# Chapter 26 Magnetism

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1 What is the fundamental hypothesis of science, the fundamental philosophy? [It is the following:] the sole test of the validity of any idea is experiment. Richard P. Feynman 26.1 The Force on a Charge in a Magnetic Field - The Definition of the Magnetic Field In addition to the existence of electric fields in nature, there are also magnetic fields. Most students have seen and played with a simple bar magnet, observing that the magnet attracts nails, paper clips, and the like. Some may have even placed the bar magnet under a piece of paper and sprinkled iron filings on the paper, observing the characteristic magnetic field of a bar magnet, figure One N S Figure 26.1 The magnetic field of a bar magnet. end of the magnet is called a north pole, while the other end is called a south pole. The magnetic field is defined to emerge from the north pole of the magnet and enter at the south pole. A compass needle, a tiny bar magnet, placed in a magnetic field, aligns itself with the field. The designation of poles as north and south is arbitrary, just as electric charges are arbitrarily called positive and negative. Just as the combination of a positive and a negative electric charge is called an electric dipole, a bar magnet, consisting as it does of a north and a south magnetic pole, is sometimes called a magnetic dipole. The force between magnets is similar to the force between electric charges and can be stated as the fundamental principle of magnetostatics: like magnetic poles repel, while unlike magnetic poles attract. The earth has a magnetic field and when the north pole of a compass needle points in a northerly direction on the surface of the earth, it is really being attracted toward a south magnetic pole, because unlike poles attract. Hence, what is usually called the north magnetic pole of the earth is really a south pole. (ecause compass needles 26-1

2 always point toward that pole, it is sometimes erroneously called the north magnetic pole. Thus a pilot or navigator would refer to it as magnetic north.) This south magnetic pole is displaced about 1300 miles from the north geographic pole of the earth. Similarly, when the south pole of a compass needle points in a southerly direction on the surface of the earth, it is really being attracted toward a north magnetic pole. The north magnetic pole is displaced about 1200 miles from the south geographic pole of the earth. We will use the symbol to designate the magnetic field. Later in this chapter we will see how magnetic fields are generated, but for now let us accept the fact that magnetic fields do indeed exist. Recall from chapter 21 that we determined the existence of an electric field and its strength by the effect it produced on a small positive test charge q 0 placed in the region where we assumed the field to exist. If the test charge experienced a force, we said that the charge was in an electric field, and defined the electric field as E = F (21.1) q 0 It is desirable to define the magnetic field in a similar way. A positive charge q is placed at rest in a uniform magnetic field as shown in figure 26.2(a). ut to our surprise, nothing happens to the charge. No force is observed to act on the F q q θ v (a) No force on charge at rest (b) Force on moving charge Figure 26.2 A charge in a magnetic field. charge. The experiment is repeated, but now the charge is fired into the magnetic field with a velocity v, figure 26.2(b). It is now observed that a force does indeed act on the charge. The force, however, acts at an angle of 90 0 to the plane determined by the velocity vector v, and the magnetic field vector. In fact, the force acting on the moving charge is given by the cross product of v and as F = qv % (26.1) The magnitude of the force is determined from the definition of the cross product, equation 3.53, and is given by 26-2

3 F = qv sin (26.2) The angle θ is the angle between the velocity vector v and the magnetic field vector. If the angle θ between v and is 90 0 then the magnitude of the force simplifies to F = qv z (26.3) This result is now used to define the magnitude of the magnetic field as = F qv z (26.4) This definition is now similar to the definition of the electric field. The magnetic field, called the magnetic induction or the magnetic flux density, is defined as the force per unit charge, per unit velocity, provided that v is perpendicular to. The SI unit for the magnetic induction is defined from equation 26.4 to be a tesla, named after Nikola Tesla ( ), where This will be abbreviated as 1 tesla = 1 newton coulomb m/s 1 T = 1 N C m/s The relation of the Tesla with other equivalent units for the magnetic field are tesla = N = weber = 10 4 gauss A m m 2 The gauss is a cgs unit that is still used because of its convenient size. To give you an idea of the size of the tesla, the earth s magnetic field is about 1/20000 tesla. From the definition of the cross product it is obvious that if the charge has a velocity which is parallel to the magnetic field, then the angle θ will be zero and hence F = qv sin0 0 = 0 (for v ) (26.5) Of course, if the velocity of the charge is zero then the force will also be zero. The magnetic field manifests itself to a charge only when the charge is in motion with respect to the field. The maximum force occurs when v is at an angle of 90 0 to, as shown in equation It should also be stated that equation 26.1 was defined with q being a positive charge. If the charge in motion is a negative particle, such as an electron, q will be negative and the force on the negative particle will be in the opposite direction to the force on the positive particle. 26-3

4 Example 26.1 The force on a positive charge in a magnetic field. A proton is fired into a uniform magnetic field of magnitude T, at a speed of 300 m/s at an angle of to. Find the force and the acceleration of the proton. Solution The magnitude of the force acting on the proton is found from equation 26.2 as F = qv sinθ = ( C)(300 m/s)(0.500 T) Sin F = ( C (m/s) T)(N/(C m/s)) ( T ) F = N Note how the conversion factor for a tesla was used to make the force come out in the unit of newtons. The direction of the force is perpendicular to the plane of v and as shown in figure 26.2(b). The acceleration of the proton is found from Newton s second law as a = F = N = m/s 2 m p kg As long as the particle stays within the magnetic field, at the same angle θ, the magnitude of the force and the magnitude of the acceleration is a constant. Since the magnitude of the acceleration is a constant, the kinematic equations from college physics can be used to find the position of the particle at any time. To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence. Example 26.2 A force on an electron in a magnetic field. An electron is fired into a uniform magnetic field with a velocity v, as shown in figure Find the direction of the magnetic force. Solution The direction of the force is perpendicular to the plane of v and. However, since the magnitude of the force is given by F = qv sin θ 26-4

