Understanding Trust in Government Joseph Gershtenson, Eastern Kentucky University Dennis L. Plane, Juniata College

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Understanding Trust in Government Joseph Gershtenson, Eastern Kentucky University Dennis L. Plane, Juniata College"

Transcription

1 Understanding Trust in Government Joseph Gershtenson, Eastern Kentucky University Dennis L. Plane, Juniata College Proposed Questions for the 2008 ANES Time Series Study 1. Standard NES Trust Question: How much of the time do you think you can trust the government in Washington to do what is right just about always, most of the time, or only some of the time? [Also record the volunteered Never response.] Point Trust Question: On a scale from 0 to 100, what percent of the time do you think you can trust the federal government in Washington? 3a. Open-ended Trust Question: When I asked about the how much of the time you trust the government in Washington, what sorts of things did you think about that made you say [ ]? Please be as specific as possible. 3b. Open-ended Trust Question: When I asked about the percentage of time you trust the federal government in Washington, what sorts of things did you think about that made you say [ %]? Please be as specific as possible. 4. State-level Trust Question, Standard NES Wording: How much of the time do you think you can trust the state government in [state capital] to do what is right just about always, most of the time, or only some of the time? [Also record the volunteered Never response.] 5. State-level 101-Point Trust Question: On a scale from 0 to 100, what percent of the time do you think you can trust the state government in [state capital]? 6a. Open-ended State-level Trust Question: When I asked about how much of the time you trust the state government in [state capital], what sorts of things did you think about that made you say [ ]? Please be as specific as possible. 6b. Open-ended State-level Trust Question: When I asked about the percentage of time you trust the state government in [state capital], what sorts of things did you think about that made you say [ %]? Please be as specific as possible. 7. During the PAST 12 MONTHS, have you worked with other people to deal with some issue facing your community? (NES Question 820) 8. If you were selected to serve on a jury, would you be happy to do it or would you rather not serve? (NES Question 831) Sample Design: We propose dividing the sample into four sub-groups for the purposes of these questions. All respondents would be asked the standard NES question on trust in the government

2 in Washington (#1 above). In addition, all respondents would be asked questions 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8. The sample would be split for the purposes of the open-ended items with half of the sample being asked open-ended items (3a, 6a) querying about responses to the standard NES format questions on both the national and state governments (1, 4) and the other half of the sample being asked open-ended items (3b, 6b) querying about responses to the 101-point items (2, 5). For each of these groups, we further propose that for half of the respondents the standard NES trust question should be administered close to the front of the survey, while the percent-of-the-time measures should be administered towards the end of the survey. For the other half of respondents, the administration of these questions should be reversed, with the percent-of-thetime measures at the front of the survey, and the standard NES trust question toward the end. Keywords: Political Trust, Citizenship, State Government, National Government Abstract We propose supplementing the current NES trust measure with a 101-point trust measure that is theoretically superior and has worked well on previous surveys (including the 2006 NES Pilot). Because citizens have different evaluations of different governments, we also propose including state-level NES trust measures. Since political trust means different things to different people, we propose adding open-ended prompts that will help determine what influences citizens trust reports. We have previously employed these open-ended prompts successfully in evaluating Kentucky citizens trust in the national and state governments. Finally, we propose questions to explore the link between trust and citizenship. Most trust research is based on the (often implicit) assumption that greater political trust is desirable and is the mark of a good citizen. Yet this assumption has not been examined empirically. Thus, we propose two previously employed questions related to citizenship (i.e., work on a community issue and

3 willingness to serve jury duty). When combined with other questions in the NES core (e.g., volunteerism, interest in politics, and knowledge) we can directly assess the relationship between trust and citizenship. The Merit and Theoretical Foundations of the Proposed Questions The questions we propose for the 2008 ANES Time Series Study will permit us to better understand the nature of political trust and its implications for beliefs and behaviors of the American public. To begin, our proposed measures of trust represent an improvement over the standard NES item. The proposed items are measured on a scale that allows for greater variation in response options. The standard trust in government question allows for only three or four response options (depending on how the volunteered never responses are treated) while the proposed questions yield a 101-point scale. In addition, with the proposed trust questions, the portion of the trust spectrum taken up by each response option is approximately equal. The standard trust question contains the unwieldy and expansive only some of the time category, and also the rather narrow just about always category. Third, the proposed trust question is balanced, explicitly giving respondents the opportunity to select responses at either end of the spectrum. In contrast, the standard NES question is lopsided towards the trusting end of the scale. Finally, the proposed questions use neutral language, avoiding the normative assumptions associated with the only some of the time verbiage of the standard question. While we find fault with the standard NES measure, we believe it warrants inclusion on the NES panel because it has been a mainstay of the NES and is widely used in academic research on elections. More importantly, however, including both the standard and the percentof-the-time questions on the same survey will allow for a close examination of what voters really mean when they report the extent to which they trust the government. For example, citizens

4 likely have different ideas in mind when they report that they trust government only some of the time. A parallel from the classroom may help illustrate this point: One student reports that he attends class only some of the time and shows up for about half of the classes. Another student also reports attending only some of the time, but rarely attends class. Thus, there is great variability in meaning within this one response option. Similarly, the difference in frequency between events that occur just about always and most of the time is unclear at best and likely varies from person to person. In sum, the vague wording of the response options on the standard NES question does a poor job at helping researchers understand how often citizens trust government. Including both the standard NES trust question and the 101-point percent-of-thetime question on the same survey will be invaluable for determining what respondents have in mind when answering the standard NES trust measure and will be helpful for analyzing political trust using existing surveys that do not include the improved measure. In addition to improving the NES trust measure, we hope to better understand the nature of trust. Evidence suggests that the standard NES trust measure captures temporal assessments of government. For example, Citrin and Luks (2001) have shown that political trust varies according to which political party controls Congress, with Democrats more likely to trust government when there is a Democratic-controlled Congress. Gershtenson, Ladewig, and Plane (2006) show that change in partisan control of just one chamber of Congress can affect trust evaluations. Other scholars have shown that citizens trust in government depends on whether their political party controls the presidency (Schaffner and Clark, 2004). The upsurge in political trust witnessed after the 9/11 terrorist attacks also points to the temporal nature of the standard trust measure (Hetherington and Globetti 2003).

