer

28 Binary to Hex Conversion Group into 4 starting at least significant bit Why 4? Add leading 0 if needed Write one hex digit for each group CMPE12 Summer

29 Binary to Hex Conversion: Examples (binary) (hex) (binary) (hex) CMPE12 Summer

30 Octal to Binary Conversion Write down the 3-bit binary code for each octal digit Example: 047 Octal Binary CMPE12 Summer

31 Hex to Binary Conversion Write down the 4-bit binary code for each hex digit Example: 0x 3 9 c 8 Hex Bin Hex Bin a b c d e f 1111 CMPE12 Summer

32 Conversion Table Decimal Hexadecimal Octal Binary A B C D E F CMPE12 Summer

33 More Conversions Hex Octal Do it in 2 steps Hex binary octal Decimal Hex Do it in 2 steps Decimal binary hex So why use hex and octal and not just binary and decimal? CMPE12 Summer

34 Largest Number What is the largest number that we can represent in n digits In base 10? In base 2? In octal? In hex? In base 7? In base b? How many different numbers can we represent with n digits in base b? CMPE12 Summer

35 Binary Numbers

36 The Families of Binary Numbers Integers Unsigned Represented as unsigned binary Signed Sign-and-magnitude 1 s complement 2 s complement Biased notation Fractional Numbers IEEE Standard for Binary Floating Point Arithmetic CMPE12 Summer

37 Unsigned Binary It s a binary number that is always positive ( 0) Unsigned numbers have no sign So we assume they are positive (or zero) CMPE12 Summer

38 Unsigned Binary Addition Ripple carry Same principle as in decimal (or any base b) Add down the columns starting with least significant bit Carry over to the next column as needed CMPE12 Summer

39 Unsigned Binary Addition Example 1 simple addition Example 2 a problem occurs CMPE12 Summer

40 Unsigned Binary Addition: Overflow Not enough bits to represent the digit Depends on the number of bits allowed for the representation Overflow = roll-over CMPE12 Summer

41 Unsigned Binary Subtraction Ripple-borrow Same principle as in decimal (or any base b) Subtract down the columns starting with least significant bit Borrow from previous column as needed CMPE12 Summer

42 Unsigned Binary Subtraction Example CMPE12 Summer

43 Unsigned Binary Multiplication Multiply by one bit at a time (partial products) Add partial products for answer Same principle as in decimal (or any base b) Multiply n-bit numbers for a 2n-bit result CMPE12 Summer

44 Unsigned Binary Multiplication Example 1010 x 0011 CMPE12 Summer

45 Signed Numbers In Real Life Most humans precede negative number with E.g., 2000 Accountants, however, use parentheses E.g., (2000) or color 2000 Example: in hex? = e = 3e8 16 CMPE12 Summer

46 Signed Numbers In Binary Four main signed representations Sign-and-magnitude One s complement Two s complement Biased notation CMPE12 Summer

47 Sign-and-Magnitude The first bit carries information about the sign 0 is positive 1 is negative The rest of the number is the magnitude (it s bigness) CMPE12 Summer

48 Sign-and-Magnitude How does it work? Pros Intuitive Easy to invert the sign Cons Add and sub must compare sign and magnitude of the operands Two representations of zero x y CMPE12 Summer

49 Sign-and-Magnitude: Arithmetic Depends on sign of operands Same sign Add the magnitudes, keep the sign Different sign Subtract smaller from larger, keep sign of larger Overflow when CMPE12 Summer

50 Sign-and-Magnitude: Arithmetic Example 1 Perform A+B on 5 bits Where A = 2, B = 10 Example 2 Perform A+B on 5 bits Where A = 6, B = 10 CMPE12 Summer

51 Sign-and-Magnitude Mapping Number represented Number encoded Range on n bits: CMPE12 Summer

52 One s Complement It is called one s complement Converting to one s complement: For positive numbers Converting to one s complement: For negative numbers Flip the bits of the magnitude CMPE12 Summer

53 One s Complement How does it work? x 000 y Pros Still intuitive Easy to invert the sign Cons Add and subtract require a special operation (end-around carry) Two representations of zero CMPE12 Summer

54 One s Complement: Arithmetic Add or subtract normally Same sign or different sign Doesn t matter If there is a carry-out, add it back in Overflow when CMPE12 Summer

