STUDY OF IDEAL TRANSFORMER AND PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER


 Norman Reynolds
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 STUDY OF IDEAL TRANSFORMER AND PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER RUBY DHANKAR, SAPNA KAMRA,VISHAL JANGRA Abstract This paper proposes the study of real and ideal transformer. It also explains load, noload conditions and phasor diagrams of ideal and practical transformer. For a better understanding and an easier explanation of a practical transformer, certain idealizing assumptions are made which are close approximations for a practical transformer. Keywords transformer, flux, reactance, magnetizing current, primary and secondary windings. I. INTRODUCTION Michel faraday introduced the principle of electro magnetic induction in 1831.it estates that a voltage appear across the terminals of an electric coil when the flux linked with the coil changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage is corresponding to the rate of change of flux linkages.this finding forms the basic for many magneto electric devices.the primitive use of this phenomenon was in the development of induction coils. These coils were used to develope high voltage pulses to ignite the explosive charges in the mines. As the d.c. power arrangement was in use at that time, very little of transformer principle was made use of. In the d.c. supply system the generating station and the load centre have to be necessarily close to each other due to the demand of economic transmission of power. Also the d.c. generators cannot be scaled up due to the drawback of the commutator. 2. Discussion As discussed earlier the transformer is a static device working on the principle of faraday s law of induction. It estates that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the flux correlated with the same changes.this emf is proportional to the rate of variation of flux linkages. Establishing mathematically. Here the common constuctional aspects alone are explained. 1. Ideal transformer 2. practical transformer 2.1. ideal transformer Earlier it is seen that a voltage is induced in a coil when the flux correlated with the same changes. It posses certain essential features of a real transformer but some details of minor significance are ignored which will be introduced stepbystep while analyzing a transformer. The idealizing assumptions made are as follows 1) No winding resistance 2) No magnetic leakage 3) No iron loss and zero magnetizing current Ideal transformer equations: using faraday s law of induction.. (1) IJIRT INTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY 1258
2 ... (2) Combining ratio of (1) & ( 2) turns ratio will be equal to... (3) Where for stepdown transformers, a > 1 for stepup transformers, a < 1 By law of Conservation of Energy, apparent, real and reactive power are each conserved in the input and output Winding resistances in transformer Primary and secondary windings made up of copper wire. Every conductor has its own resistance. So primary and secondary side both have resistance. Primary resistance R 1 and secondary resistance R 2 are in series with the respect to the windings. Figure 1 shows that the resistance of the windings on both sides. Due to winding resistance when current passes through the windings there will voltage drop IR and creates power loss. thus the E 1 < V 1 and V 2 < E (4) Combining (3) & (4) with this endnote ideal transformer identity yields the... (5) By Ohm's Law and ideal transformer identity... (6) Apparent load impedance Z' L (Z L referred to the primary) 2.2. practical transformer... (7) Leakage reactance in transformer Mutual Flux Φ Links With Both The Primary And Secondary Side. Primary Current I 1 Creates Individual Flux Φ 1 In Primary Side And Secondary Current I 2 Produces Flux Φ 2 In Secondary Side, Those Two Fluxes Is Not Common In Both Sides. Thus The Flux Φ 1 And Flux Φ 2 Are Known As Leakage Flux in Transformer. Figure 2 Shows Leakage Fluxes Ideal transformer has no losses although practical transformer have Iron loss Magnetic leakage Winding resistances Iron losses in transformer Alternating flux Φ passes through iron kernel. It produces eddy current and hysteresis loss in it. Two of these losses called either iron loss or core loss. Iron loss rely upon the core volume, supply frequency, maximum flux density etc. Magnitude of iron loss is small in practical transformer. The way of leakage flux is through the air mainly. The effect of primary leakage flux Φ 1 generates an inductive reactance X 1 series in primary winding and secondary leakage flux Φ 2 introduces an IJIRT INTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY 1259