5 Figure 26.3 Force on a negative charge in a magnetic field. and the electron has a negative charge, q = e, the force on the electron is F = ev sin θ As we can see from figure 26.3, the force F points in the negative direction and points downward. (Recall that the direction of the force on a charge in a magnetic field is found by the right-hand rule. That is, point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the velocity vector v with your palm facing the magnetic field vector. Rotate your right hand from v to and your thumb will point in the direction of the force vector, in this case upward.) ut since the force is minus e times v sin θ, for the negative charge, the force F points downward. ecause a charge can experience a force in either an electric or a magnetic field, the total force on a particle in an electromagnetic field is the superposition of both forces, that is, F = F e + F m or F = qe + qv % (26.6) Equation 26.6 is known as the Lorentz force law. An interesting result occurs if we look at the work done on the particle in such a field. The work is defined as W = F x ut the total force acting on the charge was given by equation Hence the work done by the Lorentz force is W = qe x + q(v ) x (26.7) 26-5

6 Let us consider the second term q(v ) x. Since x is the displacement of the moving charge from its initial position to its next position, it is always in the direction of v at any point. Since the magnetic force q(v ) is perpendicular to v it is also perpendicular to the displacement vector x. Hence the angle between the magnetic force and the displacement is 90 0, and the dot product term (v ) x is equal to zero and thus the work done by the magnetic force is zero. That is, Therefore, equation 26.7 reduces to or Chapter 26 Magnetism W m = q(v ) x = 0 W = qe x W = qex cos θ 1 (26.8) Equation 26.8 says that only the work done on the particle by the electric field can change the energy, and hence the speed, of the particle. The magnetic field can only change the direction of the velocity vector, but not its speed. Therefore, a particle moving in a magnetic field only, always moves at a constant speed. If a charged particle q enters a uniform magnetic field with a velocity v, as shown in figure 26.4, the magnetic force F acts on the particle, deflecting it from its Figure 26.4 Deflecting a charged particle in a magnetic field. straight line motion. The particle follows the curved path until it emerges from the magnetic field. It then moves in a straight line at a constant velocity. Uniform magnetic fields are sometimes used in this way to deflect charged particles in a cathode ray oscilloscope. (Note that in figure 26.4 the symbol represents the tail of the arrow of the vector, indicating that is into the page. If were out of the page, it would be represented by dots ( ), indicating that the tip of the arrow of the vector is coming out of the page.) If the uniform magnetic field covers a large enough area, and the velocity vector makes an angle of 90 0 with the magnetic field, the particle stays in the magnetic field and moves in a circle. Consider the particle, of charge q, entering the uniform magnetic field in figure The magnetic field is everywhere into the paper and is perpendicular to v. When the charge is at position 1, moving at a velocity v 1, it experiences a force F 1, which acts upward. (Recall that the direction of 26-6

7 Figure 26.5 Deflecting a charged particle into a circular path. the force on a charge in a magnetic field is found by the right-hand rule. Point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the velocity vector v with your palm facing the magnetic field vector,. Then rotate your right hand from v to and your thumb will point in the direction of the force vector.) This force deflects the charge from its straight line motion and it follows the yellow path. All along that path a force is always acting perpendicular to the path. When the charge is at position 2, the force on it is now toward the left, again deflecting the direction of motion of the charge as shown. At position 3, the force acts downward, whereas at position 4 it acts toward the right. The particle is again deflected until it returns to its initial position 1. At every point on the trajectory of the particle, the force always acts perpendicular to the velocity vector v. Hence in this case, the magnetic force F m = qv sin θ is a centripetal force. The particle moves in a circular orbit in the uniform magnetic field at constant speed v. (The speed v remains constant because only an electric field can change the particle s speed.) The magnetic force supplies the necessary centripetal force for the particle to move in the circular path, that is, F c = F m In this case v and are perpendicular and hence θ = 90 0, the sin 90 0 = 1, and F m = qv (26.9) Equating the centripetal force, equation 6.14, to the magnetic force, equation 26.9, gives mv 2 = qv (26.10) r Solving equation for r, the radius of the orbit, gives 26-7

8 r = mv (26.11) q Since mv is the momentum of the charged particle, the radius of the orbit is directly proportional to the momentum of the particle. The larger the momentum, the larger the circular orbit. The orbital radius is inversely proportional to the charge of the particle q and the magnetic field. A large magnetic field produces a small circular orbit. If the angle θ between v and is not 90 0, a component of the velocity will be in the direction of the magnetic field. In that case, the motion does not remain in a plane and the trajectory is a helix in three dimensions. Example 26.3 The radius of the orbit of an electron in a magnetic field. Find the radius of the orbit of an electron moving at a speed of m/s in a uniform magnetic field of T. Solution The radius of the orbit, found from equation 26.11, is r = mv = ( kg)( m/s) q ( C)( T) kg m/s 2 = 9.43 % 10 CT T N Cm/s = m = 9.43 cm N kg m/s 2 Note how the conversion factors were used to give the radius in the correct units. To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence. If an electric and a magnetic field are superimposed at right angles to each other, as shown in figure 26.6, the arrangement acts as a velocity selector. The force on charge q is given by the Lorentz force, equation 26.6, as F = qe + qv The magnetic force, qv, acts upward while the electric force F e = qe acts downward. If the electric force is exactly equal in magnitude to the magnetic force, the forces cancel each other out and the net force F on the charged particle is zero. 26-8

