# Chapter 27 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Forces

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1 Chapter 27 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Forces In this chapter we investigate forces exerted by magnetic fields. In the next chapter we will study the sources of magnetic fields. The force produced by magnetic fields has played a pivotal role in our production of electrical energy. Likewise, the transport of this electrical energy (to produce magnetic fields far away from their source) has made it more convenient to live and work at remote locations. We will also introduce the concept of magnetic flux (Φ mag ) and the important role it plays in the production of electrical power. 1 Magnetism The magnetic phenomena was first recorded at least 2500 years ago in fragments of magnetised iron ore found near the ancient city Magnesia (Manisa, in western Turkey). Today we call these fragments permanent fragments. Magnetic fragments were observed to attract and repel when brought close together. Figure 1: This figure shows the possible forces of attraction and repulsion that occur with bar magnets. Before the source of magnetic fields was understood, the interaction of permanent magnets and compass needles were described in terms of magnetic poles. 1

2 The Earth s Magnetic Field Figure 2: This figure show the earth s magnetic field with the internal south-pole in the northern hemisphere. The north-seeking compass needles point northward to the earth s magnetic south-pole. 2

3 1.1 Magnetic Poles Versus Electric Charge Figure 3: This figure shows that trying to separate the north pole from the south pole is a futile exercise. It always results in the production of two magnetic dipoles. To date: magnetic monopoles have not been observed!! The Danish physicist, Hans Oersted, first noticed the connection between current and the production of magnetic fields in Figure 4: This figure shows the effect of a nearby current and its interaction with a compass needle. Opposite currents result in an opposite change in the direction of the compass needle. 3

4 2 Magnetic Field We would like to introduce the concept of a magnetic field much in the same we that we described the electrostatic force. 1. We said that the distribution of electric charge will create an electric field E in the surrounding space. 2. Also, we observed that the electric field exerted a force proportion to the product of the charge and the electric field F = q E. In the case of magnetic interactions, we should be able to say the following: 1. A moving charge or a current creates a magnetic field in the surrounding space, and 2. The magnetic field exerts a force F on other moving charge or currents that are present in the field. 2.1 Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges F = q v B (1) where q is the charge (coulombs), v is the velocity (m/s), and B is the magnetic field (teslas). One tesla is: 1 T = 1 N/(A m) Figure 5: This figure illustrates the magnetic force resulting from a charge q moving with velocity v in a uniform magnetic field B. 4

5 2.2 The Right-Hand Rule Figure 6: This figure illustrates how to apply the right-hand rule to the equation F = q v B. Figure 7: This figure illustrates how opposite charges result in opposite force vectors F. This figure illustrates how opposite charges result in opposite force vectors F. 5

6 2.3 Measuring Magnetic Fields with Test Charges Figure 8: This figure illustrates how to measure the strength and direction of a magnetic field by tracking the motion of a test charge q. F = q v B 6

7 3 Magnetic Field Lines and Magnetic Flux Figure 9: The magnetic fields are stronger at the pole faces (i.e., higher flux) and weaker at field points far away from the pole face (i.e., lower flux). 7

8 3.1 Magnetic Flux and Gauss s Law for Magnetism Figure 10: This figure shows the continuity of magnetic field lines for a number of different geometries. Notice that there are no sources and no sinks for the magnetic filed lines. Φ B = B cos φ da = B da = B d A (2) Figure 11: This figure illustrates how to calculate the flux of magnetic field Φ m passing through an open surface. If we have a planar surface, then the flux is easily written as: Φ B = B A = BA cos φ (3) 8

9 The unit of flux is called the weber (1 Wb), in honor of the German physicist Wilhelm Weber ( ). Gauss s Law for Magnetism 1 Wb = 1 T m 2 = 1 N m/a The total magnetic flux through any closed surface: Φ B = S B d A = 0 (Always) Magnetic Flux Through a Surface Figure 12: This figure illustrates how to calculate the flux of magnetic field Φ m passing through an open surface. In this case, the magnetic flux Φ B 0. 4 Motion of Charged Particles in a Magnetic Field F = q v B (4) Motion of a charged particle under the action of a magnetic field alone is always motion with constant speed. The angular velocity of the charged-particle s circular motion can be found by using Newton s 2nd law: 9