3 inductive reactance X 2 in series with the secondary winding shown in figure 1. Primary leakage inductance, L 1 = primary leakage flux linkages / primary current = N 1 Φ 1 / I 1 Primary leakage reactance, is X 1 = 2πf L 1 In the same manner secondary leakage inductance, L 2 = N 2 Φ 2 / I 2 Secondary leakage reactance, is X 2 = 2πf L 2.There is No power loss occurs due to leakage reactance. But it changes the power factor as well there is voltage loss due to IX drop. Flux leakage is absolutely small about 5% of mutual flux Φ in a transformer. But it cannot be avoided or ignored No load practical transformer The component I w is admitted as iron loss or active or working component. It is in phase with the enforced voltage V 1. It provides a very small primary copper loss and iron loss. I w = I 0 cos Φ 0 Here It is clear that I 0 is the phasor sum of I m and I w. I 0 = (I m 2 + I w 2 ) No load power factor, cos Φ 0 = I w / I 0 At no load practical transformer primary copper loss I 0 2 R is quite small and this loss may be ignored. Hence, primary no load input power of practical transformer is equal to the iron loss in transformer. No load input power is, W 0 = Iron loss As primary loss in practical transformer is quite small so it may be written at no load, V 1 = E 1. Here is no load in secondary so E 2 = V 2. Practical transformer on no load phasor diagram Figure 4 is the phasor of practical transformer on no load condition. Primary small current I 0 is phasor sum of I m and I w. A practical transformer diagram is shown in figure 3, there is no load in secondary terminal it is open circuited. When ac source is coupled in primary a small current I 0 flows through the primary. It occurs a very small extent of copper loss and iron loss in the primary. In order that the primary no load current I 0 is not 90 behind the applied voltage V 1 but lags it by angle Φ 0 < 90. Primary no load current I 0 lags by V 1 voltage by an angle Φ 0 < 90. We can deduce the magnetizing and iron loss current using above equations now we will solve a math. Here No load input power, W 0 = V 1 I 0 cos Φ 0 In primary side for I 0 we get two components I w and I m. The component I m is admitted as magnetizing component. This component creates mutual flux Φ in the core. I m lagging behind V 1 by 90. I m = I 0 sin Φ 0 IJIRT INTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY 1260
4 For practical transformer on load we will take two cases Case 1: when the transformer has no winding resistance and leakage flux is also zero. Case 2: in this when the transformer has winding resistance and leakage flux Case 1: No winding resistance and no leakage flux Phasor diagram of practical transformer on load Figure 1 :represent a practical transformer on load. We have to suppose it has no winding resistance and no leakage flux. Another word winding resistance and leakage flux is neglected. For this supposition V 1 = E 1 and V 2 = E 2. Take the load at secondary is inductive load which causes the secondary current I 2 to lag the secondary voltage V 2 by Φ 2. Primary current I 1 must meet two conditions i) Primary current must supply the no load current I 0 to accommodate the iron losses in the transformer and to provide flux in the core. ii) Primary current must supply a current I 2 to counteract the demagnetizing influence of secondary current I 2. The magnitude of I 2 will be Figure 2 : represent the phasor diagram of practical transformer on load for inductive load. Here E 1 and E 2 are lagging behind by common flux Φ by 90. Phasor sum of I 0 and I 2 is the primary current I 1. I 2 is anti phase with I 2. The value of K is supposed to be unity so primary phasor is equal to secondary phasor. Primary power factor = cos Φ 1 Secondary power factor = cos Φ 2 Primary input power = V 1 I 1 cos Φ 1 Secondary input power = V 2 I 2 cos Φ 2 Case 2: Transformer with resistance and leakage reactance N 1 I 2 = N 2 I 2 Or I 2 = I 2 N 2 /N 1 = K I 2 The phasor sum of I 2 and I 0 is the total primary current I 1. I 1 = I 2 + I 0 Whereas I 2 = K I 2 I 2 is 180 out of phase with I 2 current. IJIRT INTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY 1261
