Hello and welcome to this Renesas Interactive course, that provides an overview of the Clock Generator found on RL78 MCUs.

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1 Hello and welcome to this Renesas Interactive course, that provides an overview of the Clock Generator found on RL78 MCUs. 1

2 This course provides an introduction to the RL78 Clock Generator. Our objectives are to learn about the functions of the RL78 Clock Generator, understand the different internal and external ocillators, and understand the Snooze mode capabilities. 2

3 The internal voltage regulator enables CPU operation over a wide voltage range. For example a 32MHz clock can be used from 2.7 to 5.5V, or at speeds less than 4MHz the core can operate with a minimum supply voltage as low as 1.6V. Overall the voltage range is limited to 1.6 to 5.5V. The internal High Speed oscillator is connected to the regulator on the chip and able to support clock speeds from 1 to 32MHz. The on chip voltage regulator generates a voltage of 2.1volt which enables low internal power consumption and low EMI. The CPU, the FLASH, the RAM, the internal peripherals and internal oscillators are all connected to this 2.1 volt regulator. Despite this however you can still use a VDD of up to 5.5volts and supply legacy ports and low voltage indicators directly with a maximum supply voltage of 5.5V. The only thing you need to take care of in this case, is to connect an external capacitor of 0.47 to 1 micro Farads to the RegC pin of the device. 3

4 The clock generator module consists of up to four different clock sources. The first is the Main system clock, meaning the external oscillator which can be connected to the device; which is able to run up to 20MHz. <Click> The second and most useful clock source is the internal on-chip oscillator, which covers a range from 1 to 32MHz and offers an accuracy of 1%. This internal oscillator reduces the overall power consumption and - thanks to a programmable pre-scaler - it s possible to choose the optimum speed to IDD relationship. <Click> The third oscillator is an internal low speed oscillator of 15 KHz, this is typically used to supply the watchdog timer and an interval timer. With this low speed on chip oscillator it is possible for example to wake up the device periodically using the internal interval timer. <Click> And finally for devices with pin counts of 44pin or more a sub system clock is implemented. This is an oscillator circuit which is able to drive an external 32 KHz Oscillator to implement real-time clock systems on the chip. 4

5 <Click> The CPU core is able to operate on all these clocks, with the exception of the 15 KHz on chip oscillator - which can only be used for interval timers - as we will see later. 4

6 On this simple block diagram of the oscillator circuit and clock generator circuit, you can see all the possible internal connections. On the left side you see the internal oscillator operating at 24 or 32MHz with an accuracy of 1% over the whole temperature range. Next you will find the external oscillator circuit which is able to support external crystals or resonators from 1 to 20 MHz, or alternatively the external 32 KHz oscillator. All these 3 clocks can be fed into a selector and after the selector these clocks feed into the CPU core and into the peripherals. The 32 KHz sub oscillator can be fed into the interval timer and the Real Time Clock. The internal low speed oscillator running at only 15 KHz, does not need any additional external components and is able to supply the watchdog timer and the interval timer. 5

7 On this slide is a detailed block diagram of the RL78 G13. On the left-hand side at the top is the High Speed system oscillator, able to run from 1 to 20 MHz with an external quartz resonator. It is even possible to use an external input clock signal as well. Below that you will find the internal High Speed oscillator with speed options from 1 to 32MHz. And below that is the sub-system clock oscillator which supports external 32 KHz crystals. One of the high speed systems clocks, internal or external is provided to the main system clock source selector. We can now decide by software selection, which clock to use to drive the CPU and also the peripherals. There is another clock controller connected to the peripherals which allows you to switch the source clock on or off for each peripheral. This is very important, because the clock must be enabled in this controller before you can access each peripheral. 6

8 Now to the internal oscillator circuit. The internal oscillator offers an accuracy of +/- 1% over the whole voltage and temperature range. There are two preset frequencies of 24 or 32 MHz, and an internal pre-scaler can generate additional frequencies from 1 to 32MHz from these two frequencies. It is also possible to improve accuracy using the internal correction register. So for example if you have a reference clock available from an external UART signal, you can obtain accuracy down to 0.05% by using this internal correction register. The main system frequency of the internal oscillator will be selected by the option byte and then provided to the CPU and the peripherals. Compared to competitors, the 24 or 32MHz oscillator has an accuracy of 1% over the whole voltage range from 1.8 to 5 volts and there is no change with temperature. This allows the internal oscillator to be used even for UART applications where high accuracy is necessary. Thus the internal oscillator can be used in almost all applications, with no need to connect an external oscillator to the circuit. 7

