Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Introduction to Joints - Page 1 of 22

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Introduction to Joints - Page 1 of 22"

Transcription

1 Introduction to Joints - Page 1 of 22 Joints - Introduction When you think about your joints, you most likely think immediately of your knees, shoulders, hips, elbows, etc. Certainly these are large and important joints, but there are many other joints in the body that you may have never realized existed. For example, the union of the parallel borders of the radius and the ulna and the junction between a tooth and its socket are both types of joints. A joint, or articulation, is defined as the junction between two or more bones of the skeleton. Joints can be classified in one of two ways: by the movement they permit or by the tissue joining the bones of the joint. Each of these systems of classification provides useful information about the joint, but the systems do not necessarily correspond.

2 Introduction to Joints - Page 2 of 22 Joints - Classification by Movement Joints can be classified by how much movement they allow. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Specific examples of synarthroses are suture joints (the joints in the skull) and synchondroses (the type of joint found in growth plates). Amphiarthroses: Slightly moveable joints. A specific example of an amphiarthrosis is a symphysis (such as the joint between two vertebrae). Diarthroses: Freely moveable joints. Specific examples of diarthroses are typical synovial joints such as the shoulder and wrist. We will discuss these specific examples in more detail later in the module. An important concept to remember is that joint strength and flexibility are opposed. Greater joint strength comes at the cost of less flexibility and vice versa. The movement allowed at a particular joint depends on the shape of the bones and articular surfaces, the ligaments crossing the joint, and the muscles crossing the joint.

3 Introduction to Joints - Page 3 of 22 Joints - Classification by Tissue Joining Bones Joints can also be classified by the type of tissue connecting the bones of the joint. Fibrous Joints: The bones of these joints are connected by fibrous ligaments only. Cartilaginous Joints: The bones involved in cartilaginous joints are joined by some type of cartilage. Synovial Joints: These joints are freely moveable and are characterized by a joint cavity between the bones that has a synovial membrane and is lubricated with synovial fluid. We will discuss each of these types of joints in more detail on the following screens.

4 Introduction to Joints - Page 4 of 22 Fibrous Joints Fibrous joints are connected only by fibrous ligaments. A ligament is dense connective tissue that connects bone to bone (as opposed to tendons, which connect muscles to bones). Ligaments are named based on their position or based on the bones they attach. There are 3 distinct types of fibrous joints: 1. Suture Joints 2. Gomphoses 3. Syndesmoses

5 Introduction to Joints - Page 5 of 22 Fibrous Joints - Sutures Suture joints are one type of fibrous joint. They are the type of joint that connect the flat bones of the skull which meet in a tooth-like pattern. The fibrous tissue of these joints is continuous with the periosteum, and the joints are synarthroses (immovable). Suture joints undergo changes throughout childhood and into early adulthood. At birth, the sutures have broad spaces of fibrous tissue called fontanelles. These joints close down and undergo ossification (becoming fused with bone) beginning in childhood and continuing into a person's 20's. A joint that has ossified over time is called a synostosis.

6 Introduction to Joints - Page 6 of 22 Fibrous Joints - Gomphoses Gomphoses are another type of fibrous joint. They are the type of joint that anchors the teeth in the alveolar processes (sockets) of the mandible and the maxilla. These joints are amphiarthroses (slightly moveable), although the normal movement of this joint is not what we consider a "loose tooth". Gomphoses (even in adult teeth) allow microscopic movements that allow us to sense how hard we are biting and if we have food stuck in our teeth.

7 Introduction to Joints - Page 7 of 22 Fibrous Joints - Syndesmoses Syndesmoses are the third type of fibrous joint. In this type of joint, apposed bones are joined by a fibrous membrane (interosseous membrane) or a ligament. These joints are amphiarthroses (slightly moveable) and are maintained as fibrous unions throughout life. (Syndesmoses do not become synostoses.) Examples of syndesmoses are the attachment of the borders of the radius and ulna, which are connected with an interosseus membrane, the attachment of the borders of the tibia and fibula, which are connected with an interosseous membrane, and the inferior tibiofibular joint which is connected by a ligament.