9 Figure 26.6 A velocity selector. The particle is not deviated from its straight line motion. The requirement for the velocity to be undeviated as it moves through the combined fields, obtained from equation 26.6, is 0 = qe + qv sin 90 0 and qe = qv v = E (26.12) Therefore, particles whose speed v is given by equation pass through the combined fields undeflected and pass through the slit in the screen in figure All particles with a different velocity have a net force acting on them and are deflected from their straight line motion and do not pass through the slit in the screen. Example 26.4 A velocity selector. Alpha particles ranging in speeds from 1000 m/s to 2000 m/s enter an electromagnetic field, as in figure 26.6, where the electric intensity is 300 V/m and the magnetic induction is T. Which particles will move undeviated through the field? Solution The alpha particles moving at a speed given by equation are selected to pass straight through the field, that is, v = E 26-9

10 = 300 V/m T = 1500 m/s Only particles moving at this speed move straight through the electromagnetic field; all others are deflected. To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in an External Magnetic Field If a wire carrying a current I is placed in an external magnetic field as shown in figure 26.7, a force will be found to act on the wire. The explanation for this force F q θ v d l I Figure 26.7 Force on a current-carrying wire in an external magnetic field can be found in the magnetic force acting on a charged particle in a magnetic field. If the wire is carrying a current, then there are charges in motion within the wire. These charges will be moving with a drift velocity v d in the direction of the current flow. Any one of these charges q will experience the force F q = qv d (26.13) This force on an individual charge will cause the charge to interact with the lattice structure of the wire, exerting a force on the lattice and hence the wire itself. The drift velocity of the moving charge can be written as v d = l (26.14) t 26-10

11 where l is a small length of the wire in the direction of the current flow and is shown in figure 26.14, and t is the time. Replacing this drift velocity in equation gives F q = q l t % = q t l % (26.15) The net force on the wire is the sum of the individual forces associated with each charge carrier, i.e., q F = q F q = q t l % ut Σ q (q/t) is equal to all the charges passing through a plane of the wire per unit time and is defined to be the current in the circuit, I. Hence a wire carrying a current I in any external magnetic field, will experience a force given by F = I l % (26.16) The force is again given by a cross product term, and the direction of the force is found from l. With l in the direction of the current and pointing into the page in figure 26.7, l is a vector that points upward. If the direction of the current flow is reversed, l would be reversed and l would then point downward. The magnitude of the force is determined from equation as F = Il sin (26.17) where θ is the angle between l and. Solving equation for gives another set of units for the magnetic induction, namely Thus, This will be abbreviated as = F Il 1 tesla = newton ampere meter 1 T = 1 N A m Example 26.5 The force on current-carrying wire in a magnetic field. A 20.0 cm wire carrying a current of 10.0 A is placed in a uniform magnetic field of T as shown in figure If the wire makes an angle of with the vector, find the direction and magnitude of the force on the wire

12 Solution The direction of the force is found from equation as F = Il In rotating the vector l toward the vector in the cross product, the thumb points upward, indicating that the direction of the force is also upward. The magnitude of the force is found from equation as F = Il sinθ F = (10.0 A)(0.200 m)(0.300 T) sin F = (0.386 A m T)( N/(A m) ) ( T ) F = N To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Force on a Semicircular Wire Carrying a Current in an External Magnetic Field In section 26.2 we found the force on a straight piece of wire carrying a current in an external magnetic field is given by F = I l % (26.16) ut what if the wire is not a straight wire, what is the force on the wire then? If the wire is not straight, we divide the wire into small little elements of length dl, each in the direction of the current flow, and each length dl experiences the force df given by df = Idl % (26.18) The total force on the wire will now be just the sum, or integral, of all these df s. That is, F = df = Idl % (26.19) As an example of the application of equation let us find the force on a semicircular piece of wire carrying a current as shown in figure Consider the small piece of wire dl that is shown. The magnetic field points into the page and dl points down along the radius of the semicircle to the center of the circle. The 26-12

13 dl df r θ P I Figure 26.8 Force on a semicircular portion of wire. angle between and dl is 90 0, therefore the element of force df associated with this small element dl of wire is df = Idlsin 90 o ( r o ) = Idl( r o ) (26.20) r o is a unit vector that points from the origin to the point P, and df points in the opposite direction or r o. The total force on the semicircular wire is the sum of all these df s or F = df = 0 Idl ( r o ) (26.21) ut the unit vector r o can be written in terms of the unit vectors i and j as r o = i cos + j sin (26.22) Replacing equation into equation we get F = 0 Idl ( r o ) = 0 Idl [ (i cos + j sin )] F = 0 Idli cos 0 I dl j sin (26.23) ut dl and θ are not independent and are related by Therefore equation becomes dl = r dθ (26.24) F = 0 Ird i cos 0 I rd j sin The current I in the circuit is a constant, as well as the magnetic field, and the radius of the semicircle r, and they can each be removed from under the integral sign to yield F = Ir 0 cos d i Ir 0 sin d j Performing the integrations 26-13

