Very-Near-Field Scanning Solutions for Pinpoint Diagnosis of EMC Compliance Problems

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1 Very-Near-Field Scanning Solutions for Pinpoint Diagnosis of EMC Compliance Problems

2 Agenda Introduction to Very-Near-Field Very-Near-Field Implementation High Resolution Scanner Sample Results Case Study Other Applications Conclusion

3 EMSCAN Introduction World Leading Developer of Fast Magnetic Very- Near-Field Measurement Applications Real-Time Visual Test Solutions for Antenna and PCB Designers and Verification Engineers Pre-Compliance Not Compliance

4 EMSCAN Products EMxpert EMC/EMI diagnostic tool enabling designers to rapidly diagnose and solve EM problems in a single design cycle in their own lab environment RFxpert APM tool enabling engineers to quickly evaluate and optimize their designs with real-time antenna performance characterization at their desk

5 Introduction to Very-Near-Field Far-Field / Near-Field / Very-Near-Field

6 What is Very-Near-Field? What we call the very-nearfield is the reactive region Interaction with device under test is unavoidable d Where the most information is available

7 Far-Field (Chamber) Measurements Compliance or compliance like results Slow test time with possible queues for chamber time No information about source of emissions Image:

8 Very-Near-Field Measurements Origin of all emissions Insight into root causes Best applied at board level Possible to extrapolate far-field from very-near-field Not repeatable and difficult to get whole picture

9 Very-Near-Field Implementation A Better Solution

10 Scanning Array of Probes 1218 probes in a 29 x 42 array Magnetic field loop probes Sensitive down to -135 dbm Inefficient for EMI isolation Broadband Scan area 21.8cm x 31.6cm Real-time measurements ( <1 sec)

11 System Configuration USB LAN/USB Software Application External Trigger Controller Spectrum Analyzer Control RF Sensor Array

12 Spectral Scan Identify the frequencies of emission

13 Spatial Scan Visualize where the emissions are coming from

14 High Resolution Scanner Best of Both Worlds

15 Higher Resolution Spatial Scan Use the same probe array for high speed testing Probe spacing is 7.5mm 7.5mm

16 Higher Resolution Spatial Scan Move the entire probe array to synthesize small probe spacing Up to Level 7 (0.1mm) Level 1 Level 2

17 Higher Resolution Spatial Scan Detail of small feature available Even inside components like ICs Level 1 Level 3

18 Sample Results Following Emissions Across a PCB

19 Analyzing a PCB First view of a scan give spectral content and aggregate spatial content

20 Analyzing a PCB Jump around by frequency or location to follow signals Load new PCB layers to correlate to features Energy coupled onto power plane Energy coupled onto control line

21 Analyzing a PCB Able to follow the signal on the traces as it goes between layers. Layer 1 Via transition to layer 2 Layer 2 Beginning of ground plane shielding control line Layer 3 Digital control line on layer 1 Control line continued on layer 2

22 Sample Results Peering inside an IC

23 Emissions From Inside the IC 100 MHz

24 Emissions From Inside the IC 120 MHz Different Profile

25 Emissions From Inside the IC 130 MHz

26 Comparable to Other Techniques Probe Array Method Single Probe Method

27 Case Study Debugging an optical IC courtesy of

28 Optical Networking Unit Passive optical network (PON) Onboard bi-directional optical subassembly (BOSA) Converts Wired LAN traffic to Optical Network

29 Chamber RE GN25L95 (ONU) with power on No data between GN25L95 and MAC

30 Chamber RE GN25L95 with power on Full EPON data between GN25L95 and MAC

31 Change Layout and Test in Chamber Cut traces 10nF local Fit 33R here instead. May be better to not fit this resistor.

32 BOSA On Board 2 layer PCB

33 Scan Conditions Bottom Layer

34 Spectral Scan Results Idle (1010) Jitter pattern

35 Spatial Scan Results Hotspots indicate high emission area. All Ones 8b10b Tx leads to BOSA All Zeroes 8b10b

36 Scan Conditions Top Layer Tx leads

37 Spectral Scan Results Data of interest Back ground noise PRBS2^7-1 Data of interest Back ground noise PRBS2^23-1

38 Summary The higher spectral content in the failed RE tests are due to the patterns used for EMC compliance testing The measured spectral content in the very-near-field scans aligns with the theoretical FFT expectation and with chamber results The emissions hotspot is the tx leads to the BOSA

39 Other Applications Typical EMC Concerns

40 A/B Comparison Obsolescence management Production unit versus gold standard Fault diagnosis

41 Effectiveness of Filters Immediate feedback means trial and error can be used

42 Measure Self-Interference (Desense) Sensitivity of the system can detect emissions from a conducted power as low as -135dBm Noise generated at MHz while camera is active harms GPS performance

43 Other Applications Chamber Predictions

44 Far-Field Prediction VNF results to predict Open Area Test Site (OATS) or free space radiated EMI of PCB

45 Far-Field Prediction Measure the very-near-field emission from real source Use this as a source model in a simulation package Amplitude and phase needed

46 Far-Field Prediction Standard IEC file format allows importation into many packages

47 Far-Field Prediction Simulation could include large scale effect like cables, enclosures, etc. 3m

48 Conclusion Very-Near-Field Array Based Measurement

49 Very-Near-Field Pros and Cons Array based very-near-field testing can identify source of emissions quickly Changes in the lab can be validated before going to the chamber Intermittent or changing events can be captured Extremely high resolution available

50 Very-Near-Field Pros and Cons PCB diagnostic not product compliance Some shapes not appropriate for testing Trace or IC must be very close to get most benefit from high resolution scanning

51 Thank You

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