8 Introduction to Joints - Page 8 of 22 Cartilaginous Joints The next broad classification of joints we will discuss are cartilaginous joints. Cartilaginous joints are joined by either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. The cartilage of cartilaginous joints is avascular and anervous except at the margins. Hyaline cartilage is slippery and strong when compressed, but has little tensile strength (strength against being stretched). Fibrocartilage, on the other hand, is tough and strong both when compressed and when stretched (high tensile strength). There are two distinct types of cartilaginous joints: 1. Synchondroses 2. Symphyses

9 Introduction to Joints - Page 9 of 22 Cartilaginous Joints - Synchondroses Synchondroses are a temporary type of cartilaginous joint that are seen at epiphyseal plates (growth plates) during development. They allow for growth of long bones by flexibly joining the epiphysis, or end, of a growing long bone to the diaphysis, or shaft, of a long bone. This type of joint is made of hyaline cartilage that is eventually replaced by bone after growth is completed (synchondroses become synostoses). You may have heard that children are particularly susceptible to breaking bones at their growth plates. This makes sense because that region of the bone is actually hyaline cartilage, which has little tensile strength. Synchondroses are also found at the union between the first rib and the sternum.

10 Introduction to Joints - Page 10 of 22 Cartilaginous Joints - Symphyses Symphyses are the second type of cartilaginous joint. These are permanent cartilage unions characterized by fibrocartilage disks separating bones covered by hyaline cartilage. These are strong amphiarthroses (slightly moveable joints). Examples of symphyses are the pubic symphysis and the joints between vertebral segments with their tough intervertebral disks.

11 Introduction to Joints - Page 11 of 22 Synovial Joints Synovial joints are the most common, most moveable and most complex type of joint. Thus, we will spend a little more time on this joint type. Essentially, all synovial joints are diarthroses (freely moveable) thereby giving us the flexibility to walk, throw a ball, write, etc. Synovial joints have a general structure that is characteristic of this joint type. All synovial joints have: 1. A joint cavity between the bones 2. A synovial membrane lining 3. Articular cartilage Some synovial joints also have accessory structures.

12 Introduction to Joints - Page 12 of 22 Synovial Joints - Characteristics The following are characteristic of synovial joints: 1. Joint Cavity - The space between articulating bones that is lined with the synovial membrane. The joint capsule surrounding the joint cavity provides support for the delicate synovial membrane where it is not in contact with bone. 2. Synovial Membrane Lining - This structure secretes synovial fluid which lubricates and nourishes the joint. (Syn=like, ovial=egg-white) 3. Articular Cartilage - This covers the ends of bones that articulate with each other. It consists of hyaline cartilage lubricated with synovial fluid. It is very slick and smooth to reduce friction in the joint. 4. Accessory Structures - These do not necessarily appear in all synovial joints, but play key roles when they are present. We will discuss these structures more in the next screen.

13 Introduction to Joints - Page 13 of 22 Synovial Joints - Accessory Structures There are several types of accessory structures that may be present in synovial joints. 1. Accessory ligaments - these connect bone to bone and stabilize the joint by limiting motion in unwanted directions. Accessory ligaments may be capsular - a thickening of the joint capsule itself; extracapsular-outside the joint capsule; or intracapsular-inside the joint capsule. 2. Articular disks or menisci - these intervene between joint spaces. Examples are the lateral and medial menisci in the knee and the articular discs in the sternoclavicular joints. 3. Muscles and tendons - these can be very important for the integrity of many joints. Examples are the rotator cuff muscles in the shoulder which support the humerus and keep it in the glenoid fossa, and the popliteus muscle in the knee.

14 Introduction to Joints - Page 14 of 22 Synovial Joints - Subclassifications There are six subclassifications of synovial joints based on their structure and how much movement they allow. In order from the least amount of movement to the most amount of movement allowed they are: 1. plane joints 2. hinge joints 3. pivot joints 4. condyloid joints 5. saddle joints 6. ball and socket joints We will discuss each subclass of the synovial joints and give examples in the next several screens.