14 and finally F = Ir sin 0 i Ir( cos ) 0 j F = Ir[sin sin 0] i + Ir[cos cos 0] j F = Ir[0 0] i + Ir[ 1 1] j = 0 i 2Ir j F = 2rI j (26.25) Equation gives the force F that will act on the semicircular portion of the wire carrying a current I in a magnetic field. Notice that the force is completely in the negative j direction, or downward. The two components in the x-direction cancel each other out. Although this problem was solved for a semicircular portion of a current-carrying wire, the procedure is essentially the same for any shape of wire. That is, df is given by equation and the total force will be the sum or integral of all these df s in equation Generation of a Magnetic Field Although magnets had been known for hundreds of years, it was not until 1820, that Hans Christian Oersted ( ) discovered a relation between electric current and magnetic fields. If a series of compasses are placed around a wire that is not carrying a current, all the compasses will point toward the north, the direction of the earth s magnetic field, as shown in figure 26.9(a). If, however, a current I is sent through the wire, the compass needles will no longer point to the I N N (a) No current in wire (b) Current in wire Figure 26.9 The creation of a magnetic field by an electric current north. Instead they point in a direction which is everywhere tangential to a circle drawn around the wire, passing through each compass, as shown in figure 26.9(b). ecause a compass always aligns itself in the direction of a magnetic field, the current in the wire has created a circular magnetic field directed counterclockwise around the wire. If the direction of the current is reversed, the direction of the magnetic field will also be reversed and the compasses will point in a clockwise 26-14

15 direction. The direction of the magnetic field around a long straight wire carrying a current, I, is easily determined by the so called Right Hand Wire Rule : Grasp the wire with the right hand, with the thumb in the direction of the current flow, the fingers will curl around the wire in the direction of the magnetic field. This observation that electric currents can create a magnetic field was responsible for linking the then two independent sciences of electricity and magnetism into the one unified science of electromagnetism. In fact, it will be shown later that all magnetic fields are caused by the flow of electric charge The iot-savart Law The iot-savart law relates the amount of magnetic field d at the position r produced by a small element dl, of a wire carrying a current I and is given by d = I dl % r 4 r 3 (26.26) and is shown in figure 26.10(a). µ is a constant called the permeability of the I I dl r P P (a) d (b) Figure The magnetic field produced by a current element. medium. In a vacuum or air, it is called the permeability of free space, and is denoted by µ o, where µ o = 4π 10 7 T m A The cross product term dl r immediately determines the direction of d, and is shown in figure 26.10(a). The iot-savart law says that the small current element dl produces a small amount of magnetic field d at the point P. ut the entire length of wire can be cut up into many dl s, and each will contribute to the total magnetic field at P. This is shown in figure 26.10(b). Therefore, the total magnetic field at point P is the vector sum, and hence, integral of all the d s associated with each current element, i.e., 26-15

16 = d (26.27) The computation of the magnetic field from equation can be quite complicated for most problems because of the vector integration. However, there are some problems that can be easily solved by the iot-savart law, and we will solve some in the next sections The Magnetic Field at the Center of a Circular Current Loop To determine the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop, figure 26.11, the iot-savart law is used. A small element of the wire dl produces an element of magnetic field d at the center of the wire given by equation as d = oi 4 dl % r r 3 r I d r dl dl I Figure The magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop From the nature of the vector cross product, dl r, and hence d points upward at the center of the circle for every current element, as seen in figure The total magnetic field which is the sum of all the d s, must also point upward at the center of the loop. Therefore, the magnetic field at the center of the current loop is perpendicular to the plane formed by the loop, and points upward. Since the direction of the vector is now known, equation can be reduced to the scalar form = d (26.28) The magnitude of d is found from equation to be d = oi 4 dlr sin r 3 (26.29) Since dl is perpendicular to r, the angle θ is equal to 90 0, and the sine of 90 0 is equal to 1. Therefore, d becomes 26-16

17 d = oidl 4 r 2 (26.30) Replacing equation into equation gives the magnitude of the magnetic induction as = d = oidl 4 r 2 (26.31) ecause the loop is a circle of constant radius r and µ o I/4π, is a constant, these terms will be in every term of the summation and can be factored out of the integral to yield = oi (26.32) 4 r 2 dl ut the summation of all the dl s is simply the circumference of the wire, i.e., Therefore, equation becomes Canceling like terms, this becomes!dl = 2πr (26.33) = oi 4 r 2 (2 r) = oi 2r (26.34) (26.35) Equation gives the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop. Notice that the magnetic field at the center of the circular current loop is directly proportional to the current I - the larger the current, the larger the magnetic field; and inversely proportional to the radius r of the loop - the larger the radius, the smaller the magnetic field. If there are N turns of wire constituting the loop, the magnetic field at the center is = oni (26.36) 2r The magnetic field found in this way is the magnetic field at the center of the current loop. The magnetic field all around the loop is shown in figure Note that it looks something like the magnetic field of a bar magnet, where the top of the loop would be the north pole

18 I I I Figure The magnetic field of a current loop. Example 26.6 The magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop. Find the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop of m radius, carrying a current of 7.00 A. Solution The magnetic field at the center of the loop, found from equation 26.35, is = oi 2r = (4 % 10 7 Tm/A)(7.00 A) 2(0.500 m) = T To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence. Example 26.7 A circular loop of N turns. Find the magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop of 10 turns, with a radius of 5.00 cm carrying a current of 10.0 A. Solution The magnetic field is found from equation to be = oni 2r = (4 % 10 7 Tm/A)(10)(10.0 A) 2(0.050 m) = T 26-18