5 Yet scholars often envision political trust as tapping into more deep-seated attitudes about the health of the political system. While presidential and congressional approval is expected to wax and wane as the political winds shift in Washington, political trust should remain more constant. That is, systemic trust is the belief that the American political system is essentially healthy and functional. While a decline in temporal trust should not cause much concern, a decline in systemic, diffuse trust should be disconcerting. In many ways, this debate over the nature of political trust traces its roots back to the early Citrin v. Miller debate (Citrin 1974; Miller 1974a; 1974b). By including open-ended items querying respondents what they were thinking when they indicated that their level of trust in government, we will be able to shed light on the systemic/diffuse debate and to more directly examine the origins of trust. That is, the open-ended items will help us move beyond the level of trust to examine why citizens may (or may not) trust government. Much of the research on political trust is built upon or motivated by the assumption that greater political trust is normatively desirable. In fact, this assumption can be seen in the wording of the standard NES question which includes the normatively-loaded only some of the time response options, suggesting that such a response is somehow suboptimal. The assumption that greater trust would improve democracy has not yet been thoroughly tested. Some research suggests that greater trust improves the quality of democracy by showing that trusting citizens are more likely to comply with laws (Tyler 1990, Tyler and Degoey 1995, Levi 1997, Scholz and Lubell 1998). However, there are also some theoretical reasons to expect that too much political trust threatens democracy. As Ruscio (2004, p. 4) puts it, A pathology of democratic life occurs when trust shades too far into unquestioned acceptance of a leader's dictates. In short, much remains unexplored. Thus, we propose questions to directly examine whether political trust is

6 associated with good citizenship. For example, does greater trust make it more likely that citizens will follow and participate in politics? Does greater trust increase citizens commitments to their communities and fellow citizens? The NES core already contains some relevant items (e.g., volunteer work, contributions to charity, following government and politics), but we feel that inclusion of the items on working with others in the community and on jury service are also central to evaluations of the relationships between trust and indicators of good citizenship. The final contribution of the proposed questions comes with regard to the level of government evaluated by respondents. To date, the trust literature focuses almost exclusively on the national government. While the national government is obviously important, in our federalist system, state governments retain their own sovereignty and have significant (and arguably, increasing) policy responsibilities. As a matter of daily life, decisions made by states may indeed have greater significance than those made by the federal government. State governments establish sales taxes, provide funding to public institutions, and create the civil and penal codes responsible for the vast majority of cases heard in judicial systems. There is some evidence that citizens are more approving of state governments than they are of the national government (Hibbing and Smith, 2001), with the perception of relative closeness to the people of state governments being suggested as the source of this pattern. Given this, one might anticipate citizens to also be more trusting of state governments than of the national government, but, we simply do not know if this is the case. Different perceptions of the levels of government may also be driven by the visibility of each level. Citizens tend to have little knowledge about politics in general, but the national government receives more media attention and is generally more visible.

7 Much as citizen awareness of government may influence the extent of trust, visibility of the levels of government may affect the basis on which citizens assess government. More generally, while some of the same forces likely influence state trust as influence national trust, there is no reason to assume that these determinants are identical. This is particularly true given the different responsibilities of each government and different citizen expectations of them. To date, the causes of trust in sub-national governments simply have not been explored. Empirical Performance of Proposed Questions and their Superiority over Alternatives As outlined above, we believe that the response options used for the standard NES trust measure ( just about always, most of the time, or only some of the time ) are problematic. Because the standard trust question has very few response options and the range of the trust spectrum taken up by each option is unequal (and likely overlapping), it can not be used to approximate a continuous, interval-level variable. We included two alternative sets of response options for trust measures on the 2006 NES Pilot. 1 Specifically, we included a five-point scale (always, most of the time, about half of the time, once in a while, and never) and a 101-point scale ( What percent of the time ). In short, the five-point scale did not perform much differently than the standard three-point scale because very few respondents claimed to trust the government always or never. In contrast, the 101- point scale yielded a nice dispersion in response options, with a mean of approximately 50% and a standard deviation of approximately 25%. Additionally, it was easy for respondents to understand, as only one respondent failed to provide a response. Finally, these 101-point trust measures were significantly correlated with the expected array of variables including approval of 1 The Pilot questions were slightly different, asking respondents how often they trusted the government to make decisions in a fair way and to do what is in the best interest of the country. While paired-difference t-tests show the items to yield distinctive responses, the two items demonstrated similar patterns with regard to their relationships (correlations) with other variables in the survey.