5 Figure 3 :shows a practical transformer with winding resistance and leakage resistance. This is real condition which exists in a practical transformer. Voltage drop R 1 and X 1 occurs in primary side so V 1 > E 1 and voltage drop R 2 and X 2 occurs in secondary side so V 2 < E 2. Assume an inductive load which causes the secondary current I 2 to lag behind the secondary voltage V 2 by Φ 2. Primary current I 1 must follow the two conditions i) Primary current must supply no load current I 0 to meet the iron losses in the transformer and to provide flux in the core. ii) It must supply a current I 2 to counteract the demagnetizing influence of secondary current I 2. The magnitude of I 2 will be N 1 I 2 = N 2 I 2 Primary input power = V 1 I 1 cos Φ 1 Secondary input power = V 2 I 2 cos Φ 2 I 1 = I 2 + I 0 Where I 2 = K I 2 3. Conclusion This paper concludes that An ideal transformer is the one whose windings do not have any ohmic resistance and whose core does not have any leakage flux and eddy current losses. A real transformer is the one whose windings do have some amount of ohmic resistance and the core also have some leakage flux and eddy current losses. References 1. J.B. Gupta Electromechanical energy conversion, S.K. kataria & Sons. 2. ece.colorado.edu/bart/book Or I 2 = I 2 N 2 /N 1 = K I 2 The phasor sum of I 2 and I 0 is the total primary current I 1. Phasor diagram of practical transformer resistance and reactance: with Figure 4: represents the phasor diagram of a practical transformer for the usual case of inductive load. Here E 1 and E 2 are lagging behind by mutual flux Φ by 90. Primary power factor = cos Φ 1 Load power factor = cos Φ 2 IJIRT INTERNATONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY 1262
Coupled Inductors. Introducing Coupled Inductors
Coupled Inductors From power distribution across large distances to radio transmissions, coupled inductors are used extensively in electrical applications. Their properties allow for increasing or decreasing
More informationExtra Questions  1. 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A
Extra Questions  1 1. What current will flow in a 20Ω resistor when it is connected to a 50V supply? a) 0.4A b) 1.6A c) 2.5A 2. A current of 500mA flows in a resistance of 12Ω. What power is dissipated
More informationCircuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49
Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large
More informationTransformer circuit calculations
Transformer circuit calculations This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationElectrical Machines II. Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer
Electrical Machines II Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer Transformers Overview A transformer changes ac electric power at one frequency and voltage level to ac electric
More informationModule 7. Transformer. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 7 Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Lesson 4 Practical Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Contents 4 Practical Transformer 4 4. Goals of the lesson. 4 4. Practical transformer. 4 4.. Core
More informationFull representation of the real transformer
TRASFORMERS EQVALET CRCT OF TWOWDG TRASFORMER TR Dots show the points of higher potential. There are applied following conventions of arrow directions: for primary circuit the passive sign convention
More informationEE 221 Circuits II. Chapter 13 Magnetically Coupled Circuits
EE Circuits II Chapter 3 Magnetically Coupled Circuits Magnetically Coupled Circuits 3. What is a transformer? 3. Mutual Inductance 3.3 Energy in a Coupled Circuit 3.4 inear Transformers 3.5 Ideal Transformers
More information2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?