19 To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Magnetic Field on Axis for a Circular Current Loop Let us now consider a case a little more general than the one we solved in section 26.6, by finding the magnetic field at a point P on the z-axis of a current loop that lies in the x, y-plane, figure We consider a small element dl of the current z dcosα P z I α r d dsinα dl I R α dl Figure The magnetic field on axis for a circular current loop. carrying wire and use the iot-savart law to find the element of the magnetic field d associated with this element of wire dl. That is, d = oi 4 dl % r r 3 (26.26) The total magnetic field at the point P is the sum or integral of all the d s caused by all the dl s as we go around the circle, that is = d (26.27) The integration in equation is a vector integration. We simplify the problem by noting that the vector d has the components d sinα and d cosα. As you can see in figure 26.13, the term d sinα points to the right in the positive x-direction. ut diametrically opposite to the element dl considered, is another dl and there is a corresponding d associated with it that will also have a component d sinα, but this component points to the left in the negative x-direction. For each +d sinα associated with an element dl on one side of the wire there will be a corresponding 26-19

20 d sinα on the opposite side and the sum of all these d sinα terms will be zero. This is equivalent to saying that the sum or integral of all these components will be zero. That is, d sin = 0 ut notice that the terms d cosα always point in the positive z-direction, and it is the sum or integral of these components that will give us the magnetic field at the point P. Therefore, the magnetic field is found from Upon substituting for d we get = d cos (26.37) = oi dl sin r 2 cos = oi cos 4 r 2 dl (26.38) ut the variables r and α are not independent of each other and, as can be seen from the geometry of figure 26.13, the relations are and r = R 2 + z 2 cos = R R 2 + z 2 Replacing these into equations yields = oi 4 cos r 2 dl = oi 4 R R 2 +z 2 R 2 + z 2 dl = oir 4 dl (R 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 ut as you can see in figure for the point P, the values of R and z are constant and hence can be taken out of the integral sign to yield = o IR 4 (R 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 dl (26.39) Thus the only integration is the sum of all the dl s. ut the sum of all the dl s is just the circumference of the circle. Therefore, dl = 2 R (26.40) Substituting equation into gives 26-20

21 o IR = 2 R 4 (R 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 o IR 2 = 2(R 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 (26.41) Equations gives the magnetic field at the point P located on the z-axis of a circular current loop of radius R carrying a current I. Example 26.8 The magnetic field at the center of a circular current loop. From the solution for the magnetic field on axis for a circular current loop, find the magnetic field at the center of the circular current loop. Solution The magnetic field at the center of the circular current loop is found from equation by letting z = 0. Therefore, = o IR 2 2(R 2 + z 2 ) 3 2 = o IR 2 2(R 2 + 0) 3 2 = oir 2 2(R 2 ) 3 2 = oir 2 2R 3 and the magnetic field at the center of the circular current loop is = oi 2R Notice that this is the same solution we obtained in section 26.6, equation Notice that this solution, equation 26.41, is more general than the one we derived in section Ampere s Circuital Law Although the iot-savart law can be used to determine the magnetic field for different current distributions many of the derivations require vector integrations. Another simpler technique for the computation of magnetic fields, when the symmetry is appropriate, is Ampere s Circuital Law. Ampere s Law states: along any arbitrary path encircling a total current I total, the integral of the scalar product of the 26-21

22 magnetic field with the element of length dl of the path, is equal to the permeability µ o times the total current I total enclosed by the path.1 That is, * dl = o I total (26.42) It should be pointed out that Ampere s law is a fundamental law based on experiments and cannot be derived. Ampere s law is especially helpful in problems with symmetry and will be used in the following sections The Magnetic Field Around a Long Straight Wire by Ampere s Law To determine the magnetic field around a long straight wire by the iot-savart law is a little complicated, as seen in section However, because of the symmetry of the magnetic field around a long straight wire, a simple solution to the magnetic field can be found using Ampere s law. It was pointed out in section 26.4 that the magnetic field around a long straight wire was found by experiment to be circular as shown in figure 26.14(a). In applying Ampere s law, an arbitrary path must be I I dl I (a) I (b) Figure The magnetic field around a long straight wire. drawn around the wire that contains the current I. The most symmetrical path that can be drawn about the wire is a concentric circle, as shown in figure 26.14(b). This circular path is divided into elements dl, and then dl is computed for each element dl. ecause the magnetic field is circular, and dl are parallel at every point along the circular path. Ampere s law becomes 1 In many problems the subscript total will be left out of the current term I in the statement of Ampere s law, but it must be understood that the term I in Ampere s law is always the total current enclosed in the path of integration

23 * dl = o I * dl = dl cos 0 0 = dl = o I (26.43) ut from symmetry, the value of is the same anywhere along the circular path and can be taken outside of the integral to yield dl = o I (26.44) ut the sum of all the dl s, that is,!dl, is the circumference of the circular path. Hence,!dl = 2πr (26.45) Therefore, (2πr) = µ o I (26.46) Thus, the magnitude of the magnetic field around a long straight wire is = oi 2 r (26.47) Example 26.9 The magnetic field of a long, straight wire. A long straight wire is carrying a current of 15.0 A. Find the magnetic field 30.0 cm from the wire. Solution The magnetic field around the wire is found from equation to be = oi 2 r = (4 % 10 7 Tm/A)(15.0 A) 2 (0.300 m) = T To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Force between Parallel, Current-Carrying Conductors -- The Definition of the Ampere Two conductors, carrying currents I 1 and I 2, respectively, are separated by a distance r, as shown in figure The current I 2 in wire 2 produces a magnetic 26-23