15 Introduction to Joints - Page 15 of 22 Synovial Joints - Plane Joints Plane joints allow only gliding or sliding motions. This motion can be in any direction of a single plane. Thus, it is a uniaxial joint. The articular surfaces in plane joints are flat or slightly curved and the movement is restricted by a tight fibrous capsule. Examples of plane joints include the: 1. facet joints (those between articulating surfaces on the vertebrae) 2. intercarpal joints 3. carpometacarpal joints 4. intermetacarpal joints 5. intermetatarsal joints 6. acromioclavicular joints

16 Introduction to Joints - Page 16 of 22 Synovial Joints - Hinge Joints Hinge (a.k.a. ginglymus) joints allow flexion and extension only. The movement at hinge joints is around one axis that is perpendicular to the bones of the joint. Hinge joints are another example of uniaxial joints. In these joints, the capsule is thin and flexible on the surfaces where bending occurs, but is reinforced with strong laterally placed collateral ligaments. Examples of hinge joints are the: 1. elbow 2. knee 3. interphalangeal joints (the joints between finger and toe segments)

17 Introduction to Joints - Page 17 of 22 Synovial Joints-Pivot Joints Pivot (a.k.a. trochoidal) joints are also uniaxial joints. They allow rotary movement around one axis that is longitudinal through the bone. In this type of joint, a process of one bone rotates in a ring formed by the other bone and a ligament. Examples of pivot joints are: 1. Proximal radioulnar joint 2. Atlas-axis joint (the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae)

18 Introduction to Joints - Page 18 of 22 Synovial Joints - Condyloid Joints Condyloid joints allow flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction (which is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction). These joints consist of oval surfaces which allow for movement in two planes perpendicular to each other. Thus, this is a biaxial joint. Rotation at this joint is not allowed due to the shape of the articulating surfaces. Examples of condyloid joints are: 1. The wrist 2. Metacarpophalangeal joints of the fingers and metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes. Note: If the difference between circumduction and rotation is confusing for you, try this: With your arm pointed straight ahead of you, trace a large circle in the air with your finger (using your whole arm)-this is circumduction of the shoulder. Now, with the same arm, pretend as though you are turning a screwdriver with your elbow straight-this is rotation of the shoulder. Also, remember that the metacarpophalangeal joints are capable of circumduction (tracing out circles), but cannot do rotation.

19 Introduction to Joints - Page 19 of 22 Synovial Joints-Saddle Joints Saddle (a.k.a. sellar) joints are also biaxial joints, but here, the articulating surfaces are concavoconvex (one bone shaped like a saddle and the other shaped like a horse's back). These joints allow flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction. An example of a saddle joint is the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.

20 Introduction to Joints - Page 20 of 22 Synovial Joints - Ball and Socket Joints Ball and socket joints are multiaxial, allowing movement in an almost infinite number of axes through the ball of the joint. These joints allow flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction and rotation. Ball and socket joints allow for more flexibility than any other type of joint. Examples are: 1. The hip 2. The shoulder

21 Introduction to Joints - Page 21 of 22 Joints - Blood Supply Joints are relatively poorly supplied with blood vessels. In general, the blood supply comes from collateral branches of larger vessels. Many joints are surrounded by systems of anastomoses that allow blood flow around the joint regardless of the position of the limb.

22 Introduction to Joints - Page 22 of 22 Joints - Nerve Supply In contrast to blood supply, joints are very well supplied with sensory nerves. The major sensation from joints is proprioception, which allows us to know what position our limbs are in. We also have pain sensation in joints carried by branches of larger nerves in the area. Thus, joint pain is often referred to the skin overlying the joint or the muscles around the joint. The major point to remember about joint innervation is Hilton's Law: A nerve innervating muscles that act across a joint must also supply sensory fibers to that joint. So, for example, the femoral nerve which supplies the quadriceps muscles also sends sensory branches to the knee joint.

Articulations - where two bones interconnect.

Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Articulations Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Immovable joints Synarthroses, or fibrous Example: Sutures of skull Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or cartilaginous Example: Symphysis

More information

CHAPTER 8: JOINTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. 4. Name the three types of fibrous joints and give an example of each.

CHAPTER 8: JOINTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. 4. Name the three types of fibrous joints and give an example of each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the term articulation. 2. Distinguish between the functional and structural classification of joints, and relate the terms that are essentially synonymous. 3. Compare and contrast

More information

Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together.

Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together. Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together. CLASSES OF JOINTS. 1. Joints are classified according to how the bones are held together. 2. The three types of

More information

Based on the material that binds the bones together. Based on the degreee of movement they permit

Based on the material that binds the bones together. Based on the degreee of movement they permit Based on the material that binds the bones together Based on the degreee of movement they permit Diarthroses: Synovial Joints Freely movable Each joint contains a fluid filled joint cavity called the synovial

More information

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM freedom Functional potential of the joint Axial

More information

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy Lecture 4 Articular System Structural Classes of Joints Based on the type of substance between articulating bones: Fibrous joints - least mobile Cartilaginous joints Synovial

More information

Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture

Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 9 1 JOINTS Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 9 2 JOINTS (Bones are too rigid to bend without causing damage.) (Bones are held together at joints by flexible connective tissue.) (Imagine

More information

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM Degrees of freedom Functional potential of the

More information

8/25/2014 JOINTS. The Skeletal System. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

8/25/2014 JOINTS. The Skeletal System. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS The Skeletal System Made up of the numerous bones of the human body Gives support and framework to the body Protects vital organs Manufactures blood cells Storage of calcium

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints Is made up of numerous bones and is the rigid framework of the human body It gives support and shape to the body It protects vital organs such as the

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints CLOSE YOUR POWERPOINT HANDOUTS!! Think-Pair-Share: Why do we need bones? Try to think of 3 reasons. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Is made up of numerous bones

More information

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 5 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone

More information

SKELETON AND JOINTS G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. Unit 1. Factors Affecting Participation and Performance. G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:.

SKELETON AND JOINTS G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION. Unit 1. Factors Affecting Participation and Performance. G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. G.C.S.E. PHYSICAL EDUCATION Unit 1 Factors Affecting Participation and Performance SKELETON AND JOINTS Name: G.C.S.E. P.E. Teacher:. By the end of this booklet you should be able to: Understand what the

More information

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT UNIT - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 18 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT Movement is an important feature of living organism. Both the microbes and macrobes show wide range of movements. The movements results in change

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points)

Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points) Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Name: Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points) Lab Report 7: Marieb & Mitchell 9 th Ed: Exercise 13 (Reference only), Exercise 13 Review Sheet Questions + Addendum;

More information

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones.

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. Skeletal System Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. 3.

More information

Chapter 11. What are the functions of the skeletal system? More detail on bone

Chapter 11. What are the functions of the skeletal system? More detail on bone Skeletal System Chapter 11 11.1 Overview of the skeletal system What are the functions of the skeletal system? 1. Supports the body 2. Protects the soft body parts 3. Produces blood cells 4. Stores minerals

More information

Three bones take part in forming the knee joint : 1. Lower end of the femur 2. Upper end of tibia 3. Patella (knee cup).

Three bones take part in forming the knee joint : 1. Lower end of the femur 2. Upper end of tibia 3. Patella (knee cup). The knee is a hinge synovial joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The joint is protected in front by the patella (knee cap). Knee joint is a complex compound synovial joint (3

More information

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies MUSCLE REVIEW 2 21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies a. anterior to the humerus b. posterior to the humerus c. anterior to the ulna and radius

More information

www.ghadialisurgery.com

www.ghadialisurgery.com P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal

More information

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Name Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you should be able to 1) List the functions of the skeletal system. 2) Describe the anatomy of a long

More information

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. NURS1004 Week 6 Part I Prepared by Didy Button Skeletal system An Introduction to the Skeletal System The Skeletal System Includes: Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 6-1

More information

BONES AND JOINTS. Axial Skeleton

BONES AND JOINTS. Axial Skeleton BONES AND JOINTS The adult human skeleton usually consists of 206 bones which are connected by various joints. Muscles produce force which causes movement at these joints. These bones can be grouped in

More information

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy Skeletal System Overview and General Anatomy 1 Bone Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Fat, calcium, phosphorus Hemopoiesis While we usually think of the skeleton as just our support framework,

More information

) ( ) ( Axial Skeleton (cont.) Cervical vert. (7) Thoracic vert. (12) Lumbar vert. (5) Sacral vert. (5) Coccygeal vert. (3 or 4)

) ( ) ( Axial Skeleton (cont.) Cervical vert. (7) Thoracic vert. (12) Lumbar vert. (5) Sacral vert. (5) Coccygeal vert. (3 or 4) Axial Skeleton (cont.) Cervical vert. (7) neck region Thoracic vert. (12) Posterior to thoracic cavity Lumbar vert. (5) Supports the lower back Sacral vert. (5) Fused, immovable Coccygeal vert. (3 or 4)

More information

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7 Functions of skeletal system : support of body protection of soft organs production of blood cells movement (as levers) storage of minerals and

More information

Model of the Human Skeleton

Model of the Human Skeleton Model of the Human Skeleton Have students read about the skeletal system below and take the two short answer quizzes. They can study the labeled skeleton and then try to label a whole skeleton themselves.