Extra Questions  2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux
More informationFall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10
Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #10 HW10: Ch.30 Q5, 8, 15,17, 19 P 1, 3, 9, 18, 34, 36, 42, 51, 66 Chapter 30 Question 5 If you are given a fixed length of wire, how would you shape it to obtain the
More informationFunctions, variations and application areas of magnetic components
Westring 18 3314 Büren Germany T +49 951 60 01 0 F +49 951 60 01 3 www.schaffner.com energy efficiency and reliability 1.1 Transformers The transformer is one of the traditional components of electrical
More information3 Synchronous Generator Operation
3 Synchronous Generator Operation 3.1 Cylindrical Rotor Machine xa xl ra xa E xl ra E Load A (a) (b)phasor diagram for R load xs ra Zs Xs Zs Load (c) φ (d)phasor diagram for RL load Ι Figure 30: Equivalent
More information13 ELECTRIC MOTORS. 13.1 Basic Relations
13 ELECTRIC MOTORS Modern underwater vehicles and surface vessels are making increased use of electrical actuators, for all range of tasks including weaponry, control surfaces, and main propulsion. This
More informationProf. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao. D.C Machines
D.C Machines 1 Introduction The steam age signalled the beginning of an industrial revolution. The advantages of machines and gadgets in helping mass production and in improving the services spurred the
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3. OUTCOME 3  MAGNETISM and INDUCTION
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3  MAGNETISM and INDUCTION 3 Understand the principles and properties of magnetism Magnetic field:
More informationQuestion Bank. 1. Electromagnetism 2. Magnetic Effects of an Electric Current 3. Electromagnetic Induction
1. Electromagnetism 2. Magnetic Effects of an Electric Current 3. Electromagnetic Induction 1. Diagram below shows a freely suspended magnetic needle. A copper wire is held parallel to the axis of magnetic
More informationSYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES The geometry of a synchronous machine is quite similar to that of the induction machine. The stator core and windings of a threephase synchronous machine are practically identical
More informationChapter 35 Alternating Current Circuits
hapter 35 Alternating urrent ircuits acircuits Phasor Diagrams Resistors, apacitors and nductors in acircuits R acircuits acircuit power. Resonance Transformers ac ircuits Alternating currents and
More informationOutline. Systems and Signals 214 / 244 & Energy Systems 244 / 344. Ideal Inductor. Ideal Inductor (cont... )
Outline Systems and Signals 214 / 244 & Energy Systems 244 / 344 Inductance, Leakage Inductance, Mutual Inductance & Transformers 1 Inductor revision Ideal Inductor NonIdeal Inductor Dr. P.J. Randewijk
More informationChapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee
Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive
More informationThree phase circuits
Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREEPHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of threephase motors and the kva rating of threephase transformers are 150% greater than singlephase motors
More informationDOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4
DOEHDBK1011/492 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 4 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;
More information1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance)
1. Title Electrical fundamentals II (Mechanics Repair and Maintenance) 2. Code EMAMBG429A 3. Range The knowledge is needed for a wide range of aircraft repair and maintenance works,e.g. applicable to aircrafts,
More informationEdmund Li. Where is defined as the mutual inductance between and and has the SI units of Henries (H).
INDUCTANCE MUTUAL INDUCTANCE If we consider two neighbouring closed loops and with bounding surfaces respectively then a current through will create a magnetic field which will link with as the flux passes
More information12. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer
1 1. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer Introduction The transformer is a device that takes AC at one voltage and transforms it into another voltage either higher or lower than
More informationThe Synchronous Machine
Experiment No. 5 The Synchronous Machine Synchronous ac machines find application as motors in constant speed applications and, when interfaced to the power source with a variablefrequency converter system,
More informationApplication Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?
So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),
More informationInductors & Inductance. Electronic Components
Electronic Components Induction In 1824, Oersted discovered that current passing though a coil created a magnetic field capable of shifting a compass needle. Seven years later, Faraday and Henry discovered
More information7 Testing of Transformers
7 Testing of Transformers The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any
More information8 Speed control of Induction Machines
8 Speed control of Induction Machines We have seen the speed torque characteristic of the machine. In the stable region of operation in the motoring mode, the curve is rather steep and goes from zero torque
More informationChapter 24. ThreePhase Voltage Generation
Chapter 24 ThreePhase Systems ThreePhase Voltage Generation Threephase generators Three sets of windings and produce three ac voltages Windings are placed 120 apart Voltages are three identical sinusoidal
More informationMAGNETISM MAGNETISM. Principles of Imaging Science II (120)
Principles of Imaging Science II (120) Magnetism & Electromagnetism MAGNETISM Magnetism is a property in nature that is present when charged particles are in motion. Any charged particle in motion creates
More informationLab 14: 3phase alternator.