10 Figure 13: This figure illustrates how to calculate the flux of magnetic field Φ m passing through an open surface. 10

11 Fext = ma c qvb = mv2 R p = mv = qbr Also v = Rω So, ω = v R = q B m Magnetic Bottle in Plasma Physics (cyclotron frequency) (5) Figure 14: This figure demonstrates how a magnetic field can be used to contain high-temperature ions in a magnetic bottle. 11

12 Magnetic Fields in High Energy Physics Figure 15: This figure shows a gamma-ray conversion into an electron-positron pair, along with a δ-ray (electron) kicked out of a neutral hydrogen atom during the conversion process. At first glance, it appears that charge is not conserved; however, if you include the δ-ray electron in the initial part of the balanced charge equation, charge is conserved. (γ + e e + e + e ) 12

13 Velocity Selector If electric and magnetic fields are simultaneously applied to the motion of a charged particle (as shown in the figure below), it is possible to build a velocity selector: ( ) F = q E + v B Figure 16: This figure illustrates how to calculate the flux of magnetic field Φ m passing through an open surface. The ions that successfully make it through the collimator at the bottom of the velocity selector satisfy the following condition (ignore gravity): v = E B (ions that move in a straight line) (6) 13

14 Mass Spectrometers A mass spectrometer is shown in the following figure. This device is used to separate nuclear isotopes with slightly different atomic masses (e.g., 235 U and 238 U.) Figure 17: This figure shows ions with the same velocity but different masses being separated in the second magnetic field at the bottom of the figure. In this figure, the magnetic field B is presumed to be the same inside and outside the velocity selector. R = v = E B R = mv q B me q B 2 (Radius as a function of mass) (7) 14

15 5 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor We can compute the force on a current-carrying conductor starting with the magnetic force F = q v B on a single moving charge. Let s assume that all the positive charges are moving with a uniform velocity v d. Figure 18: This figure shows the current moving upwards in a uniform magnetic field B pointing into the page. The resulting force F = q v d B points to the left. F = (nal)(qv d B) where n is the number density of positive charges, A is the cross-sectional area, and l is the short segment length of wire. If we identify the current density as J = nqv d and JA = I, we can rewrite the above equation as: F = IlB 15

16 If the magnetic field B is not perpendicular to the wire but makes an angle φ with it, then F = IlB sin φ. This equation can be written using vector notation as: F = I l B (8) where l points in the current direction. If the conductor is not straight, we can divide it into infinitesimal segments d l. The differential force due to this differential line segment will be: d F = I d l B (9) where, once again, d l points in the direction of the current. Figure 19: This figure shows the force on a current-carrying wire of length l subtending an angle φ with respect to the magnetic field B. 16

17 5.1 Magnetic Force on a Curved Conductor Figure 20: This figure shows ions with the same velocity but different masses being separated in the second magnetic field at the bottom of the figure. In this figure, the magnetic field B is presumed to be the same inside and outside the velocity selector. df x = IR dθ B cos θ df y = IR dθ B sin θ F x = F y = df x = IRB df y = IRB π 0 π 0 cos θ dθ = 0 sin θ dθ = 2IRB 17

18 6 Force and Torque on a Current Loop Figure 21: This figure shows how to calculate the forces on each of the four segments of the current loop. From this, the resulting torques can be calculated. The force on each segment is going to be: F = I l B While the sum of the forces is zero, the sum of the torques is generally not. Fi = 0 however, in general τ 0 τ = 2F (b/2) sin φ = (IBa)(b sin φ) The magnitude of the magnetic torque on a current loop is: τ = IBA sin φ (10) where A is the area of the loop and φ is the angle between the area-normal A = Aˆn and the magnetic field B. The produce IA is called the magnetic dipole moment µ. So, we can write the torque as 18

19 Torque on a Magnetic Dipole τ = µ B (Torque on a magnetic dipole) (11) Potential Energy for a Magnetic Dipole U = µ B (12) 7 Direct Current Motor Figure 22: This figure shows the principle design of a dc motor (direct current). As the loop is rotating, the torque varies but always in a direction to cause the loop to continuously turn in the counter-clockwise direction. 8 The Hall Effect 19

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