More information

Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories:

Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories: Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball & socket Plane Joint Plane joints Articular surfaces are essentially flat Allow only slipping or gliding movements

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam #2

Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley. Practice Exam #2 Human Anatomy & Physiology I with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam #2 For questions 1 through 3, select your answers from the following responses: a. stratified squamous epithelium b. reticular connective tissue

More information

Joints. The graceful movements of ballet dancers and the rough-and-tumble. Classification of Joints

Joints. The graceful movements of ballet dancers and the rough-and-tumble. Classification of Joints Classification of Joints (pp. 24 249) Fibrous Joints (pp. 249 250) Sutures (p. 249) Syndesmoses (pp. 249 250) Gomphoses (p. 250) Cartilaginous Joints (pp. 250 251) Synchondroses (pp. 250 251) Symphyses

More information

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company Chapter 2 Skeletal System Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure

More information

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names Muscle Movements, Types, and Names A. Gross Skeletal Muscle Activity 1. With a few exceptions, all muscles cross at least one joint 2. Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint it crossed

More information

Osteokinematics (how the bones move) & Arthrokinematics (how the joints move)

Osteokinematics (how the bones move) & Arthrokinematics (how the joints move) Osteokinematics (how the bones move) & Arthrokinematics (how the joints move) Planes & Axes Planes of Action = Three fixed lines of reference along which the body is divided. Each plane is at right angles

More information

Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower

Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower end of tibia & medial malleolus. -Lateral Malleolus

More information

Laboratory Investigation 24B Chapter 24B: The Skeletal System

Laboratory Investigation 24B Chapter 24B: The Skeletal System Name Class Date Station # Laboratory Investigation 24B Chapter 24B: The Skeletal System Human Anatomy & Physiology: Skeletal System You may refer to pages 422-425 in your textbook for a general discussion

More information

The Shoulder Complex & Shoulder Girdle

The Shoulder Complex & Shoulder Girdle The Shoulder Complex & Shoulder Girdle The shoulder complex 4 articulations involving The sternum The clavicle The ribs The scapula and The humerus Bony Landmarks provide attachment points for muscles

More information

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES 4.01 FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM A. Support 1. Provides a framework for the body. 2. Supports soft tissue. 3. Serves as a point of attachment for ligaments,

More information

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function 7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function For the next two chapters (7 and 9) we will study the skeletal system. Although the major feature of this system is the bones, the skeletal system also consists

More information

Radiology Reference Guide

Radiology Reference Guide Radiology Reference Guide Your skeleton gives your body structure and support. It is made of living bone cells, living tissues, blood vessels, mineral deposits and water. Your skeleton also protects delicate

More information

Skeletal System. Chapter 5

Skeletal System. Chapter 5 Skeletal System Chapter 5 Components of the Skeletal System Skeleton subdivided Axial Skeleton-longitudinal axis of body Appendicular Skeletonlimbs and girdles Skeletal System includes Joints 3 types Cartilages

More information

Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee

Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee BONES OF THE KNEE JOINT Shaft and Distal Femur Linea aspera gives rise to quadriceps. Flatten into supracondylar ridges End in

More information

1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen

1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen I. cartilage A. perichondrium 1. outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts that secrete collagen 2. inner chondrogenic layer contains cells that can proliferate and turn into chondroblasts B. cartilage

More information

www.ghadialisurgery.com

www.ghadialisurgery.com P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal

More information

DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MANDIBLE

DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MANDIBLE 2012-2013 ORAL BIOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF THE MANDIBLE Ass. Prof. Dr. Heba M. Elsabaa Development and Growth of the Mandible DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANDIBLE The Mandible Is the largest and strongest

More information

Clarification of Terms

Clarification of Terms Shoulder Girdle Clarification of Terms Shoulder girdle = scapula and clavicle Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) = scapula and humerus What is the purpose (or function) of the shoulder and entire upper