9 As we already mentioned, it is also possible to divide down the internal high speed oscillator. The frequency of the internal oscillator is selected by an option byte. There are two base frequencies of 24MHz and 32 MHz which can be selected by the Frequency Select bit number three from the option byte. Furthermore there are three bits called Frequency Select 0-2 which are also set by the option byte and define the initial frequency of the oscillator, for example 4 or 8 MHz. These registers are variable and will be copied to a special function register. This special function register can be changed later on while the application is running. That means even if the 32MHz high speed oscillator is selected initially, it is possible to scale down the internal high speed oscillator to 16, 8 or 4 MHz and so on while the application is running, for further current reduction, if full performance is not needed. 8

10 On this slide you can see typical power consumption figures when running on the internal oscillator. It s important to note here that this power consumption is measured while executing code from the FLASH memory. Competitors sometimes only get such good power consumption values with code executing from RAM, but for these RL78 devices there is no need to do this. Even with code executing from FLASH we get very good power consumption values. Three different operation modes are shown here as examples. First the High Speed Main mode; this requires the supply voltage to be in the range from 2.7 to 5.5volts. For example with a 32MHz operation speed and a corresponding minimum instruction cycle time of nano seconds, we have a power consumption of 4.7mA. By switching into a low speed mode where operation is possible down to 1.8volts we can reduce power consumption to e.g. 1.2mA at 8MHz. Additionally it is possible to run the core from a 32KHz oscillator. In this case the whole internal main system clock can be switched off with only the 32 KHz oscillator operating. In this mode we can reduce power consumption to the micro amp range, even with code executing directly from the FLASH memory. When we switch off the FLASH and drop into the HALT mode, with only the oscillator and some low power 9

11 peripherals like RTC and low voltage detector running, we can lower power consumption to a mere 0.7 micro amps. 9

12 As an alternative to the internal oscillator we can use an external oscillator instead. This external oscillator is able to run from 1 to 20MHz and supports external quartz resonators or even an external clock signal. These different inputs can be selected by software. After Reset - and this is important - the device will always start running from the internal high speed oscillator. That means you need to write some software to switch over to the external oscillator if you want to use it. Furthermore the oscillation stabilization time controlled by the OSTS register must be checked by internal software. After the external oscillator is switched on and stable, the software can then switch over to the external oscillator clock signal and finally switch off the internal oscillator. If an external oscillator is not used and the application can use the internal oscillator (which is the case more than 90% of the time) the external oscillator pins can be used as ports instead. 10

13 On this slide we show the startup behavior of the different oscillators. After the supply voltage exceeds the 1.5V or low voltage detector threshold level (if LVD is enabled), the MCU s internal reset is released and the internal high speed system clock starts running. This is equivalent to the startup time of the internal oscillator which is typically 16.75micro seconds. After this start up time the core can immediately start running on the internal oscillator, and the stability of the internal oscillator is already guaranteed from this point on. If we want to use an external oscillator instead of the internal one, we have to enable the external oscillator pins for use as an oscillator by software. By doing this the external oscillator will start up and the stabilization time can be checked in the OSTS register. After the external oscillator is stable - which may take a few micro seconds - the internal software which is still running on the internal high speed oscillator can switch over to the external clock system. After this is done the internal high speed system clock can be switched off to save power. 11

14 11

15 Here is an initialization function for using the external oscillator as the main system clock. First the external oscillator is switched on by setting the OSTS CKC and MSTOP bits. Setting MSTOP actually starts the external oscillator running. After this is done we have to wait for the external oscillator to stabilize. This can be done using the OSTC register, which is an automatic count register. After a predetermined value in the OSTC register is reached we can be sure that the external oscillation will be stable and then can switch over to the external clock signal by setting the MCM0 register. After this is done the high speed system clock may be switched off. 12