8 President Bush (both overall approval and approval of the President on the economy, foreign affairs, and the war on terrorism), political efficacy, party identification, and assessments of economic performance over the past year. We also included both the standard NES trust question and our 101-point alternative on a recent national survey conducted by the Center for Survey Research and Analysis (CSRA) at the University of Connecticut. The results provide further evidence that the response options for the standard question are wanting. For those who volunteered that they "never" trusted the government on the standard NES trust question, 43% of them said they trusted the government 0% of the time, but the mean was 8% and the responses ranged all the way up to 45% of the time. The "only some of the time" response option is much more ambiguous, with respondents providing a percentage range from 0 percent of the time up to 98% (with 41% as the mean and 50% as the mode). This range overlaps considerably with the "most of the time" respondents, who varied from 0% to 90% with a mean of 68% and a mode of 75%. Finally, the "just about always" respondents provided answers ranging from 0 to 95, with 71% as the mean and 90% as the mode. Clearly, within each response option of the standard NES question, citizens gave a wide range of responses to the percent of the time that they trusted government. We also have evidence regarding the performance of both the state-level government trust item and the open-ended items. Very similar questions were included on a survey administered to a random sample of Kentucky residents in the summer of The data both confirmed some expectations and yielded some surprises (Gershtenson and Plane 2006a, 2006b). As anticipated, Kentuckians expressed higher trust in their local (county) governments than in the state and national governments. On the other hand, Kentuckians were actually less trusting of their state government than they were of the national government in the survey from which our

9 data come. On its face, this might call into question previous assertions that citizens have greater confidence in state governments. However, we suspect that the political conditions in Kentucky during the administration of the survey are responsible for the results. The ongoing, high-profile inquiry into the hiring practices of Governor Fletcher s administration that resulted in indictments of several government officials almost certainly had a deleterious effect on citizen attitudes toward the state. (In the open-ended item asking respondents why they evaluated the state government the way they did, 16% cited political corruption or patronage.) The open-ended items on the survey provided information about the nature of trust and showed that citizens are able to distinguish between levels of government. For instance, 35% of respondents cited the war in Iraq and/or the war against terrorism when accounting for their trust in the national government, while 0% did so for the state government. Furthermore, the responses showed that there is some mix of systemic and diffuse considerations that enter citizens minds when asked about trust in government. Of course, getting additional data from the NES would extend this research beyond Kentucky. It would also allow for examining determinants of trust in the different levels of government. The Kentucky study suggested that variation exists across the levels, particularly with regard to the role of partisanship. Potential Statistical Analyses Using Proposed Questions The analyses envisioned on the basis of the proposed questions range from frequency distributions to multivariate causal models. First, we will be able to compare citizens responses on the standard NES trust question with their responses on the percent-of-the-time question to get a fuller understanding of what citizens mean when they report, for example, that they trust the government just about always. This analysis will be like that described above for the

10 CSRA survey and we anticipate it will reveal the problematic nature of the response options on the standard NES trust item. We also believe that the proposed 101-point trust measure offers other benefits over the standard NES item. In particular, the 101-point trust measure should perform better as both a dependent variable and as an independent variable. Consequently, we will conduct multivariate analyses replicating to the extent possible analyses from the literature. For example, we can model the vote for the incumbent party presidential candidate as a function of political trust, economic evaluations, political ideology, and other variables following Hetherington (1999). Similarly, we can examine the role of trust in individuals support for liberal governmental policies (Hetherington 2004), in affect toward candidates (Hetherington 1998), and in whether or not citizens vote in elections (Hibbing and Theiss-Morse 2002). Finally, we can model behavior characteristic of good citizenship as a function of political trust. With trust as a dependent variable, we can examine the roles of partisanship, economic evaluations, political news consumption, etc. following Hetherington (1998), Gershtenson, Ladewig, and Plane (2006), and others. Of course, we also believe that the determinants of state trust may differ from those of national trust. Consequently, the multivariate analyses would be done for both levels of government. We are also interested in examining differences in trust across levels of government and would therefore compare the magnitude of trust in the national and state governments. Perhaps the most onerous analyses will be those involving the open-ended items. Here, we will need to read responses in order to develop an appropriate coding scheme and perform content analysis. While time consuming, these analyses should provide considerable insights into the nature and determinants of political trust.

Madelyn Hochstein, President, DYG, Inc. for her care, counsel and determined efforts in editing these TIPS;

Madelyn Hochstein, President, DYG, Inc. for her care, counsel and determined efforts in editing these TIPS; ACKNOWLEDGMENTS With unbounded appreciation, I thank: Madelyn Hochstein, President, DYG, Inc. for her care, counsel and determined efforts in editing these TIPS; The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation for its

More information

FRQ PACKET. In this packet are all of the FRQs that the College Board has asked during the May AP Government & Politics Exam.

FRQ PACKET. In this packet are all of the FRQs that the College Board has asked during the May AP Government & Politics Exam. AP United States Government and Politics FRQ PACKET In this packet are all of the FRQs that the College Board has asked during the May AP Government & Politics Exam. There is also a table of contents on

More information

The Structure of Arguments

The Structure of Arguments Chapter Eighteen The Structure of Arguments Argumentation is the process whereby humans use reason to engage in critical decisionmaking. The focus on reason distinguishes argumentation from other modes

More information

5. Which normally describes the political party system in the United States? 1. A political party supports this during an election: A.

5. Which normally describes the political party system in the United States? 1. A political party supports this during an election: A. 1. A political party supports this during an election: A. Public Policy B. Platform C. Compromise D. Third Party 2. Third parties usually impact government by: A. Electing large numbers of politicians

More information

THE SENATE RACE IN NEW JERSEY October 20-25, 2006

THE SENATE RACE IN NEW JERSEY October 20-25, 2006 CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL For release: October 26, 2006 6:00 P.M. EDT THE SENATE RACE IN NEW JERSEY October 20-25, 2006 It s a horse race in the contest for U.S. Senate in New Jersey. Democrat Robert

More information

Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion

Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion From earlier material remember that if X is the count of successes in a sample of n trials of a binomial random variable then the proportion of success is given

More information

Districting Principles and Democratic. Representation. Thesis by. Micah Altman. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of

Districting Principles and Democratic. Representation. Thesis by. Micah Altman. In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Districting Principles and Democratic Representation Thesis by Micah Altman In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy California Institute of Technology Pasadena,

More information

Climate Compared: Public Opinion on Climate Change in the United States and Canada Christopher P. Borick, Erick Lachapelle, and Barry G.