More information

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I MARY CATHERINE FLATH, Ph.D. Dr. Mary Cat Flath, Copyright 2015 AXIAL SKELETON SKULL (all flat bones) Cranium = 8 bones Facial Skeleton with Mandible

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The skeleton is the body s bony framework which consists of 206 bones. The bones are made up of water(45%), calcium and phosphorous(35%) and other organic materials(20%). The calcium

More information

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Overview of the Skeleton Locate the important cartilages in the human skeleton

More information

The Skeletal System. "Support System"

The Skeletal System. Support System The Skeletal System "Support System" Types of skeletal systems in the animal Kingdom 1-Hydrostatic skeleton: as in flatworms and annelids, where the fluid found in their ceolom acts as a skeletal system

More information

Frozen Shoulder. Let s take a moment to take a look at the shoulder structure and its mechanics.

Frozen Shoulder. Let s take a moment to take a look at the shoulder structure and its mechanics. March 2011 Frozen Shoulder Writing about frozen shoulder seemed so apropos considering the deep frozen state we have reached here in the great state of NH this year. Just like the three stages of frozen

More information

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8 I. axial vs appendicular axial skeleton forms long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular - bones of upper and lower limbs including girdles that attach limbs to axial skeleton II.

More information

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 4-1. Define skeleton.

LESSON ASSIGNMENT. After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 4-1. Define skeleton. LESSON ASSIGNMENT LESSON 4 The Human Skeletal System. TEXT ASSIGNMENT Paragraphs 4-1 through 4-14. LESSON OBJECTIVES After completing this lesson, you should be able to: 4-1. Define skeleton. 4-2. Name

More information

Biomechanics of the Shoulder and Throwing

Biomechanics of the Shoulder and Throwing Biomechanics of the Shoulder and Throwing Shoulder Anatomy Most mobile joint in the body Ball-and-socket joint 3 bones connected by muscles, ligaments & tendons Clavicle Humerus Scapula Range of Motion

More information

The Search for the Missing Bones

The Search for the Missing Bones The Magic School Bus A Science Chapter Book #2 The Search for the Missing Bones Lapbook by Amy Yee. Yee Shall Know http:///www.yeeshallknow.com Lapbook Basics Follow the instructions in the following page(s)

More information

THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T

THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T CLARIFICATION OF TERMS Shoulder girdle = scapula and clavicle Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) = scapula and humerus Lippert, p115

More information

Divisions of the Skeletal System

Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax-CNX module: m46344 1 Divisions of the Skeletal System OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end of this

More information

CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES. for Massage Therapists. Online!

CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES. for Massage Therapists. Online! CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES for Massage Therapists Online! ccmh Halifax Canadian College of Massage & Hydrotherapy Online Continuing Education Program CCMH Halifax offers a variety of Continuing Education

More information

The Knee Joint. Osteology.

The Knee Joint. Osteology. The Knee Joint. The knee joint is the largest joint in the human body, and is one of the most complicated. However, it is also one of the least stable joints, and is therefore prone to injury and osteoarthritic

More information

Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson

Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson Ch. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue JEOPARDY!! With your host Mrs. Colson Classification & Function Bone Structure Bone Development Remodeling & Repair RANDOM! 10 10 10 10 10 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 30

More information

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension Plane: Sagittal Axis: Coronal Action: Flexion/Extension Plane: Frontal AKA Coronal Axis: Sagittal Abduction/Adduction Plane: Transverse AKA Horizontal Axis: Vertical Rotation Cardinal Plane: where all

More information

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems

Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Chapter 36 Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems Section 36 1 The Skeletal System (pages 921 925) This section describes the skeletal system and its functions. Introduction (page 921) 1. What forms

More information

Knee Kinematics and Kinetics

Knee Kinematics and Kinetics Knee Kinematics and Kinetics Definitions: Kinematics is the study of movement without reference to forces http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn2.0?stage=1&word=kinematics Kinetics is the study

More information

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date:

Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Student Guide The Morphology and Function of Tissue Types Name: Date: Introduction: Histology is often a very difficult topic for students. You are expected to understand the morphology and function of

