1. glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency.

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1 Chapter 11 Water-Soluble Vitamins Key Terms 1. glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency. 2. decarboxylation: Removal of a carboxyl group ( COOH) from a molecule. The carboxyl group is then released as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). 3. ariboflavinosis: Riboflavin deficiency. 4. angular stomatitis: Inflammation and cracking of the skin at the corners of the mouth; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency. 5. tryptophan: An amino acid that serves as a niacin precursor in the body. In the body, 60 milligrams of tryptophan yields about 1 milligram of niacin, or 1 niacin equivalent (NE). 6. biocytin: A biotin lysine complex released from digested protein. 7. carboxylation: A reaction that adds a carboxyl group ( COOH) to a substrate, replacing a hydrogen atom. 8. biotinidase: An enzyme in the small intestine that releases biotin from biocytin. 9. anemia: Abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin in the bloodstream; can be caused by impaired synthesis of red blood cells, increased destruction of red cells, or significant loss of blood. 10. dietary folate equivalents (DFE): A measure of folate intake used to account for the high bioavailability of folic acid taken as a supplement compared with the lower bioavailability of the folate found in foods.

2 11. megaloblasts: Large, immature red blood cells produced when precursor cells fail to divide normally due to impaired DNA synthesis. 12. macrocytes: Abnormally large red blood cells with short life spans. 13. neural tube defect (NTD): A birth defect resulting from failure of the neural tube to develop properly during early fetal development. 14. R-protein: A protein produced by the salivary glands that may protect vitamin B 12 as it travels through the stomach and into the small intestine. 15. atrophic gastritis: An age-related condition in which the stomach loses its ability to secrete acid. 16. reducing agent: A compound that donates electrons or hydrogen atoms to another compound. 17. hemochromatosis: A metabolic disorder that results in excess iron deposits in the body. 18. spina bifida: A type of neural tube birth defect. 19. beriberi: Thiamin-deficiency disease. Symptoms include muscle weakness, loss of appetite, nerve degeneration, and edema in some cases. 20. myelin sheath: The protective coating that surrounds nerve fibers. 21. anemia: Abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin in the bloodstream; can be caused by impaired synthesis of red blood cells, increased destruction of red cells, or significant loss of blood. 22. cheilosis: Inflammation and cracking of the lips; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency. 23. avidin: A protein in raw egg whites that binds biotin, preventing its absorption. It is denatured by heat.

3 24. niacin equivalents (NE): A measure that includes preformed dietary niacin as well as niacin derived from tryptophan; 60 milligrams of tryptophan yields about 1 milligram of niacin. 25. connective tissues: Tissues composed primarily of fibrous proteins such as collagen, and which contain few cells. Their primary function is to bind together and support various body structures. Fill-in-the-Blank 1. Riboflavin deficiency is called ariboflavinosis. 2. A symptom of riboflavin deficiency, angular stomatitis involves inflammation and cracking at the corners of the mouth. 3. Tryptophan is an amino acid that serves as a niacin precursor in the body. 4. Anencephaly is a type of neural tube birth defect in which part or all of the brain is missing. 5. Pernicious anemia is a form of anemia that results from an autoimmune disorder that damaged cells lining the stomach and inhibited vitamin B 12 absorption; it causes vitamin B 12 deficiency. 6. Dietary folate equivalents (DFE) are a measure of folate intake used to account for the high bioavailability of folic acid taken as a supplement compared with the lower bioavailability of the folate found in foods. 7. Megaloblastic anemia is characterized by excess amounts of megaloblasts in the blood caused by deficiency of folate or vitamin B 12.

4 8. Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme of which the vitamin thiamin is a part. It plays a key role in removing carboxyl groups and helps drive the reaction that forms acetyl CoA from pyruvate during metabolism. 9. Anemia characterized by small, pale red blood cells that lack adequate hemoglobin to carry oxygen is microcytic hypochromic anemia. Fill-in-the-Blank Summary Vitamin C Vitamin C plays an important role in the formation of the most abundant protein in the human body, collagen. Like vitamin E, vitamin C works as an antioxidant. Vitamin C is needed to synthesize many essential substances. The first signs of scurvy arise after about one month of a vitamin C free diet. Scurvy is rare in developed countries. Less severe signs of inadequate vitamin C intake are sore, inflamed gums and fatigue. If a healthy person consumes more than 2,000 mg of vitamin C a day for a prolonged period of time, this may lead to nausea, abdominal cramps, and nosebleeds. Short Answer 1. Describe the general differences between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Although fat-soluble vitamins tend to accumulate in the body, the kidneys generally remove and excrete excess water-soluble vitamins. The exception is vitamin B 12, which the liver stores in large amounts. Because your body does not store other water-soluble vitamins in appreciable amounts, they should be a part of your daily diet. In general,

5 water-soluble vitamins are more fragile than fat-soluble vitamins, and some cooking practices are particularly harmful. 2. Riboflavin is a part of two coenzymes which participate in numerous metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle and the beta-oxidation pathway that breaks down fatty acids. Name the coenzymes which riboflavin are a part of. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). 3. Identify the three B vitamins which are incorporated into coenzymes that catalyze energy-yielding reactions, and participate in pathways that metabolize carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin 4. Some women self-prescribe large doses of vitamin B 6 to remedy which ailments? What are the possible consequences associated with high doses of this vitamin? Some women self-prescribe large doses of vitamin B 6 to treat premenstrual syndrome. Megadoses of supplemental B 6 2,000 milligrams or more per day can cause irreversible nerve damage that affects the ability to walk and causes numbness in the extremities. 5. Which vitamin protects against neural tube defects? Folate 6. Identify what a deficiency of vitamin B 12 results in. What population group is at risk for vitamin B 12 deficiency and why? Deficiency of B 12 causes a form of megaloblastic anemia and irreversible nerve damage. Because vitamin B 12 is found only in animal foods, strict vegetarians must find an alternative source.

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