Climate Compared: Public Opinion on Climate Change in the United States and Canada Christopher P. Borick, Erick Lachapelle, and Barry G. Number 39 April 2011 Climate Compared: Public Opinion on Climate Change in the United States and Canada Christopher P. Borick, Erick Lachapelle, and Barry G. Rabe Recent Issues in Governance Studies Cultivating

More information

Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Latinos: The Latino Electorate

Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Latinos: The Latino Electorate Summary and Chartpack Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation National Survey of Latinos: The Latino Electorate October 2002 Methodology The Pew Hispanic Center/Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation National

More information

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, January, 2016, Republican Primary Voters: More Conservative than GOP General Election Voters

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, January, 2016, Republican Primary Voters: More Conservative than GOP General Election Voters NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE JANUARY 28, 2016 FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Carroll Doherty, Director of Political Research Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research Bridget

More information

Summary Report of the MIT Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Survey

Summary Report of the MIT Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Survey Summary Report of the MIT Physics Graduate Qualifying Exam Survey MIT Physics Graduate Student Council 1 Introduction The general exam system of the Department of Physics at MIT has often been a topic

More information

College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal May 2008 Volume 4, Number 5

College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal May 2008 Volume 4, Number 5 A Comparison Of Student Performance In An Online Introductory Accounting Course With Traditional Classroom Students Charles T. Stivason, Marshall University Gary Saunders, Marshall University Jean B. Price,

More information

Government in America People, Politics, and Policy 16th Edition, AP Edition 2014

Government in America People, Politics, and Policy 16th Edition, AP Edition 2014 A Correlation of 16th Edition, AP Edition 2014 Advanced Placement U.S. Government and Politics AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of,

More information

Description: Objectives & Purpose:

Description: Objectives & Purpose: Description: Hosted in the restored 1902 historic House Chamber, Issues in the House of Representatives is our most popular program for school groups. Students will be seated in reproduction 1902 desks

More information

GUIDELINES FOR TENURE AND PROMOTION. Kenan-Flagler Business School The University of North Carolina

GUIDELINES FOR TENURE AND PROMOTION. Kenan-Flagler Business School The University of North Carolina GUIDELINES FOR TENURE AND PROMOTION Kenan-Flagler Business School The University of North Carolina Adopted April 24, 1985 and amended March 30, 2009, September 12, 2011 All procedures and policies relating

More information

Partisan Polarization and the Effect of Congressional Performance Evaluations on Party. Brands and American Elections. David R.

Partisan Polarization and the Effect of Congressional Performance Evaluations on Party. Brands and American Elections. David R. Partisan Polarization and the Effect of Congressional Performance Evaluations on Party Brands and American Elections David R. Jones Baruch College and Graduate Center, City University of New York Address:

More information

Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law?

Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law? Session 8 Smith, Is There A Prima Facie Obligation to Obey the Law? Identifying the Question Not: Does the fact that some act is against the law provide us with a reason to believe (i.e. evidence) that

More information

Statewide Survey of Louisiana Likely Voters on David Duke

Statewide Survey of Louisiana Likely Voters on David Duke Statewide Survey of Louisiana Likely Voters on David Duke The University of New Orleans Survey Research Center (SRC) sponsored an automated interactive voice response (IVR) telephone survey of likely Louisiana

More information

Who Governs? CHAPTER 22 REVIEWING THE CHAPTER CHAPTER FOCUS STUDY OUTLINE

Who Governs? CHAPTER 22 REVIEWING THE CHAPTER CHAPTER FOCUS STUDY OUTLINE CHAPTER 22 Who Governs? REVIEWING THE CHAPTER CHAPTER FOCUS This chapter provides an overview of American politics and central themes of the text, namely, Who Governs? To What Ends? A broad perspective

More information

The Structure and Function of the Legislative Branch Notes. Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives

The Structure and Function of the Legislative Branch Notes. Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives Attachment A The Structure and Function of the Legislative Branch Notes Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives The Role of Congress Congress is the lawmaking or legislative body of our

More information

AP Government Free Response Questions 1988 2006

AP Government Free Response Questions 1988 2006 AP Government Free Response Questions 1988 2006 1988 The Bureaucracy, Political Parties 1. To what extent does the United States federal bureaucracy stand above politics and administer impartially the

More information

ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS ADVANCED PLACEMENT UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS TEXTBOOK: Government in America: People and Policy. (12 th Edition) Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry SUPPLEMENTAL TEXT: American Government Readings

More information

Party Attributes ABC News/Washington Post poll

Party Attributes ABC News/Washington Post poll ABC NEWS/WASHINGTON POST POLL: MIDTERM ELECTIONS 11/2/05 EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE AFTER 6 a.m. Sunday, Nov. 6, 2005 A Year from the 06 Midterms The Democrats Lead on Issues A year out from the 2006 midterms,

More information

Who Wins, Who Loses: Pluralism Versus Elitism

Who Wins, Who Loses: Pluralism Versus Elitism CHAPTER NINE Who Wins, Who Loses: Pluralism Versus Elitism CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter examines two competing approaches pluralism and the power elite school--in order to answer the basic questions Who

More information

Fairfield Public Schools Social Studies Curriculum Civics: International Relations Grades 11-12

Fairfield Public Schools Social Studies Curriculum Civics: International Relations Grades 11-12 Fairfield Public Schools Social Studies Curriculum Civics: International Relations Grades 11-12 12/14/2015 1 Civics and International Relations: Description This course is designed to explore the important

More information

Recent Trends and New Evidence in Economics and Finance Education

Recent Trends and New Evidence in Economics and Finance Education JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE EDUCATION Volume 8 Number 2 Summer 2009 1 Recent Trends and New Evidence in Economics and Finance Education J.R. Clark, Mark C. Schug, and Ashley S. Harrison 1 ABSTRACT

More information

The Psychology of Voting

The Psychology of Voting The Psychology of Voting by Jon A. Krosnick Professor of Psychology and Political Science Ohio State University Screen 1: Choosing a President is Like Choosing a Movie Chooser Imagine that this coming

More information

DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. Posc/Uapp 816 CONTINGENCY TABLES

DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. Posc/Uapp 816 CONTINGENCY TABLES DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS Posc/Uapp 816 CONTINGENCY TABLES I. AGENDA: A. Cross-classifications 1. Two-by-two and R by C tables 2. Statistical independence 3. The interpretation

More information

Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers?

Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers? Social Education 72(2), pp 71 75 2009 National Council for the Social Studies Special Section Are High School Economics Teachers the Same as Other Social Studies Teachers? The Results of a National Survey

More information

Quantitative Research Methods II. Vera E. Troeger Office: Office Hours: by appointment

Quantitative Research Methods II. Vera E. Troeger Office: Office Hours: by appointment Quantitative Research Methods II Vera E. Troeger Office: 0.67 E-mail: v.e.troeger@warwick.ac.uk Office Hours: by appointment Quantitative Data Analysis Descriptive statistics: description of central variables

More information

AP UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES AP UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 6 points Part (a): 1 point One point is earned for identifying one specific trend evident in the figure: Percentage of House

More information

Public satisfaction with the NHS in 2015

Public satisfaction with the NHS in 2015 SUMMARY Public satisfaction with the NHS in 2015 Results and trends from the British Social Attitudes survey Authors John Appleby Ruth Robertson February 2016 Introduction Since 1983, NatCen Social Research

More information

Candidate Style Answers

Candidate Style Answers Candidate Style Answers GCSE Citizenship Studies OCR GCSE in Citizenship Studies: J269 Unit: A342 These candidate style answers are designed to accompany the OCR GCSE Citizenship Studies specification

More information

Public Support for Raising the Minimum Wage

Public Support for Raising the Minimum Wage Public for Raising the Minimum Wage Findings from a Survey of 805 Likely 2012 General Election Voters Nationwide Celinda Lake, Daniel Gotoff, and Alex Dunn Washington, DC Berkeley, CA New York, NY LakeResearch.com

More information

Comparison of Research Designs Template

Comparison of Research Designs Template Comparison of Comparison of The following seven tables provide an annotated template to guide you through the comparison of research designs assignment in this course. These tables help you organize your

More information

Engaging Your Employees About Politics and Public Policy

Engaging Your Employees About Politics and Public Policy Engaging Your Employees About Politics and Public Policy A member guide to help employers talk about issues, candidates, and elections with employees. Disclaimer The content of this packet applies only

More information

2014 Texas Lyceum Poll. Executive Summary of Texans Attitudes on Immigration, Abortion, and Health Care

2014 Texas Lyceum Poll. Executive Summary of Texans Attitudes on Immigration, Abortion, and Health Care 2014 of Texans Attitudes on Immigration, Abortion, and Health Care Even in a red state, ambivalent attitudes show context matters. Partisan, age, race, and ethnicity divides are apparent throughout. A

More information

State and Local Organization. Party Organization Basic Characteristics. Basic definition & characteristics Three levels of party organization

State and Local Organization. Party Organization Basic Characteristics. Basic definition & characteristics Three levels of party organization Party Organizations Overview Basic definition & characteristics Three levels of party organization Local State National Historical changes in party organizations Party Organization Basic Characteristics

More information

Business Benefits of Volunteering

Business Benefits of Volunteering Business Benefits of Volunteering An introduction to skills based volunteering Mari Frengstad TABLE OF CONTENT: Executive Summary... 3 Introduction... 5 What skills are key to Hammerson s success?... 5

More information

In Denmark, where the voting age is the same as

In Denmark, where the voting age is the same as Voter Turnout in Canada and Denmark by Jessica Nasrallah The recent decline in voter turnout for Canadian federal elections is a cause for concern. In the 1993 election, voter turnout fell to 70 percent

More information

Fall 2011 National Survey of American Public Opinion on Climate Change Christopher Borick and Barry Rabe

Fall 2011 National Survey of American Public Opinion on Climate Change Christopher Borick and Barry Rabe Number 44 February 2012 Fall 2011 National Survey of American Public Opinion on Climate Change Christopher Borick and Barry Rabe Barry G. Rabe is a nonresident senior fellow in Governance Studies at The

More information

HEARING QUESTIONS CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT LEVEL

HEARING QUESTIONS CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT LEVEL Unit One: What Are the Philosophical and Historical Foundations of the American Political System? 1. How did both classical republicans and the natural rights philosophers influence the Founders views

More information

What s Wrong with the Airline Industry? Diagnosis and Possible Cures. Statement of

What s Wrong with the Airline Industry? Diagnosis and Possible Cures. Statement of What s Wrong with the Airline Industry? Diagnosis and Possible Cures Statement of Steven A. Morrison Professor and Chair, Department of Economics Northeastern University Boston, MA 02115 617-373-2873 s.morrison@neu.edu

More information

NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5

NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5 NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5 In order to determine which test is more appropriate to administer to your elementary grade students, it is important to consider the

More information

THE FIELD POLL. By Mark DiCamillo, Director, The Field Poll

THE FIELD POLL. By Mark DiCamillo, Director, The Field Poll THE FIELD POLL THE INDEPENDENT AND NON-PARTISAN SURVEY OF PUBLIC OPINION ESTABLISHED IN 1947 AS THE CALIFORNIA POLL BY MERVIN FIELD Field Research Corporation 601 California Street, Suite 210 San Francisco,

More information

Does coaching work? Can mathematics coaches make a difference?