Lab 14: 3phase alternator. Objective: to obtain the noload saturation curve of the alternator; to determine the voltage regulation characteristic of the alternator with resistive, capacitive, and inductive
More informationDigital Energy ITI. Instrument Transformer Basic Technical Information and Application
g Digital Energy ITI Instrument Transformer Basic Technical Information and Application Table of Contents DEFINITIONS AND FUNCTIONS CONSTRUCTION FEATURES MAGNETIC CIRCUITS RATING AND RATIO CURRENT TRANSFORMER
More informationChapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits
hapter Driven ircuits. A Sources... . A ircuits with a Source and One ircuit Element... 3.. Purely esistive oad... 3.. Purely Inductive oad... 6..3 Purely apacitive oad... 8.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationChapter 20. Magnetic Induction Changing Magnetic Fields yield Changing Electric Fields
Chapter 20 Magnetic Induction Changing Magnetic Fields yield Changing Electric Fields Introduction The motion of a magnet can induce current in practical ways. If a credit card has a magnet strip on its
More informationAlternatingCurrent Circuits
hapter 1 Alternatingurrent ircuits 1.1 A Sources... 11. Simple A circuits... 13 1..1 Purely esistive load... 13 1.. Purely Inductive oad... 15 1..3 Purely apacitive oad... 17 1.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationRLC Resonant Circuits
C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document
More information7.1 POWER IN AC CIRCUITS
C H A P T E R 7 AC POWER he aim of this chapter is to introduce the student to simple AC power calculations and to the generation and distribution of electric power. The chapter builds on the material
More informationInduction Motor Theory
PDHonline Course E176 (3 PDH) Induction Motor Theory Instructor: Jerry R. Bednarczyk, P.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 220306658 Phone & Fax: 7039880088 www.pdhonline.org
More informationSelecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.
By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400volt system, a 4160volt
More informationDHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EE2302  ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNITI SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
1 DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING Constructional details Types of rotors EE2302  ELECTRICAL MACHINES II UNITI SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR PART A 1.
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE Phase 2 Wattmeter Power Measurements Explained
APPLICATION NOTE  014 3 Phase 2 Wattmeter Power Measurements Explained Newtons4th Ltd For many years the term 3 Phase 3 Wattmeter and 3 Phase 2 Wattmeter have been used in the power measurement field
More informationPower Quality Paper #3
The Effect of Voltage Dips On Induction Motors by: M D McCulloch 1. INTRODUCTION Voltage depressions caused by faults on the system affect the performance of induction motors, in terms of the production
More informationEðlisfræði 2, vor 2007
[ Assignment View ] [ Print ] Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 30. Inductance Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has
More informationEEL303: Power Engineering I  Tutorial 4
1. Determine the voltage at the generating station and the efficiency of the following system (Figure 1): Both transformers have ratio of 2kV/11kV. The resistance on LV side of both Figure 1: transformers
More information45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 1500W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across?
