# Math 016. Materials With Exercises

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1 Math 06 Materials With Exercises

2 June 00, nd version

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Lesson Natural numbers; Operations on natural numbers: Multiplication by powers of 0; Opposite operations; Commutative Property of Addition and Multiplication; Exponential notation; Order of operations; The meaning of the sign.... Lesson Integers; Meaning of <, > ; Comparing integers; Number line; Opposite numbers; Adding and subtracting integers.. Lesson Addition/subtraction of more than two integers; Multiplication and division of integers; Opposite of a number as multiplication by... Lesson Exponentiation of integers; Order of operations; All operations combined Lesson Fractions; Rational numbers; Equivalent fractions; Reducing fractions; Converting fractions to an equivalent form with a given denominator.. Lesson 6 Multiplication of rational numbers; Exponentiation; Reciprocals; Division of rational numbers.. 6 Lesson Addition and subtraction of rational numbers. Lesson All operations combined on rational numbers; Comparing rational numbers....9 Lesson 9 Mixed numbers; Converting mixed numbers to fractions and fractions to mixed numbers; Plotting fractions and mixed numbers on a number line; Arithmetic operations on mixed numbers.0 Lesson 0 Decimal notation; Converting decimals to fractions and fractions to decimals; Multiplication and division of decimals by powers of 0; Comparing decimals.. Lesson Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation and all operations combined on decimals....0 Lesson Percent; Changing percents to decimals and decimals to percent; Solving percent problems: finding the percent and finding the amount..0. Appendix A Solutions to exercises

4 Help available: You can find help in the Learning Lab for math in room B-6 weekdays and in room B- Monday- Thursday evenings and Saturdays on Main Campus. During fall and spring semesters, free, peer tutoring is available beginning with the second week of classes for all current CCP students and free, weekly workshops begin in the third week of the semester. The peer tutors are experienced CCP students who have taken many of the courses in which they tutor. Math specialists also tutor as well as lead workshops. Check at Regional Centers for days and times of services. Also, during summer sessions, offerings may vary.

5 Lesson Topics: Natural numbers; Operations on natural numbers. Multiplication by powers of 0; Opposite operations; Commutative Property of Addition and Multiplication; Exponential notation; Order of operations; The meaning of the sign. Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics in which numbers, relations among numbers, and operations on numbers (like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) are studied. We will start with Natural numbers Numbers 0,,,, are called natural numbers. (the dots indicate that the list goes forever) Basic operations on natural numbers The basic operations on natural numbers are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Addition: 6 + The result of addition is called the sum. For example, the sum of 6 and is. Numbers that are being added are called terms of addition. 6 + terms of addition sum Subtraction: 6 The result of subtraction is called the difference. For example, the difference of 6 and is. Numbers that are being subtracted are called terms of subtraction. 6 terms of subtraction sum

6 Multiplication: 6 Other notations are also used: 6, 6(), (6). If no sign is explicitly displayed we assume multiplication (for example, 6() means 6 ). The result of multiplication is called the product. The product of 6 and is. Numbers that are being multiplied are called factors. 6 factors product Division: 6 6 Equivalently, we can write (it is called fraction notation). The result of division is called the quotient. The quotient of 6 and is. The number we divide by is called a divisor; is the divisor in this division (*). 6 divisor quotient An important fact about division. The operation of division by 0 is not defined 0 For example,,, 0 0 are not defined (but 0 is defined! We can divide 0 by any number 0 0 different from 0). Numbers on which addition, subtraction, multiplication or division are performed are called operands. So, in all of the above examples, i.e. 6 +, 6, 6, 6, we can refer to the numbers 6 and as to operands. Example. Rewrite the following numerical expressions inserting a multiplication sign whenever multiplication is implied. a) () b) ( + 6) ' ' a) () b) ( + 6) ( + 6) (*) Number that is being divided is called dividend (6 is the dividend in our division). The name is not used that often, so if you do not remember it, it is OK.

9 If we multiply by 00, we add two zeros to the right of the number If by 000, three zeros are needed In general, we add as many zeros to the right as appears in the natural number by which we multiply (five zeros are added since there are five zeros in 00000) Example.6 Perform the following operations. Please, make sure that you display your answer in a correct way, using the sign. a) 00 b) 0 c) a) b) 0 0 c) Exponential notation as a shorthand for repeated multiplication Suppose that we want to perform the following operation Instead of writing such a long expression, we can use the multiplication to denote the above operation. Adding six times to each other means times We can view multiplication as a shorthand for repeated addition. There is also a shorthand for repeated 6 multiplication. It is called exponentiation. Instead of writing, we can write. The expressions of the form expression 6,, 6 are called exponential expressions. In the exponential, the number is called the base, and is called the exponent (or power). Notice the relative position of the base and the exponent. The exponent is not in the same line as the base, it is written slightly higher. The expression means multiplied by itself as many times as the exponent indicates.