More information

Human Body Vocabulary Words Week 1

Human Body Vocabulary Words Week 1 Vocabulary Words Week 1 1. arteries Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all parts of the body 2. heart The muscular organ inside the chest that pumps blood through the body

More information

Basic Biomechanics. What is Kinesiology? Why do we need Kinesiology? the body as a living machine for locomotion

Basic Biomechanics. What is Kinesiology? Why do we need Kinesiology? the body as a living machine for locomotion Basic Biomechanics the body as a living machine for locomotion What is Kinesiology? Kinesis: To move -ology: to study: The study of movement What the heck does that mean? Why do we need Kinesiology? As

More information

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8)

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content:

More information

DISLOCATIONS. Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles.

DISLOCATIONS. Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles. DISLOCATIONS Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles. Although there are many different ways in which dislocations can be classified,

More information

Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding

Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding 2011 Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding Your guide to the anatomical and physiological specificity of ICD-10-CM coding NEW! See sample pages of this new product. ICD-10 A full suite

More information

Structure and Function of the Hip

Structure and Function of the Hip Structure and Function of the Hip Objectives Identify the bones and bony landmarks of the hip and pelvis Identify and describe the supporting structures of the hip joint Describe the kinematics of the

More information

COMPUTER-RELATED MUSCLE, TENDON, AND JOINT INJURIES

COMPUTER-RELATED MUSCLE, TENDON, AND JOINT INJURIES CHAPTER ELEVEN COMPUTER-RELATED MUSCLE, TENDON, AND JOINT INJURIES To reduce the risk of pain in your neck and shoulders, stay within these recommended ranges of movement: Neck Flexion: 0 o -15 o (bending

More information

Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex

Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex The ability to perform m any activities of daily living (ADL) d epends upon the elbow. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Can you think of anything that you do

More information

The skeletal and muscular systems

The skeletal and muscular systems anatomy and physiology The skeletal and muscular systems CHAPTER 1: Anatomy and physiology LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe an overview of the skeletal system

More information

CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES

CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES This chapter provides a review of bone and skeletal tissue. The human skeleton is composed primarily of two connective tissues: (1) cartilage and (2) bone. CHARACTERISTICS

More information

Manual of. Structural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-2. Structural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-4

Manual of. Structural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-2. Structural Kinesiology Foundations of Structural Kinesiology 1-4 Kinesiology & Body Mechanics Chapter 1 Foundations of Structural Kinesiology Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, EdD, ATC, CSCS Kinesiology - study of motion or human movement Anatomic kinesiology - study

More information

UNIT 5: FITNESS BASIC ANATOMY & PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE BASIC ANATOMY MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS & BONES PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE

UNIT 5: FITNESS BASIC ANATOMY & PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE BASIC ANATOMY MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS & BONES PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE UNIT 5: FITNESS BASIC ANATOMY & PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE TOPIC 1: TOPIC 2: BASIC ANATOMY MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS & BONES PROPER STRETCHING TECHNIQUE GRADES 6-7 UNIT 5 FITNESS BASIC ANATOMY & GRADES PROPER

More information

10/15/2012. The Hand. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Hand (Bones) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idxuwerttj A&feature=related

10/15/2012. The Hand. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Hand (Bones) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idxuwerttj A&feature=related The Hand http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idxuwerttj A&feature=related Clarification of Terms The hand is made up of the thumb, metacarpals, and phalanges The digits are numbered (with the thumb being #1

More information

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts Chapter 15 Lecture The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue & Skeletal Structure The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes: Bones, cartilages, ligaments Bone tissue = osseous tissue Includes living cells

More information

THE SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS

THE SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS i A Wealth of Information. A World of Ideas. Instructor s Guide The Human Body: How It Works Introduction This program is part of the nine-part series The Human Body: How It Works. The series uses physiologic

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology

Human Anatomy & Physiology PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College Ninth Edition Human Anatomy & Physiology C H A P T E R 7 The Skeleton: Part B Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images Vertebral

More information

Chapter 4 The Shoulder Girdle

Chapter 4 The Shoulder Girdle Chapter 4 The Shoulder Girdle Key Manubrium Clavicle Coracoidprocess Acromionprocess bony landmarks Glenoid fossa Bones Lateral Inferior Medial border angle McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