PHYS Practice Problems hapters 8 hapter 8. 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 5W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across? The power and current can be used to find the peak voltage,
More informationELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Vol. I  Direct Current and Alternating Current Systems  N. Rajkumar DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS
DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT SYSTEMS N. Rajkumar, Research Fellow, Energy Systems Group, City University Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK Keywords: Electrical energy, direct current, alternating
More informationBasic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture  33 3 phase System 4
Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture  33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been
More informationUnderstanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE
Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements
More informationRevision Calcs. 1. The flux produced by a magnet is 10mWb. Determine the flux density if the area of the pole is 250 mm 2
EMA Revision Calcs Miller College Revision Calcs Revision Calcs 1. The flux produced by a magnet is 10mWb. Determine the flux density if the area of the pole is 250 mm 2 2. For the magnet in the previous
More informationDIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS
DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS Revision 12:50 14 Nov 05 INTRODUCTION A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by using the principle of magnetic induction. This principle
More informationSolution Derivations for Capa #11
Solution Derivations for Capa #11 Caution: The symbol E is used interchangeably for energy and EMF. 1) DATA: V b = 5.0 V, = 155 Ω, L = 8.400 10 2 H. In the diagram above, what is the voltage across the
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 67  FURTHER ELECTRICAL PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 3 TUTORIAL 1  SINGLE PHASE AC CIRCUITS
EDEXCE NATIONA CETIFICATE/DIPOMA UNIT 67  FUTHE EECTICA PINCIPES NQF EVE 3 OUTCOME 3 TUTOIA  SINGE PHASE AC CICUITS Unit content 3. Understand the behaviour of singlephase alternating current (AC) circuits
More informationDiodes have an arrow showing the direction of the flow.
The Big Idea Modern circuitry depends on much more than just resistors and capacitors. The circuits in your computer, cell phone, Ipod depend on circuit elements called diodes, inductors, transistors,
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand singlephase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC
More information1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field.
Chapter 25 EXERCISE key 1. E&M induction requires change, of the intensity of a magnetic field or of motion in a magnetic field. 2. Magnetic induction will not occur in nylon, since it has no magnetic
More informationExperiment 1 The DC Machine
Experiment 1 The DC Machine ECEN 4517 R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic The purpose of this experiment is to become familiar with operating principles, equivalent circuit models, and basic characteristics
More informationSalman Bin Abdulaziz University College of Engineering. Electrical Engineering Department EE 3360 Electrical Machines (II)
CHAPTER # 3 SALIENTPOLE SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR AND MOTOR 1 Introduction A cylindrical rotor synchronous machines has a uniform airgap, therefore its reactance remains the same, irrespective of the rotor
More informationInductance. Motors. Generators
Inductance Motors Generators Selfinductance Selfinductance occurs when the changing flux through a circuit arises from the circuit itself. As the current increases, the magnetic flux through a loop due
More informationDOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 3 of 4
DOEHDBK1011/392 JUNE 1992 DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOK ELECTRICAL SCIENCE Volume 3 of 4 U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585 FSC6910 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release;
More informationChapter 16. Current Transformer Design. Copyright 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 16 Current Transformer Design Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Analysis of the Input Current Component 3. Unique to a Current Transformer 4. Current Transformer Circuit Applications 5. Current
More informationChapter 4. Magnetic Materials and Circuits
Chapter 4 Magnetic Materials and Circuits Objectives List six characteristics of magnetic field. Understand the righthand rule for current and magnetic fluxes. Define magnetic flux, flux density, magnetomotive
More informationAlternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Waves
Arecibo, a large radio telescope in Puerto Rico, gathers electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves. These long wavelengths pass through obscuring dust clouds, allowing astronomers to create
More informationMotor Fundamentals. DC Motor
Motor Fundamentals Before we can examine the function of a drive, we must understand the basic operation of the motor. It is used to convert the electrical energy, supplied by the controller, to mechanical
More informationSingle and Three Phase Transformer Testing Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques
Single and Three Phase Transformer Testing Using Static Motor Circuit Analysis Techniques Howard W. Penrose, Ph.D On behalf of ALLTEST Pro, LLC Old Saybrook, CT Introduction Field and shop testing of
More informationMutual Inductance and Transformers F3 3. r L = ω o
utual Inductance and Transformers F3 1 utual Inductance & Transformers If a current, i 1, flows in a coil or circuit then it produces a magnetic field. Some of the magnetic flux may link a second coil
More informationAC Generators. Basic Generator
AC Generators Basic Generator A basic generator consists of a magnetic field, an armature, slip rings, brushes and a resistive load. The magnetic field is usually an electromagnet. An armature is any number
More informationChapter 14: Inductor design
Chapter 14 Inductor Design 14.1 Filter inductor design constraints 14.2 A stepbystep design procedure 14.3 Multiplewinding magnetics design using the K g method 14.4 Examples 14.5 Summary of key points
More informationThe generation and supply of electricity within the U.K is achieved through the use of a 3phase system.