Does coaching work? Can mathematics coaches make a difference? 1 Defining Mathematics Coaching Does coaching work? Can mathematics coaches make a difference? These are real questions in an ongoing debate about the value of content coaching. According to the National

More information

Chapter 5 and 6 Study Guide

Chapter 5 and 6 Study Guide Chapter 5 and 6 Study Guide Matching a. not an answer b. political party c. major parties d. not an answer e. split-ticket voting f. precinct g. pluralistic society 1. the smallest unit of election administration

More information

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans Business Levi Evans Democratic Socialism Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden Levi Evans Democratic presidential primary candidate, Bernie Sanders, wants America to adopt the political and

More information

THE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS AND DISSATISFACTION WITH GOVERNMENT February 5-10 th, 2010

THE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS AND DISSATISFACTION WITH GOVERNMENT February 5-10 th, 2010 CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL For release: Thursday, February 11th, 2010 6:30 PM (EST) THE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS AND DISSATISFACTION WITH GOVERNMENT February 5-10 th, 2010 The latest CBS News/New York Times

More information

Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations September, 2002 (Revised January, 2006) Icek Ajzen Brief Description of the Theory of Planned Behavior According to the theory

More information

CALCULATIONS & STATISTICS

CALCULATIONS & STATISTICS CALCULATIONS & STATISTICS CALCULATION OF SCORES Conversion of 1-5 scale to 0-100 scores When you look at your report, you will notice that the scores are reported on a 0-100 scale, even though respondents

More information

Research Design. Relationships in Nonexperimental Research. Nonexperimental Research Designs and Survey Research. Katie Rommel-Esham Education 504

Research Design. Relationships in Nonexperimental Research. Nonexperimental Research Designs and Survey Research. Katie Rommel-Esham Education 504 Nonexperimental Research Designs and Survey Research Katie Rommel-Esham Education 504 Research Design Research design deals with the ways in which data are gathered from subjects Relationships in Nonexperimental

More information

Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Section 1: The Federal Bureaucracy

Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Section 1: The Federal Bureaucracy Chapter 15: The Bureaucracy Section 1: The Federal Bureaucracy Key Terms: bureaucracy, bureaucrat, administration, staff agency, line agency A. What is the Bureaucracy? 1. The bureaucracy is any large,

More information

How to Read a Research Article

How to Read a Research Article RACHEL DUNIFON How to Read a Research Article The goal of this Research Brief is to provide information that will make reading a research article more illuminating. For example, you might want to learn

More information

Voters to Washington in 2010: Put Out the Fire! An analysis of the 2010 midterm elections

Voters to Washington in 2010: Put Out the Fire! An analysis of the 2010 midterm elections Voters to Washington in 2010: Put Out the Fire! An analysis of the 2010 midterm elections (Note: This analysis is based on a combination of the news media Exit Poll of 17,504 House voters, and a New Models

More information

Wisconsin Survey Spring 2012

Wisconsin Survey Spring 2012 The St. Norbert College Wisconsin Public Radio Wisconsin Survey Spring 2012 Survey Information: Random Selection, Landline and Cell Telephone Survey Number of Adult Wisconsin Residents: 406 LIKELY VOTERS

More information

President Obama, Public Participation, and an Agenda for Research and Experimentation

President Obama, Public Participation, and an Agenda for Research and Experimentation President Obama, Public Participation, and an Agenda for Research and Experimentation THOMAS A. BRYER* Abstract The Obama Administration has offered citizens and onlookers from other nations a host of

More information

Republicans Get behind Trump, but Not All of His Policies

Republicans Get behind Trump, but Not All of His Policies Republicans Get behind Trump, but Not All of His Policies Dina Smeltz, Senior Fellow, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy Karl Friedhoff, Fellow, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy Craig Kafura, Research

More information

Trust in Government and Support for Municipal Services

Trust in Government and Support for Municipal Services University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Publications of the University of Nebraska Public Policy Center Public Policy Center, University of Nebraska 2014 Trust

More information

Evaluation of the Casework Documentation Pilot Final Report

Evaluation of the Casework Documentation Pilot Final Report Evaluation of the Casework Documentation Pilot Final Report May 12, 2015 Submitted by: Cynthia Osborne, Ph.D. Director, Child and Family Research Partnership LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of

More information

THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description. Federal Judicial Center

THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description. Federal Judicial Center THE US LEGAL SYSTEM: A Short Description Federal Judicial Center Background The United States Constitution establishes a federal system of government. The Constitution gives specific powers to the federal

More information

COI Research Management Summary on behalf of the Department of Health

COI Research Management Summary on behalf of the Department of Health COI Research Management Summary on behalf of the Department of Health Title: Worth Talking About Campaign Evaluation 2010 / 2011 Quantitative research conducted by TNS-BMRB COI Reference number: 114770

More information

Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education

Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education Neutrality s Much Needed Place In Dewey s Two-Part Criterion For Democratic Education Taylor Wisneski, Kansas State University Abstract This paper examines methods provided by both John Dewey and Amy Gutmann.

More information

How to Vote! A WORKBOOK BY STUDENTS FOR STUDENTS. California Edition

How to Vote! A WORKBOOK BY STUDENTS FOR STUDENTS. California Edition How to Vote! A WORKBOOK BY STUDENTS FOR STUDENTS California Edition CONTENTS This workbook was put together by adult reading students (also called learners ) to help other students learn more about voting.

More information

HOT TOPICS CAFÉ HAS BAD POLITICS OR GOOD GOVERNMENT BEEN TRUMPED?