24 Figure Force on parallel conductors carrying currents. field 2 at the location of wire 1. Its magnitude, given by equation 26.47, is 2 = µ 0 I 2 (26.48) 2πr The direction of this magnetic field is found using the right-hand wire rule. If you grasp the wire with your thumb in the direction of the current, then your fingers curl in the direction of the magnetic field. In this case, 2 at the location of wire 1 has a direction coming out of the paper, as shown in figure 26.15(a). Since wire 1 is a current-carrying wire in the external magnetic field 2, it experiences a force given by equation as F 1 = I 1 l 2 sin θ Using the same technique as in section 26.2, the direction of the force is again found by the right-hand rule. The fingers of your right hand are pointed in the direction of the length vector l, which is in the direction of the current, with your palm facing the magnetic field vector 2, which points out of the page in figure Rotate your right hand from l to 2 and your thumb points in the direction of the force vector F 1, which is downward in figure 26.15(a). Hence wire 1 experiences a force of attraction toward wire 2. The angle θ between l and 2 is 90 0 and since sin 90 0 = 1, the magnitude of F 1 is F 1 = I 1 l 2 Substituting for the magnetic field 2 from equation 26.48, gives F 1 = I 1 l o I 2 2 r 26-24

25 Rearranging terms, the force on wire 1 caused by wire 2 is F 1 = µ 0 li 1 I 2 (26.49) 2πr Just as there is a force on wire 1, there is also a force on wire 2, because the current flowing in wire 1 produces a magnetic field 1. Wire 2 finds itself in this external magnetic field and hence experiences the force F 2 = I 2 l 1 sin θ The direction of the magnetic field 1 produced by wire 1 is found from the right-hand wire rule, and is shown going into the paper at the location of wire 2 in figure 26.15(a). The direction of the force F 2 is found using the right-hand rule. The fingers of your right hand are pointed in the direction of the length vector l, which is in the direction of the current. Your palm should be facing the magnetic field vector 1, which points into the page in figure Rotate your right hand from l to 1 and your thumb points in the direction of the force vector F 2, which is upward in figure 26.15(a). Hence the force F 2 acting on wire 2 is one of attraction toward wire 1. Since l and 1 are perpendicular, the magnitude of the force F 2 is The magnetic field 1, found from equation 26.48, is Substituting equation into 26.50, we obtain F 2 = I 2 l 1 (26.50) 1 = µ 0 I 1 (26.51) 2πr F 2 = I 2 l µ 0 I 1 2πr After rearranging terms, the magnitude of the force on wire 2, caused by the current flowing in wire 1, is F 2 = µ 0 li 1 I 2 (26.52) 2πr Observe from equations and that And, from figure 26.15, F 1 = F 2 F 1 = F

26 Thus the force on wire 1 is equal and opposite to the force on wire 2, as it should be according to Newton s third law. If one of the currents is reversed, such as I 2 shown in figure 26.15(b), the magnitudes of the forces do not change but their directions do. Changing the direction of I 2, causes 2 to point into the page in figure 26.15(b). The direction of the force F 1 is again found using the right-hand rule. The fingers of your right hand are pointed in the direction of the length vector l. Rotate your right hand from l to 2 and your thumb points in the direction of the force vector F 1, which is upward in figure 26.15(b), indicating that there is a repulsive force acting on wire 1. ecause of the new direction of the current in wire 2, l points toward the left, and the force now acts downward in figure 26.15(b). Hence, the force F 2 acts downward and is now a repulsive force. In summary, if the currents in the parallel wires act in the same direction, the force on the wires is attractive; if the currents in the wires act in opposite directions, the force on the wires is repulsive. In chapter 1, we noted that electric charge is a fundamental characteristic of matter and should be listed as the fourth fundamental quantity along with length, mass, and time. However, because electric charge is relatively difficult to measure, electric current, which is relatively easy to measure, is used as the fourth fundamental quantity. (Obviously charge is more fundamental than current in the description of nature because charges can exist at rest, which is equivalent to no current at all. That is, a charge can exist even when a current does not.) The fundamental unit of electricity is defined as the ampere, where the ampere is that constant current that, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 m apart in a vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to N/m. This force per unit length can be obtained from equation with I 1 = I 2 = I, and r = 1 m, as F = µ 0 I 2 l 2π(1 m) For I = 1 A, the force is F = (4π 10 7 T m/a)(1 A) 2 = T A l 2π(1 m) = ( T A) = N m That is, the amount of current that causes this force is defined as the ampere. N Am T 26-26

27 Example Force on parallel conducting wires. Two straight parallel conductors 30.0 cm long are separated by a distance of 10.0 cm. If one carries a current of 5.00 A to the right while the second carries a current of 7.00 A to the left, find the force on the first wire. Solution The magnitude of the force on the first wire, found from equation 26.49, is and is repulsive. F 1 = µ 0 li 1 I 2 2πr = (4π 10 7 T m/a)(0.300 m)(5.00 A)(7.00 A) 2π(0.100 m) = N To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence The Magnetic Field Inside a Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire with many turns and is shown schematically in figure Note that the magnetic field of a solenoid looks like the magnetic field D l DA A l CD C l C l A (a) (b) Figure The magnetic field of a solenoid of a bar magnet. The magnetic field is uniform and intense within the coils but is so small outside of the coil, that it is taken to be zero there. The magnetic field inside the solenoid lies along the axis of the coil, as seen in figure 26.16(a). The value of inside the solenoid is found from Ampere s law, by adding up the values of dl along the rectangular path ACD in figure 26.16(b). That is 26-27