Three Phase Electricity Supplies and Systems The generation and supply of electricity within the U.K is achieved through the use of a 3phase system. This consists of 3 separate phase conductors along
More informationIf there is no fault, then with proper connections account for the CT polarity, we should obtain circulatory current through CT secondary.
Module 10 : Differential Protection of Bus, Transformer and Generator Lecture 39 : Transformer Protection Introduction Differential protection of transformer was introduced in lecture 2. Traditionally,
More informationStudent Name Instructor Name. High School or Vocational Center Grade. COMPETENCY RECORD FOR ARTICULATION Muskegon Community College Electronics
Student Name Instructor Name High School or Vocational Center Grade COMPETENCY RECORD FOR ARTICULATION Muskegon Community College Electronics Please check below each skill the student has mastered as described,
More informationINDUCTION REGULATOR. Objective:
INDUCTION REGULATOR Objective: Using a wound rotor induction motor an Induction Regulator, study the effect of rotor position on the output voltage of the regulator. Also study its behaviour under load
More informationUSE OF ARNO CONVERTER AND MOTORGENERATOR SET TO CONVERT A SINGLEPHASE AC SUPPLY TO A THREEPHASE AC FOR CONTROLLING THE SPEED OF A THREEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY USING A THREEPHASE TO THREEPHASE CYCLOCONVERTER
International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET) Volume 7, Issue 2, MarchApril, 2016, pp.1928, Article ID: IJEET_07_02_003 Available online at http:// http://www.iaeme.com/ijeet/issues.asp?jtype=ijeet&vtype=7&itype=2
More informationTransformers. AC Theory. Module
Module 11 AC Theory What you ll learn in Module 11. Section 11.1 Transformer Operation. Transformer Operation. Transformer Losses. Off Load Current. Volts per Turn. Section 11.2 Magnetic Circuits & Transformer
More informationPrepared By: Sheilani Binti Shaari Department of Electrical Engineering/PKB
Prepared By: Sheilani Binti Shaari Department of Electrical Engineering/ Course Learning Outcome (CLO) Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: Apply the principles of three phase systems,
More informationBasics of Electricity
Basics of Electricity Generator Theory PJM State & Member Training Dept. PJM 2014 8/6/2013 Objectives The student will be able to: Describe the process of electromagnetic induction Identify the major components
More informationEMI and t Layout Fundamentals for SwitchedMode Circuits
v sg (t) (t) DT s V pp = n  1 2 V pp V g n V T s t EE core insulation primary return secondary return Supplementary notes on EMI and t Layout Fundamentals for SwitchedMode Circuits secondary primary
More informationTRANSFORMER: THREE PHASE
CONTENTS Transformer : Three Phase 1211 C H A P T E R 33 Learning Objectives Threephase Transformers Threephase Transformer Connections Star/Star or Y/Y Connection DeltaDelta or Connection Wye/Delta
More informationElectroMagnetic Induction. AP Physics B
ElectroMagnetic Induction AP Physics B What is E/M Induction? Electromagnetic Induction is the process of using magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a complete circuit, a current. Michael Faraday
More informationAn equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.