HOT TOPICS CAFÉ HAS BAD POLITICS OR GOOD GOVERNMENT BEEN TRUMPED? HOT TOPICS CAFÉ HAS BAD POLITICS OR GOOD GOVERNMENT BEEN TRUMPED? October 21, 2015 AGENDA 4:00 p.m. Welcome and Introduction Dr. Jeff Downard, The NAU Department of Philosophy 4:15 p.m. Community Discussion

More information

Political Polling in Arkansas: Wave 2 Research undertaken for Reuters

Political Polling in Arkansas: Wave 2 Research undertaken for Reuters 1146 19 th St., NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20036 (202) 463-7300 Interview dates: September 17-19, 2010 Interviews: 600 registered ; 436 likely (LV) in Arkansas 251 Democrats/Lean Democrats; 274 Republicans/Lean

More information

Partisan Voting Intentions: (Congress 2000)

Partisan Voting Intentions: (Congress 2000) 12.1 American Voters: Partisan Voting Intentions (Congress 2000) for each General Housing Type (Owners and Renters) 6 4 2 Owner Renter Republican 34% 18% Democrat 35% 44% Undecided 31% 38% 12.2 American

More information

The role of school improvement in economic development

The role of school improvement in economic development The role of school improvement in economic development PaperworkbyE.A.HanushekandL.Wößmann Presentation made by Dario Cortenova Course of Economics of Education Academic Year 2010/2011 Framework Introduction

More information

Student Evaluations and the Assessment of Teaching: What Can We Learn from the Data?

Student Evaluations and the Assessment of Teaching: What Can We Learn from the Data? Student Evaluations and the Assessment of Teaching: What Can We Learn from the Data? Martin D. D. Evans and Paul D. McNelis Department of Economics, Georgetown University September 2000 This study was

More information

The American Panel Survey

The American Panel Survey Draft: To be updated in June Guide for Investigators The American Panel Survey Weidenbaum Center Washington University James L. Gibson and Steven S. Smith, Directors About The American Panel Survey (TAPS)

More information

NALEO Educational Fund/Noticias Telemundo/Latino Decisions Weekly Tracking Poll Week 1: September (N=511; MoE +/-4.

NALEO Educational Fund/Noticias Telemundo/Latino Decisions Weekly Tracking Poll Week 1: September (N=511; MoE +/-4. 1. Thinking ahead to the November 2016 election, what would you say the chances are that you will vote in the election for U.S. President, Congress and other state offices - are you almost certain to vote,

More information

Hypothesis Testing I

Hypothesis Testing I ypothesis Testing I The testing process:. Assumption about population(s) parameter(s) is made, called null hypothesis, denoted. 2. Then the alternative is chosen (often just a negation of the null hypothesis),

More information

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Type of document: Policy _x_ Guideline Procedure Version: 1.0, January 1 2001 Decision: Steering Group, Date? A Campbell Systematic Review is meant to review

More information

REDUCE YOUR OPEN SOURCE SECURITY RISK: STRATEGIES, TACTICS, AND TOOLS

REDUCE YOUR OPEN SOURCE SECURITY RISK: STRATEGIES, TACTICS, AND TOOLS REDUCE YOUR OPEN SOURCE SECURITY RISK: STRATEGIES, TACTICS, AND TOOLS Open source security must be a priority While there s no doubt that open source software (OSS) is here to stay, that doesn t mean that

More information

A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission

A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission A report by Saied Reza Ameli and Arzu Merali for the Islamic Human Rights Commission Dual Citizenship: British, Islamic or Both? Obligation, Recognition, Respect and Belonging A report by Saied Reza Ameli

More information

The Fed, Interest Rates, and Presidential Elections

The Fed, Interest Rates, and Presidential Elections The Fed, Interest Rates, and Presidential Elections by David Brubaker Summary During every four-year presidential term, there is a period of 24 months when the Federal Reserve Board s actions on interest

More information

2014 ASIAN AMERICAN ELECTION EVE POLL

2014 ASIAN AMERICAN ELECTION EVE POLL AAPI CIVIC ENGAGEMENT FUND 2014 ASIAN AMERICAN ELECTION EVE POLL Presentation of Results November 6, 2014 2014 Election Eve Poll 1150 AsianAm voters 3 state samples Oct 30th - Nov 3rd National ± 3.7% California

More information

CORRELATION SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS. 1 SE = Student Edition TE = Teacher Edition TR = Teacher Resources TECH = Technology

CORRELATION SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS. 1 SE = Student Edition TE = Teacher Edition TR = Teacher Resources TECH = Technology CORRELATION SUNSHINE STATE STANDARDS SUBJECT: Social Studies SUBMISSION TITLE: Prentice Hall Civics: Government and Economics In Action 2005 PUBLISHER: Pearson Prentice Hall GRADE: Grade 6-8 M/J Civics/

More information

Numerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301

Numerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301 Numerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301 Motivation... In the previous session, we used graphical techniques to describe data. For example: While this histogram provides useful insight, other interesting

More information

Diversity Experiences of First Year Students: Findings from the NECASL Panel Study of the Class of 2010 June 2009. Introduction

Diversity Experiences of First Year Students: Findings from the NECASL Panel Study of the Class of 2010 June 2009. Introduction Diversity Experiences of First Year Students: Findings from the NECASL Panel Study of the Class of 2010 June 2009 Introduction This analysis focuses primarily on a set of questions about diversity asked

More information

Jon A. Krosnick and LinChiat Chang, Ohio State University. April, 2001. Introduction

Jon A. Krosnick and LinChiat Chang, Ohio State University. April, 2001. Introduction A Comparison of the Random Digit Dialing Telephone Survey Methodology with Internet Survey Methodology as Implemented by Knowledge Networks and Harris Interactive Jon A. Krosnick and LinChiat Chang, Ohio