More information

Anatomy of the Athlete

Anatomy of the Athlete Module Two: Anatomy of the Athlete INTRODUCTION The Level One course provided you with basic information about the skeletal and muscular systems of the body. This module studies these systems in more depth,

More information

Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue

Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Chapter 6: The Skeletal System: Bone Tissue Chapter Objectives FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. Discuss the functions of support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell

More information

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. In this lab you will look at the vertebral column, just one part of that

More information

Tissue Mechanics II Soft Tissue Cartilage Muscle Ligaments Tendons Meniscus

Tissue Mechanics II Soft Tissue Cartilage Muscle Ligaments Tendons Meniscus Tissue Mechanics II Soft Tissue Cartilage Muscle Ligaments Tendons Meniscus All connective tissue (including bone and adipose) is characterized by distinctive cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix

More information

Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education. Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh

Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education. Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh Tendons - connect Muscle to Bone Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh Tendons are fibrous cords of

More information

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing Unit 1: Anatomy and Physiology

Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing Unit 1: Anatomy and Physiology Level 2 Certificate in Fitness Instructing Unit 1: Anatomy and Physiology These questions have been compiled based on the information available for the above qualification and unit. This mock should be

More information

Clarification of Terms

Clarification of Terms Clarification of Terms The plantar aspect of the foot refers to the sole or its bottom The dorsal aspect refers to the top or its superior portion The ankle and foot perform three main functions: 1. shock

More information

UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES. Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity

UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES. Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity ANATOMY BONES Clavicle Scapula Spine of the scapula Acromion process Glenoid fossa/cavity Humerus Epicondyles ANATOMY BONES Ulna

More information

Elbow & Forearm 10/15/2012. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Elbow & Forearm (Bones)

Elbow & Forearm 10/15/2012. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Elbow & Forearm (Bones) Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Clarification of Terms The elbow includes: 3 bones (humerus, radius, and ulna) 2 joints (humeroulnar and humeroradial)

More information

Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Professor Alan Hedge DEA 3250/6510

Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Professor Alan Hedge DEA 3250/6510 Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System Professor Alan Hedge DEA 3250/6510 Functions of the Musculoskeletal System Support and protect the body and its organs. Provide motion. Musculoskeletal

More information

Quiz: Friday March 30, 2007 8 South 1:15 p.m.

Quiz: Friday March 30, 2007 8 South 1:15 p.m. Masticatory Anatomy Quiz: Friday March 30, 2007 8 South 1:15 p.m. Material included: lecture material & Okeson readings Feb 23: Interocclusal Records, CR-Clinical Method and Arc of Closure March 2: Masticatory

More information

Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S?

Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Clarification of Terms The elbow includes: 3 bones (humerus, radius, and ulna) 2 joints (humeroulnar and humeroradial)

More information

Lectures of Human Anatomy

Lectures of Human Anatomy Lectures of Human Anatomy Vertebral Column-I By DR. ABDEL-MONEM AWAD HEGAZY M.B. with honor 1983, Dipl."Gynecology and Obstetrics "1989, Master "Anatomy and Embryology" 1994, M.D. "Anatomy and Embryology"

More information

Anatomy of Skeletal System

Anatomy of Skeletal System Anatomy of Skeletal System two main subdivisions of skeletal system: axial : skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular: arms and legs and girdles Bone Markings: Foramen: opening in bone passageway

More information

Skeletal Development Multiple Cellular Origins

Skeletal Development Multiple Cellular Origins Skeletal Development Multiple Cellular Origins 1 - Paraxial Mesoderm Somite, Sclerotome Axial Skeleton (e.g. vertebra) 2 - Lateral Plate Mesoderm Appendicular Skeleton (e.g. limb) 3 - Neural Crest Head

More information

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. All anatomical terms have a(n) reference point which is called the This is a(n) forward facing position where

More information

Muscle Energy Technique. Applied to the Shoulder

Muscle Energy Technique. Applied to the Shoulder Muscle Energy Technique Applied to the Shoulder MUSCLE ENERGY Theory Muscle energy technique is a manual therapy procedure which involves the voluntary contraction of a muscle in a precisely controlled

More information

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Functions of the skeletal system include A) support. B) storage. C) protection. D) blood

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Skeletal System forms the framework of the body. TYPES OF BONES: FOUR PRINCIPAL

More information