16 Now let s look at instruction timing. The instruction cycle time is the time that is needed to execute one cycle of an instruction. This is the time of one clock cycle provided to the CPU, for 32MHz operation the cycle time is Nano seconds. In the User s Manual you will find a table listing the number of clock cycles for each instruction. Most of the instructions can be executed within one clock cycle, due to the internal pipeline structure. To calculate the overall instruction time for one instruction, you have to take the number of clocks required for each instruction and multiply that by the cycle time. So in case of a Move instruction - for example moving an absolute value to a special function register - which takes one clock cycle, the execution time of this singe clock cycle is Nano seconds at the main system clock of 32MHz. 13

17 Here we see a chart of the operating voltage range versus the minimum instruction cycle time. Notice that the full 32MHz cannot be used over the whole voltage range. It is only possible to use the 32MHz clock in in the High Speed main mode from volts. If the supply voltage is below that, for example down to 2.4 volt the High Speed main mode can still be used, but with a divided main system clock frequency up to 16MHz. Below this we have the Low Speed main mode which is able to work from 1.8 to 5 volts and allows a maximum speed of 8MHz. Finally, we have the Low Voltage main mode, which allows us to run the device down to 1.6 volt operation voltage and a maximum frequency of 4MHz. We need to ensure the application is always running in one of these valid ranges, as for example operation with 32MHz below 2.7volt cannot be guaranteed. The selection between these three different modes High Speed Main Mode, Low Speed Main Mode and Low Voltage Main Mode can be done via the option byte. 14

18 After discussing the different oscillators and the different operating ranges we come now to the different operation modes. Let s start with the main system clock mode i.e. the internal high speed system on-chip oscillator, or the external oscillator. With these oscillators first of all we have the main system Run mode, meaning the oscillator itself is switched on and also all the peripherals are switched on. Then we have Halt mode which can be entered using a simple instruction. In this case the oscillator is still running, only the core and the FLASH are stopped, and the peripherals are still active. When Halt mode is exited, the CPU returns from halt into run mode via an interrupt. Resuming from Halt mode back to Main mode no additional wait time is needed, the complete switch back to run mode is done within just a few clock cycles. The next mode is Stop mode, in Stop mode the main oscillator is completely stopped, the CPU core is stopped, the FLASH memory is turned off and all the peripherals are inactive. But importantly, RAM contents are still preserved. Exit from Stop mode is performed again via external or internal interrupts. However because the main oscillator is not running, these internal interrupts sources must be driven by a low speed oscillator. For example the RTC is able to wake up the micro 15

19 from Stop mode; the internal low voltage interval timer can also do this. What s new on the RL78 G13 product line is the Snooze mode. This is available only when running from the internal high speed oscillator and uses the fast start up time of that oscillator. The Snooze mode supports the CSI-0 and UART-0 peripherals, which allow data reception during Stop mode and time-triggered A/D conversion. Later on we will explain what this snooze mode is able to do in more detail. 15

20 Next we have the different operation modes using the internal oscillators. The 15 KHz on-chip Low Speed oscillator is only able to drive the watchdog timer and the interval timer, so there are no special modes available for this oscillator. But importantly this oscillator is used to perform time-triggered A/D conversion in snooze mode for example. There are two different operation modes when the sub system clock, i.e. the external 32 KHz oscillator, is connected. First there is the Standard Operation mode, where the CPU and the peripherals are using the sub system clock. In this case it s more or less the same as the main system clock operation mode but with only the sub oscillator running. The main system clock is stopped, FLASH is enabled, CPU is enabled and also the peripherals are running using the sub-clock. Then there is the Halt mode, similar to the operation with the Main System clock, the difference being this Halt mode is entered from the sub system clock. In this case the CPU core itself is stopped and the peripherals use the sub system clock. Exit from Halt mode is possible via interrupts, reset and peripherals which are using the sub system oscillator. 16

21 Here we see the transitions between the different operation modes. The main mode is Run mode, in run mode the CPU, the clock and all the peripherals are running. Exiting the Reset state the device will directly enter into Run mode. Using the Halt command though, you can switch from Run mode into Halt mode. In Halt mode the clock is still running and all the peripherals are running, so for example timers are still running using the main system clock, with just the CPU and the FLASH switched off. To exit Halt mode and go back into Run mode, an external interrupt or an internal interrupt can be used, generated by a peripheral or of course a Reset. The next mode is Stop mode, to enter Stop mode from Run mode, the Stop instruction is used. Return from Stop mode can also be done via an external interrupt a Reset or an internal interrupt from any internal peripheral which is running in Stop mode. Because the main system clock, the CPU and typically all the standard peripherals are stopped in Stop mode, this interrupt must come from the internal low speed timer, typically the 15 KHz or the 32 KHz sub system clock. These two peripherals are able to drive the Interval Timer and the RTC. Wake up from Stop mode into Run mode can be done directly using these timers. 17