28 * dl = o I total (26.53) A * dl + C * dl + CD * dl + DA * dl = o I total ut since = 0 outside the solenoid CD * dl = 0 (26.54) ecause is perpendicular to the paths l C and l DA, their scalar products must be zero, i.e., C * dl = C dl cos 90 0 = 0 (26.55) and (26.56) DA * dl = DA dl cos 90 0 = 0 Now is parallel to l A, therefore their scalar product becomes A * dl = A dl cos 0 0 = A dl = l A (26.57) Replacing equations through into equation gives l A = o I total (26.58) The term, I total, represents the total amount of current contained within the path ACD. Each turn of wire carries a current I, but there are N turns of wire in the solenoid. Therefore, the total current contained within the path is I total = NI (26.59) A more convenient unit for the number of turns of wire in the coil is the number of turns per unit length, n. Since the coil has a length l A, the total number of turns N can be expressed as N = nl A (26.60) Replacing equations and into equation yields l A = o I total = o NI = o nl A I (26.61) Simplifying, the magnetic field within the solenoid becomes = o ni (26.62) Notice that the magnetic field within the solenoid can be increased by increasing the current I flowing in the wires, and/or by increasing the number of turns of wire per unit length, n

29 Example Magnetic field inside a solenoid. A solenoid 15.0 cm long is composed of 300 turns of wire. If there is a current of 5.00 A in the wire, what is the magnetic field inside the solenoid? Solution The number of turns of wire per unit length is n = N = 300 turns = 2000 turns/m l m The magnetic field inside the solenoid is found from equation as = µ o ni = (4π 10 7 T m)(2000 turns)(5.00 A) A m = T To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Magnetic Field Inside a Toroid Let us now find the magnetic field inside a toroid. A toroid is essentially a solenoid of finite length bent into the shape of a doughnut as shown in figure To r dl Figure The magnetic field inside a toroid. compute the magnetic field within the toroid we use Ampere s law, equation

30 * dl = o I total (26.42) Since the toroid is a solenoid bent into a circular shape, and the magnetic field of a solenoid is parallel to the walls of the solenoid, the magnetic field inside the toroid will take the same shape as the walls of the toroid. Hence the magnetic field inside the toroid will be circular. The path that we will use for the line integral in Ampere s law will be a circle of radius r as shown in the diagram. In this way the angle θ between the magnetic field vector and the element dl is 0 0. Thus Ampere s law becomes (26.63) * dl = dl cos 0 0 = dl = o I total ut from the symmetry of the problem, the magnitude of the magnetic field is a constant at a particular radius r from the center of the toroid. (That is, there is no reason to assume that the magnitude of the magnetic field a distance r to the right of the center of the toroid should be any different than the magnitude of the magnetic field a distance r to the left of the center of the toroid.) Hence we can take outside the integral sign in equation to obtain dl = dl = o I total (26.64) We now see that the integration is only over the element of path dl and the sum of all these dl s is just the circumference of the circle of radius r. Therefore Ampere s law becomes dl = (2 r) = o I total (26.65) Now the current term I total represents the total amount of current contained within the path of integration. Each turn of wire carries a current I, but there are N turns of wire in the toroid. Therefore, the total current contained within the path of integration is I total = NI (26.66) Replacing equation into equation yields Upon solving for we get (2 r) = o I total = o NI = oni 2 r (26.67) (26.68) Equation gives the value of the magnetic field inside the toroid. Notice that the value of is not constant over the cross section of the toroid, but rather is a function of r, the distance from the center of the toroid (specifically varies as 1/r). For the smaller values of r, near the inside of the toroid, will be large and for the larger values of r, near the outside of the toroid, will be smaller. Hence, the magnetic field inside a toroid is not constant and uniform as it was in the solenoid

31 Example The magnetic field inside a toroid. A toroid has an inner radius of 10.0 cm and an outer radius of 20.0 cm and carries 500 turns of wire. If the current in the toroid is 5.00 A, find the minimum and maximum values of the magnetic field inside the toroid. Solution The minimum value of the magnetic field within the toroid occurs for the maximum value of r and is found from equation as = oni 2 r = (4 % 10 7 Tm/A)(500)(5.00 A) 2 (0.200 m) = T The maximum value of the magnetic field within the toroid occurs for the minimum value of r and is found from equation as = oni 2 r = (4 % 10 7 Tm/A)(500)(5.00 A) 2 (0.100 m) = T To go to this Interactive Example click on this sentence Torque on a Current Loop in an External Magnetic Field - The Magnetic Dipole Moment Let us place a rectangular coil of wire in a uniform magnetic field as shown in figure 26.18(a). Notice that the magnetic field emanates from the north pole of the magnet and enters the south pole of the magnet. A current I is set up in the coil in the direction indicated, by an external battery. Any segment of the coil now represents a current carrying wire in an external magnetic field and will thus experience a force on it given by equation F = I l (26.16) 26-31

