# Spectroscopy. SI Base Units

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1 Spectroscopy SI Base Units m - meter - length s - second - time kg - kilogram - mass K - kelvin - thermodynamic temperature A - ampere - electric current cd - candela - luminous intensity mol - amount of substance 1

2 SI Supplementary Units radian rad plane angle steradian sr solid angle sr SI Derived Units N - Newton - Force - 1kg x m/s 2 Pa - Pascal - Pressure, Stress - 1N/m 2 J - Joule -Work, Energy, Amount of Heat - 1N x m lm - Lumen - Luminous Flux - 1 cd x sr 0 C - Degree Celsius - Temperature (K - 273) 2

3 SI Prefixes deca 10 da deci 10-1 d hecto 10 2 h centi 10-2 c kilo 10 3 k milli 10-3 m mega 10 6 M micro 10-6 m giga 10 9 G nano 10-9 n tera T pico p peta P femto f exa E atto a zetta Z zepto z yotta Y yocto y Spectroscopy Set of methods where interaction of electromagnetic radiation with chemical molecules is measured to obtain characteristics, properties and quantity 3

4 Spectroscopy Radiation IR Spectrum 4

6 Spectroscopy - Colours Spectroscopy Light Nature 6

7 Spectroscopy Radiation Terminology Wavelength (λ) - length between two equivalent points on successive waves Wavenumber the number of waves in a unit of length or distance per cycle - reciprocal of the wavelength Frequency (ν) is the number of oscillations of the field per second (Hz) Velocity (c) independent of wavelength in vacuum is 3.00 x cm/s (3.00 x 10 8 m/s) Photon (quanta) quantum mechanics nature of light to explain photoelectric effect Spectroscopy - Radiation Amplitude 7

8 Spectroscopy - Relations λ = c/ν Where: λ (cm); ν (Hz; s -1 ); c = light velocity Units used for wavelength: Å = angstrom = m nm = 10-9 m µm = 10-6 m Light Energy 8

9 Spectroscopy - Relations The De-Broglie Relationship The link between Particle and Wave behavior E = hνh Where: h = Planck s s constant 6.62 x Js Proportionality constant When ν = c/λ is substituted: E = hc/λ Spectroscopy - Relations The De-Broglie Relationship The link between Particle and Wave behavior E = mc 2 Combining with previous equation That gives mc 2 = hc/λ λ = h/mc 9

10 Qualitative Spectroscopy Spectroscopy Modes 10

11 Spectroscopy Electron Distribution Spectroscopy Molecules and Radiation Absorption: M + hνh M* Change in nuclear energy level X-rays (high energy) Changes in nuclear spin state (Low energy magnetic field) Radiation exited species lifetime 10-8 to 10-9 s Release return to lower energy state: M* M + heat (collision with neighbours) M* M + hν h (emission, highly probable at high frequency) 11

12 Spectroscopy Molecular Energy Common transitions Spectroscopy Energy Transitions σ σ Observed only at the highest energy vacuum ultraviolet. Rarely, never observed in normal UV/VIS n σ Saturated compounds containing atoms with unshared electron pairs (nonbonding electrons) capable this transition. This transition requires less energy happen in 150 to 250 nm (most absorption peaks below 200nm). Molar absorptivity are low L cm - 1 mol -1 12

13 Spectroscopy Absorption Maxima n π Spectroscopy Energy Transitions π Molar absorptivity L cm - 1 mol -1 π π Molar absorptivity 1000 to 10,000 L cm - 1 mol -1 Applications of absorption spectroscopy to organic compounds are based upon this transitions to excited state of π. Energy required for those excitation states is within 200 to 700 nm. Chromophores involved are unsaturated functional groups to provide the π orbitals. n π transitions are hypsochromic (shift towards blue) with increasing polarity of solvent π π transition often is bathochromic (shift to red) with increased solvent polarity 13

14 Spectroscopy Interaction Molecule & Radiation Spectroscopy - Chromophors 14

15 Spectroscopy Chromophores Spectroscopy Conjugation electron are delocalized; lower energy required to exite electrons; Absorption maxima will shift to longer wavelength 15

16 Spectroscopy - Multichromophors UV Spectroscopy Absorption Maxima 16

17 Spectroscopy Auxochrome functional group that does not absorb radiation itself in the UV range but has a shifting effect on main chromophore peaks to longer wavelength as well as increasing their intensity. Example: -OH and NH 2 on benzene chromophore Mid-range IR Spectra 17

18 Spectroscopy Typical UV Spectra Spectroscopy Inorganic Anions A number of inorganic anions exhibit Uv absorption as consequence of π π transition Example: nitrate 313nm; nitrite 360 and 280 nm carbonate - 217nm; azide 230nm trithiocarbonate 500nm 18

19 UV/VIS - Solvents Quantitative Spectroscopy 19

20 Spectroscopy Light Properties Spectrophotometer Model of light interaction with matrix and how spectrophotometer works 20

21 Spectroscopy Quantification Terms Transmittance (T) the fraction of incident radiation transmitted by the medium: T = P/P 0 Absorbance (A) the amount of incident radiation absorb by the medium and expressed by: A = log(1/t) = - logt = log P 0 /P Transmittance and Absorbance 21

22 Spectroscopy - Quantification Beer s Law (Beer Bourguer Lambert Law) Radiation energy decays exponentially T = P/P 0 = 10 -kb Where: k constant T the transmittance the fraction of transmitted radiant energy b the pathlength of the medium Spectroscopy - Quantification If we present in logarithmic form: log T = log P/P 0 = - kb The same stands for concentration: log T = log P/P 0 = - k c 22

23 Spectroscopy - Quantification log T = log P/P 0 = - k c Because A = - log T, then: Where: k k = ab A = k c A = abc Where: a proportionality constant called absorptivity b pathlength of the medium If: Spectroscopy - Quantification A = abc c - is expressed in moles per liter b pathlength (cell length) in cm Then a is called the molar absorptivity and has the special symbol ε and units: L mol -1 cm -1 23

24 Spectroscopy Molar absorptivity Range for UVVIS 0 to 10 5 Beer Law Chart 24

25 Spectroscopy Multimolecules Effect Spectroscopy - Mixture Multi-component mixture: A T = A 1 + A 2 +A 3 + A n A T = ε 1 bc 1 + ε 2 bc 2 + ε 3 bc 3 + ε n bc n Where: 1,2,3,.,n refer to absorbing components 25

26 Spectroscopy Beer s s Law Limitations Deviations from the direct proportionality (b=const) Instrumental Deviations Chemical Deviations Spectroscopy Beer s Law Compliance 26

27 Beer s s Law Limitations Deviations from the direct proportionality (b = const) Valid at concentration usually below 0.01M Molecules interference distance between molecules affects charge distribution of molecules (ions) Effect of refractive index concentration affects refractive index ε is affected (low, less important) Spectroscopy - Deviations Absorbance Concentration 27

28 Beer s s Law Limitations Chemical Deviations Association, dissociation and reaction with solvent and other molecules Buffered Absorbance λ = 430 nm λ = 570 nm Unbuffered Concentration (x 10-5 ) Beer s s Law Limitations Instrumental Deviations monochromatic radiation quality of monochromator and control of bandwidth and slit Instrumental noise accuracy of measurement of transmittance quality of detector 28

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