22 And now to the new Snooze mode. Snooze mode is somewhere between Stop and Run mode, if Stop mode is called with special conditions the CPU will not return directly back into Run mode, but instead first goes into the Snooze mode. In Snooze mode the CPU is still stopped with just the clock enabled and the peripherals supported by Snooze mode running. This could be the A/D converter or a serial interface, where serial data can be received without using the CPU or an A/D conversion can be done. If the A/D conversion is inside a specified range the micro will exit Snooze mode directly into Run mode and proceed with operations, calculations or whatever. However if the reception of the A/D conversion do not meet the specified conditions, the micro will return back into Snooze mode without entering Stop mode and without switching on the FLASH, decreasing the overall power consumption of the entire application. 17

23 Here we see the benefits of Snooze mode. First we have to clarify what Snooze mode is. As already mention Snooze mode is somewhere between Stop mode and Run mode. This means complete power down of the micro and full operation. The big advantage is that the results of A/D conversion for example can be checked without switching on the CPU. This check can be done directly in hardware, by the A/D converter itself, and only if the converted value is in the specified range the micro will switch over into Run mode, otherwise it will return to Stop mode. The same is possible with receiving serial data, the micro is able to receive UART or SPI data even in Stop mode when all oscillators are stopped. If the received data is valid it will step up into Run mode and process the data, otherwise if an error occurs it will go back automatically into Stop mode to reduce power consumption. The advantage of Snooze mode is low power consumption. The current consumption is between Stop and Halt modes because CPU doesn t need to be switched on. Furthermore you can receive and check UART and CSI data without an active CPU and you are able to convert A/D results at pre-defined intervals without an active CPU. 18

24 Here is an example of how Snooze mode is used together with the A/D converter. The A/D converter operates during stand-by mode and there are several possibilities for comparing the output value. Meaning if an A/D conversion is done, the result will be compared and an interrupt can be generated. In this case, waking up from Snooze to Run if the value is inside or outside a specified window, or higher or lower than a determined limit. To trigger an A/D converter cycle the internal interval timer is used. This timer runs in Stop mode using the internal 15 KHz oscillator, which allows power consumption of just 0.52 ua, while the CPU is waiting for the timer trigger to start the A/D converter and enter into Snooze mode. In Snooze mode the A/D converter is switched on, requiring the main system clock to be running. In this mode, the power consumption is in the range of 800uA when running the A/D converter. If there is no matching data the micro returns directly back from Snooze into Stop mode and the power consumption goes immediately back down to 0.52uA. If a match occurs (i.e. the converted data is within the valid range) then an interrupt is generated and the micro transitions from Snooze mode into Active mode. In this case the power consumption is in the range of 1.4mA at 8MHz operation speed. Thanks to this technology each A/D result doesn t have to be converted, 19

25 compared to other micros where the core has to be switched on and the result of the A/D conversion has to be processed after each conversion. Snooze mode performs this in hardware without using the CPU resulting in a reduction of over 60% power consumption compared to standard microcomputers doing the same job. 19

26 Here is an example of Snooze mode together with a serial interface, in this case UART communication is used, which could be useful for example in UART based bus systems. Each sensor can be woken up by the UART signal from stand-by mode where the power consumption is 0.52uA. When data is received over the UART interface, the micro wakes up, enters Snooze mode and checks the receive data. In the case of an error it returns directly into Stop mode. Only when the data is valid does it transition into Active mode and the core itself can process the data. 20

27 In summary, in this course, we learned about the functions of the RL78 Clock Generator - including the different internal and external ocillators, different operating modes, as well as Snooze Mode. We would like to thank you for viewing this course. For more information on the RL78 line of microcontrollers, please view the RL78 Family Overview Course. For more information about Renesas products in general, please visit 21

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