32 τ N F ab I I a d l da l cd l ab b c l bc F cd S N 1 r S (a) Side View r 2 F cd F ab (b) Top View N θ m (c) Top View m perpendicular to S N θ m (d) Top View mat an angle θ to S N m (e) Top View m parallel to S N m θ S (f) Top View Coil overshoots zero position Figure A coil in a magnetic field. Let us divide the coil into sections of length l ab, l bc, l cd, l da and compute the force on each segment. Segment ab: The force F ab acting on segment l ab is given by F ab = I l ab (26.69) Since l ab is in the direction of the current in segment ab, it points downward in figure 26.18(a). The cross product of l ab points outward as shown in the side view of the coil in figure 26.18(a), and from a top view in figure 26.18(b). The magnitude of the force is F ab = Il ab sin90 0 = Il ab (26.70) 26-32

33 Segment bc: The force F bc acting on segment l bc is given by F bc = Il bc (26.71) Since l bc is in the direction of the current flow, it points to the right in figure 26.18(a), parallel to the magnetic field. As you recall from chapter 1, the cross product of parallel vectors is zero. That is F bc = Il bc sin0 0 = 0 (26.72) Thus, there is no force acting on the bottom of the wire coil in figure 26.18(a). Segment cd: The force F cd acting on segment l cd is given by F cd = Il cd (26.73) Since l cd points upward and points to the right in figure 26.18(a), the cross product l cd points into the page in figure 26.18(a), and can be seen from the top view in figure 26.18(b). The magnitude of F cd is F cd = Il cd sin90 0 = Il cd (26.74) ecause the magnitudes of the lengths l ab and l cd are equal, the forces are also equal. That is, F ab = F cd Segment da: The force F da acting on the upper segment l da is found from F da = Il da (26.75) ut l da points to the left and makes an angle of with the magnetic field. Therefore, F da = Il da sin180 0 = 0 (26.76) because the sin180 0 is equal to zero. Hence, there is no force acting on the top wire. The net result of the current flowing in a coil in an external magnetic field, is to produce two equal and opposite forces acting on the coil. ut since the forces do not lie along the same line of action, the forces will cause a torque to act on the coil as is readily observable in figure 26.18(b). The torque acting on the coil is given by equation 9.72 as τ = r F (9.72) Since both forces can produce a torque, the total torque on the coil is the sum of the two torques. That is, 26-33

34 τ = r 1 F ab + r 2 F cd (26.77) where r 1 and r 2 are position vectors from the axis of the coil to the point of application of the force, as can be seen in figure 26.18(b). Therefore, and as shown before. Therefore, r 2 = r 1 (26.78) F cd = F ab (26.79) τ = r 1 F ab + ( r 1 ) ( F ab ) (26.80) The total torque on the coil is therefore the clockwise torque τ = 2r 1 F ab (26.81) and lies along the axis of the coil, pointing upward in figure 26.18(a). As can be seen from the diagram, r 1 = l bc (26.82) 2 while F ab is given by equation Therefore the magnitude of the torque on the coil is given by τ = 2r 1 F ab sinθ = 2 l bc Il ab sinθ (26.83) 2 Note that the angle θ is the angle between the radius vector r and the force vector F and the product of l bc and l ab is the area of the loop, i.e., Equation simplifies to l bc l ab = A (26.84) = IA sin (26.85) Although equation has been derived for a rectangular current loop, one can prove, that it is a perfectly general result for any planar loop having an area A, regardless of the shape of the loop. The torque on the coil in a magnetic field depends on the current I in the coil, the area A of the coil, the intensity of the magnetic field, and the angle θ between r and F ab. Since it was shown in section 26.6 that there is a magnetic field at the center of a current loop, and this magnetic field looks like the magnetic field of a bar magnet, a magnetic dipole moment m of a current loop is defined as m = IAn (26.86) 26-34

35 The magnetic dipole moment is shown in figure n is a unit vector that determines the direction of m, and is itself determined by the direction of the current flow. If the right hand curls around the loop in the direction of the current m I n I I Figure The magnetic dipole moment of a current loop. flow, the thumb points in the direction of the unit vector n, and hence in the direction of the magnetic dipole moment m. Reversing the direction of the current flow will reverse the direction of the magnetic dipole moment. If the coil consists of N loops of wire, the magnetic dipole moment will be given by m = NIA n (26.87) Figure 26.18(c) is a top view of the coil, showing the magnetic dipole moment m perpendicular to the coil. The torque acting on the coil, equation 26.85, can now be written in terms of the magnetic dipole moment of the coil as or in the vector notation = m sin = m % (26.88) (26.89) Note that the angle θ in equation 26.89, the angle between the magnetic dipole moment vector m and the magnetic field vector is the same angle θ that was between the radius vector r and the force vector F. Equation shows that the torque acting on a coil in a magnetic field is equal to the cross product of the magnetic dipole moment m of the coil and the magnetic field. When m is perpendicular to the magnetic field, θ is equal to 90 0, and the sine of 90 0 = 1. Therefore the torque acting on the coil will be at its maximum value, and will act to rotate the coil counterclockwise in figure 26.18(c). As the coil rotates, the angle θ will decrease, figure 26.18(d), until the magnetic dipole moment becomes parallel to the magnetic field, and the angle θ will be equal to zero, as shown in figure 26.18(e). At this point the torque acting on the coil becomes zero, because the sinθ term in equation 26.88, will be zero. ecause of the inertia of the coil, however, the coil does not quite stop at this position but over shoots this position as shown in figure 26.18(f). ut now the torque, given by m, is reversed, and the coil will rotate 26-35

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