55 One s Complement: Arithmetic Example 1 A+B with A= 2, B=1 on 3 bits Example 2 A+B with A=3, B=3 on 3 bits CMPE12 Summer

56 One s Complement Mapping Number represented Number encoded Range on n bits: CMPE12 Summer

57 Two s Complement It is called two s complement Converting to two s complement: For positive numbers Converting to two s complement: For negative numbers Method 1 Flip the bits and add one Method 2 Keep all the leftmost zeros Keep first leftmost one Flip all other bits CMPE12 Summer

58 Two s Complement How does it work? Pros Add/sub are simple Easy to implement in hardware Subtraction only requires one adder Single zero Cons Asymmetric range Logical negation arithmetic negation x y CMPE12 Summer

59 Two s Complement: Arithmetic Addition As normal binary addition Carry-out is ignored Subtraction A B = A+( B) Take 2 s complement of B to get B Add B to A Overflow when CMPE12 Summer

60 Two s Complement: Arithmetic Example A+B, with A=2, B=1 on 3 bits Example A-B, with A=1, B=2 on 3 bits CMPE12 Summer

61 Two s Complement: Sign-Extension The most significant bit carries the sign MSb Example A B, with A=12, B=5 on 8 bits CMPE12 Summer

62 Two s Complement: Overflow Overflow happens when adding two operands of the same sign and the sign of the sum is different Depends on the number of bits Positive + positive = negative: OVERFLOW Negative + negative = positive: OVERFLOW Positive + negative = anything (no overflow) Why? Ex: 10+8 on 5 bits CMPE12 Summer

63 Two s Complement Mapping Number represented Number encoded Range on n bits: CMPE12 Summer

64 Biased Notation A way of remapping the numbers Add the bias to the number to get into the biased notation Subtract the bias from the number to get out of biased notation CMPE12 Summer

65 Biased Binary Notation How does it work? Pros Preserves lexical order Single zero Cons Add and sub require one additional operation to adjust the bias x y CMPE12 Summer

66 Biased Notation: Arithmetic Add or subtract normally Then subtract the bias to compensate C = A (+ bias) + B (+ bias) bias Overflow when CMPE12 Summer

67 Biased Notation: Arithmetic Example A+B, with A = 2, B = 1, on 3 bits (bias-3) Example A-B, with A = 1, B = 3, on 3 bits (bias-3) CMPE12 Summer

68 Biased Notation Mapping Number represented Number encoded Range on n bits: CMPE12 Summer

69 Summary of Binary Representations Binary Representation Range Quirk Negative numbers Overflow Unsigned 0 to 2 n 1 No negatives None Carry-out from MSb Sign-and-Magnitude 2 n-1 1 to 2 n-1 1 Has two zeros One s complement 2 n-1 1 to 2 n-1 1 Has two zeros First bit is sign; rest is unsigned Flip bits of magnitude Carry-out into MSb Sign discrepancy Two s complement 2 n-1 to 2 n-1 1 Range is asymmetric (more negative numbers) Biased 2 n-1 to 2 n-1 1 Add bias to get into it Add one to one s complement Sign discrepancy??? Exceeds largest CMPE12 Summer

70 Integer data types Byte: ordered set of 8 bits Nybble: ordered set of 4 bits Word: ordered set of CMPE12 Summer

71 7-bit ASCII table CMPE12 Summer

72 Recommended Exercises Ex 2.1 to 2.27 (especially important are 2.12, 2.15, 2.20, and 2.25) Ex 2.35, 2.36, 2.37, 2.38 Ex 2.45 to 2.50 Ex 2.53 and 2.54 CMPE12 Summer

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### The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture. Linda Null and Julia Lobur Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2003

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### Recall the process used for adding decimal numbers. 1. Place the numbers to be added in vertical format, aligning the decimal points.

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### 3. Convert a number from one number system to another

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### This 3-digit ASCII string could also be calculated as n = (Data[2]-0x30) +10*((Data[1]-0x30)+10*(Data[0]-0x30));

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### Unsigned Conversions from Decimal or to Decimal and other Number Systems

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### A single register, called the accumulator, stores the. operand before the operation, and stores the result. Add y # add y from memory to the acc

Other architectures Example. Accumulator-based machines A single register, called the accumulator, stores the operand before the operation, and stores the result after the operation. Load x # into acc