3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally
More informationChapter 29 AlternatingCurrent Circuits
hapter 9 Alternatingurrent ircuits onceptual Problems A coil in an ac generator rotates at 6 Hz. How much time elapses between successive emf values of the coil? Determine the oncept Successive s are
More informationModeling of Transmission Lines
Modeling of Transmission Lines Electric Power Transmission The electric energy produced at generating stations is transported over highvoltage transmission lines to utilization points. The trend toward
More information(3 )Three Phase Alternating Voltage and Current
EEE 2015 EECTRCS (3) Monophase 1 Three phase Three phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. t is a type of polyphase system
More informationCHAPTER 5 SYNCHRONOUS GENERATOR
CHPTER 5 SYNCHRONOUS GENERTOR Summary: 1. Synchronous Generator Construction 2. The Speed of Rotation of a Synchronous Generator 3. The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator 4. The Equivalent
More informationEquipment: Power Supply, DAI, Universal motor (8254), Electrodynamometer (8960), timing belt.
Lab 12: The universal motor. Objective: to examine the construction of the universal motor; to determine its noload and fullload characteristics while operating on AC; to determine its noload and fullload
More informationDIMENSIONING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTON APPLICATION
ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò CT Dimensioning DIMENSIONING OF CURRENT TRANSFORMERS FOR PROTECTON APPLICATION Application note GER3973 1 CT Dimensioning ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò GER3973 Application note ÿþ üûúùø öõöôùóùõò
More informationPHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA
PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA What are phasors??? In normal practice, the phasor represents the rms maximum value of the positive half cycle of the sinusoid
More informationLine Reactors and AC Drives
Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences
More informationMarch 20. Physics 272. Spring 2014 Prof. Philip von Doetinchem
Physics 272 March 20 Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.edu Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  129 Summary No magnetic
More informationAlternating Current and Direct Current
K Hinds 2012 1 Alternating Current and Direct Current Direct Current This is a Current or Voltage which has a constant polarity. That is, either a positive or negative value. K Hinds 2012 2 Alternating
More informationThe Ideal Transformer. Description and Circuit Symbol
The Ideal Transformer Description and Circuit Symbol As with all the other circuit elements, there is a physical transformer commonly used in circuits whose behavior can be discussed in great detail. However,
More informationd di Flux (B) Current (H)
Comparison of Inductance Calculation Techniques Tony Morcos Magnequench Technology Center Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 1 VCM Baseline: Geometry Axiallymagnetized MQ3F 42 NdFeB disk Br = 131kG
More informationMotors and Generators
Motors and Generators Electromechanical devices: convert electrical energy to mechanical motion/work and vice versa Operate on the coupling between currentcarrying conductors and magnetic fields Governed
More informationTHE PERUNIT SYSTEM. (2) The perunit values for various components lie within a narrow range regardless of the equipment rating.
THE PERUNIT SYSTEM An interconnected power system typically consists of many different voltage levels given a system containing several transformers and/or rotating machines. The perunit system simplifies
More informationDirect versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure
Phil Sherrod W4PHS Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent
More informationSynchronous generators are built in large units, their rating ranging from tens to hundreds of megawatts.
II. Synchronous Generators Synchronous machines are principally used as alternating current (AC) generators. They supply the electric power used by all sectors of modern societies: industrial, commercial,
More informationPPT No. 26. Uniformly Magnetized Sphere in the External Magnetic Field. Electromagnets
PPT No. 26 Uniformly Magnetized Sphere in the External Magnetic Field Electromagnets Uniformly magnetized sphere in external magnetic field The Topic Uniformly magnetized sphere in external magnetic field,
More informationLCR Parallel Circuits
Module 10 AC Theory Introduction to What you'll learn in Module 10. The LCR Parallel Circuit. Module 10.1 Ideal Parallel Circuits. Recognise ideal LCR parallel circuits and describe the effects of internal
More informationCHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF INTEGRAL SLOT AND FRACTIONAL SLOT BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR
47 CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF INTEGRAL SLOT AND FRACTIONAL SLOT BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR 4.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the design of 24 slots 8 poles, 48 slots 16 poles and 60 slots 16 poles brushless dc
More information