More information

3. To provide a forum for informed political debate and discussion.

3. To provide a forum for informed political debate and discussion. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND LAW CURRICULUM DESCRIPTION OF COURSE This course is designed to provide an in-depth look at the American Political System, along with an overview of the American legal system. Students

More information

AP US Government & Politics Review Packet

AP US Government & Politics Review Packet AP US Government & Politics Review Packet This packet is designed to assist you in preparing for your AP Final Exam; in no way should this packet be used as your only preparation method. You should use

More information

January 2014 Preliminary survey report: the skill needs of major Canadian employers

January 2014 Preliminary survey report: the skill needs of major Canadian employers Preliminary survey report: the skill needs of major Canadian employers Preliminary survey report: the skill needs of major Canadian employers About the Initiative This document is one of a series of reports

More information

By eliminating jobs and/or reducing employment growth,

By eliminating jobs and/or reducing employment growth, Issue Brief M M A N H A T T A N I N S T I T U T E F O R P O L I C Y R E S E A R C H I No. 36 July 2015 Published by the Manhattan Institute and American Action Forum COUNTERPRODUCTIVE The Employment and

More information

CITIZEN ADVOCACY CENTER

CITIZEN ADVOCACY CENTER CITIZEN ADVOCACY CENTER Third-Party Presidential Candidates: Barriers to Ballot Access LESSON PLAN AND ACTIVITIES All rights reserved. No part of this lesson plan may be reproduced in any form or by any

More information

The Election of 1860 By Ron Miller - Jewett Academy

The Election of 1860 By Ron Miller - Jewett Academy The Election of 1860 By Ron Miller - Jewett Academy I. Lesson Summary Summary The Election of 1860 demonstrated the divisions within the United States just before the Civil War. The election was unusual

More information

Sample Paper for Research Methods. Daren H. Kaiser. Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne

Sample Paper for Research Methods. Daren H. Kaiser. Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 1 Sample Paper for Research Methods Daren H. Kaiser Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne Running head: RESEARCH METHODS PAPER 2 Abstract First notice that

More information

All About A/B Testing. How to Test, What to Test, and How to Analyze Your Results

All About A/B Testing. How to Test, What to Test, and How to Analyze Your Results How to Test, What to Test, and How to Analyze Your Results vs [ 1 ] Introduction A/B testing, also called split testing, is one of the best ways to optimize your email campaign. But it can be daunting

More information

Three Theories of Individual Behavioral Decision-Making

Three Theories of Individual Behavioral Decision-Making Three Theories of Individual Decision-Making Be precise and explicit about what you want to understand. It is critical to successful research that you are very explicit and precise about the general class

More information

Chapter 8: Political Parties

Chapter 8: Political Parties Chapter 8: Political Parties Political Parties and their Functions Political party: an organization that sponsors candidates for public office under the organization s name True political parties select

More information

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND INFERENCE. Lecture 12

SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS AND INFERENCE. Lecture 12 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

1. Knowledge of the principles expressed in documents shaping constitutional democracy in the United States

1. Knowledge of the principles expressed in documents shaping constitutional democracy in the United States Social Studies Grades 9-12 Ohio Missouri United States GOVERNMENT 2006 STANDARDS Principles of Constitutional Democracy 1. Knowledge of the principles expressed in documents shaping constitutional democracy

More information

Global civil society beyond the good and the bad

Global civil society beyond the good and the bad Global civil society beyond the good and the bad Håkan Thörn and Heidi Moksnes What is global civil society? And what is the meaning of global civil society? A few years ago, there was a debate on whether

More information

2014 post-election survey EUROPEAN ELECTIONS 2014

2014 post-election survey EUROPEAN ELECTIONS 2014 Directorate-General for Communication PUBLIC OPINION MONITORING UNIT Brussels, October 2014. 2014 post-election survey EUROPEAN ELECTIONS 2014 ANALYTICAL OVERVIEW Coverage: Population: Methodology: Fieldwork:

More information

CUSTOMER SERVICE SATISFACTION WAVE 4

CUSTOMER SERVICE SATISFACTION WAVE 4 04/12/2012 GFK CUSTOMER SERVICE SATISFACTION WAVE 4 GfK NOP Amanda Peet 2 Customer Service Satisfaction Table of Contents: Executive Summary... 3 Objectives and Methodology... 5 Overview of all sectors...

More information

Political Science. Administered by the Department of Social Sciences within the College of Arts and Sciences.

Political Science. Administered by the Department of Social Sciences within the College of Arts and Sciences. Political Science Administered by the Department of Social Sciences within the College of Arts and Sciences. The purpose of the Political Science program is to provide an in-depth study of American government

More information

Delaware Recommended Curriculum Teaching Civics with Primary Sources Grant Project

Delaware Recommended Curriculum Teaching Civics with Primary Sources Grant Project Delaware Recommended Curriculum Teaching Civics with Primary Sources Grant Project This lesson has been created as an exemplary model for teachers in (re)design of course curricula. An exemplary model

More information

German Language Teaching and Teacher Training at Colleges and Universities in the US

German Language Teaching and Teacher Training at Colleges and Universities in the US German Language Teaching and Teacher Training at Colleges and Universities in the US Summary of Results of Online Survey Conducted Between April 7-24, 2003 By Megan Brenn-White May 2003 The survey was

More information

Unit 26 Estimation with Confidence Intervals

Unit 26 Estimation with Confidence Intervals Unit 26 Estimation with Confidence Intervals Objectives: To see how confidence intervals are used to estimate a population proportion, a population mean, a difference in population proportions, or a difference

More information