INDEX. Liquid Direct Command OVERALL SCHEMATIC. PUMPS Non-fixed displacement Centrifugal Fixed displacement Diaphragm Piston

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1 Application Components Knowledge Base I:\Support\App Rate_DC_Site V\Insight App Rate_DC\Direct Command General Knowledge/DC_AppRate knowledgebase.doc Updated 1/19/06 Liquid Direct Command INDEX OVERALL SCHEMATIC PUMPS Non-fixed displacement Centrifugal Fixed displacement Diaphragm Piston CONTROL VALVES Servo PWM VALVE CONFIGURATIONS Inline Bypass Pump Calibrated Reflow FLOW METERS PRESSURE SENSORS Analog Digital BOOM VALVES Motorized Solenoid Anhydrous Direct Command OVERALL NH3 SCHEMATIC HEAT EXCHANGER CONTROL VALVE FLOW METER BOOM VALVE

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3 Centrifugal pump Pumps The pump is used to draw the solution from the holding tank and apply pressure to the solution and to the application point. There are two common types of agricultural pumps, fixed displacement and non-fixed displacement. The main difference between these two types is whether or not the pump can adjust the output (GPM) based upon the pressure in the solution line going to the booms. Non-fixed displacement pumps such as a centrifugal pump vary the flow to the booms based upon the resistance created by pressure in the solution line. In contrast, fixed displacement pumps pump a precise amount for every revolution of the pump regardless of pressure in the system. Another difference in the type of pumps is whether they can be deadheaded or not. A pump that can be deadheaded can continue to run without flow and not harm the pump or solution lines [non-fixed]. However a pump that cannot be deadheaded will continue to generate pressure until the pump is shut off or some component of the system fails [fixed]. Non-fixed displacement pumps Most widely used pump type in agricultural spray application. Pump can be deadheaded The most common non-positive pump is a centrifugal pump, which has an impeller with curved vanes that rotates at high speeds. Typically, the output will decrease with increasing pressure, such as when boom valves are closed. Fixed displacement pumps Diaphragm, roller, and piston pumps are the most common of fixed type displacement pumps. Centrifugal pump Hardi is the most common manufacturer using this type of pump for agricultural spraying applications Commonly used with liquid fertilizer applications or other high cost inputs. Diaphragm pump The fixed displacement pump moves a specific volume of liquid with each stroke or revolution. The pump output is proportional to speed and virtually independent of pressure. Cannot be deadheaded. Roller pump John Blue piston pump

4 Control valves Servo (motorized valve) o Butterfly & ball Raven Dickey John Mid-Tech Tee-Jet o Needs power to open and to close. o Two speeds: Standard & Fast Standard 3 sec. or more from fully open to closed. Fast 3 sec. or less from fully open to fully closed. Motorized valve PWM (solenoid) Pulse Width Modulation valves. o Electrical pulse varies to adjust valve opening. o Spring-loaded valve creates resistance. o Valve has a default position. Solenoid valve Control valve Configurations Inline Servo The control valve is directly inline with product flow and restricts flow to the booms to vary the application rate.

5 By-pass Servo The control valve is not directly inline with product flow, but restricts flow to the tank. Nozzle tip resistance allows for this type of system to maintain sufficient pressure. Most commonly used with low flow applications. Pump Servo- A Hydraulically driven pump that is regulated by a control valve on the hydraulic flow to the pump. The pump speed is adjusted to control the application flow rate. The pump could be regulated by a servo or PWM valve.

6 Back to Top Calibrated Reflow- Three-way boom valves are used to return product back to the tank in the off state. The returned flow is calibrated with adjustment at each valve. Calibration is required any time the spray nozzles are changed. Calibrated Reflow

7 Flow Meters A flow meter has a propeller like device that rotates as fluid flows past. The flow meter generates pulses as the propeller spins. The flow meter is then calibrated to determine the number of pulses generated for a determined amount of fluid. Reads the rate (GPM) of flow from the pump to the application point. Must be placed in solution line after control valve. All flow meters must be calibrated. o Raven flow meter calibration numbers must be divided by 10 when entering calibration number into Ag Leader consoles. o Some Tee-Jet flow meters require a conversion from L/min to GPM. L/min *.264 = GPM o For Dickey John flow meters use the following equations: *Formula for flow meter calibration for Dickey John reading pounds of annhydrous Flow sensor constant (pulses/in 3 ) x 1728 (in 3 /ft 3 ) x 5.11 (lbs of anhydrous/gal) Density (lbs of anhydrous/ft 3 ) *Formula for flow meter calibration for Dickey John reading pounds of Nitrogen Flow sensor constant (pulses/in 3 ) x 1728 (in 3 /ft 3 ) x 4.22 (lbs of N/gal) Density (lbs of N/ft 3 ) o Note: The flow sensor constant is stamped on the Dickey-John flow meter. The density setting comes from a chart in the Dickey-John manual, not from this document. Flow Meter Tee-Jet Raven Tee-Jet

8 Pressure Sensors To read pressure with the Insight the sensor must have digital output. Pressure is for on-screen display only. A calibration must be performed for the Insight to display pressure. The Insight supports Raven or Dickey-John sensors. Digital Analog (will not work w/ Insight) Boom Valves Motorized - Servo Voltage needed to open or close valve Polarity is reversed to change valve direction Generally has a power, ground, and signal wire. The signal wire commands the valve to open. The power and ground provide the power needed to drive the valve closed. Solenoid Voltage is applied to open valve Spring-loaded valve defaults closed when voltage is lost. 12 volts = Open 0 volts = Closed

9 Anhydrous ~ Direct Command

10 Heat Exchanger Commonly called a Cooling Tower or Heat Exchanger Maintains NH3 in a liquefied state, to accurately control the application rate. Control Valve Should be Stainless Steel to withstand abrasive environment. If using without a boom valve, control valve should be fast operating for best performance, and to reduce skips and overlaps. Performs same duties as Direct Command Liquid. Flow Meter Must be made of durable material to withstand abrasive environment. Performs same duties as Direct Command Liquid. Boom Valve Not required but recommended for optimum performance. Performs same duties as Direct Command Liquid.

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