10 Thus, for example, 6 times 6 times 6 The expression is read two raised to the sixth power. In case of expressions raised to the second power, like 6,, they can also be read six squared or three squared, respectively. Expressions raised to the third power are often read four cubed. Example. Expand 9, meaning write without exponential notation Example. Write the following expressions using exponential notation whenever possible. a) ()()()() b) c) a) b) 6 c) Exponentiation is used only if the same number is multiplied several times. When is added, we cannot use the exponential notation. So, Example.9 Perform the following operations. a) b) c) d) 0 a) 9 b) c) d)

12 Example. Write the following statements using mathematical symbols, and then evaluate. a) First find the product of and, and then raise the result to the fourth power b) First subtract from 0, and then find the sum of the result and a) ( ) b) Use of the correct mathematical language and the meaning of equal sign Any time we evaluated expressions we used sign. The equal sign is placed between two symbols or expressions to indicate that they have the same value. Let us consider the following evaluation ( ) 6 0 Notice, that what we did was substituting 6 for. We replace by 6 We could do that because 6 is equal to. If two things are equal, then one can be put in place of the other and nothing will change (see also Mistake. at the end of this Lesson ). The following fundamental principle underlies the process of evaluation. If two quantities are equal, you can always substitute one for the other. Equals can be substituted for equals Example. Apply the principle Equals can be substituted for equals to evaluate ( 6) 000 if you know that Since Equals can be substituted for equals, we can substitute 0066 for 6 to get we replace these two Example. If you know that 6 0, what is the result of 0? 0

13 Since Equals can be substituted for equals, we can replace 0 with 6. This substitution gives us we replace these two Division by is the opposite operation to multiplication by and one can be used to undo the other. Thus the final result is 6. Finally, let us recall the following property of sign. It is symmetrical. If +, we equivalently can write it as +. Both statements have exactly the same meaning. Common mistakes and misconceptions Mistake. It is NOT true that we always perform addition first and subtraction afterward. Addition and subtraction are of equal priority. We perform these operations in order of their appearance from left to right. For example, in 0 + we would first subtract from 0, and only then add. Adding + first would give us the wrong answer. Similarly, multiplication and division are of equal priority, we perform them in order of their appearance from left to right. Since the first operation from the left is division, we divide before multiplying. Mistake. Do not confuse exponentiation with multiplication. For example, In, number must be multiplied by itself times,, not by. Mistake. There is a difference between and ( ). In the expression only is squared and then the result is multiplied by. 9 6 In the expression ( ), because of parentheses, we first multiply by, and then raise the result to the second power. ( )

14 Mistake. When evaluating 0 +, it is INCORRECT to write ( 0 ) Instead, one should write Numbers or expressions not involved in the operation that is being carried out must always be rewritten. Equal sign means that the quantities on either side are equal. Exercises with Answers (For answers see Appendix A) Ex. Ex. Fill in the blanks. In the product, and are called. Numbers 0,,,,... are called numbers. Operation of division by is not defined. Zero divided by any number except is equal to. The result of addition is called. The result of multiplication is called. In the expression, is called, is called. In the sum +, and are called of addition. Which of the following sentences are true? (There may be more than one true statement.) a) Operation of multiplication by zero is not defined. b) Zero divided by any number except zero is zero. c) Operation of division by zero is not defined. d) Any number multiplied by zero is zero. Ex. Rewrite the following numerical expressions inserting a multiplication sign whenever multiplication is implied. a) () b) ( )() c) ( ) d) (9) + (6) e) () f) ( 0 )( ) Ex. Ex. Write the following division problems using fraction notation. Do not evaluate then. a) 6 b) 6 First name the operation that is to be performed together with the name of its result, then evaluate each expression. a) b) c) 6() d) + e) f) Ex.6 Write the following statements as numerical expressions, and then evaluate them. a) The product of and b) subtracted from c) The sum of 00 and d) The product of and 0 e) The quotient of 0 and f) divided by

15 Ex. If the operation can be performed, please, perform it. If not, write cannot be performed. 0 a) b) 0 c) 0 0 d) e) 0 f) Ex. a) What number should be multiplied by 6 to give the answer 6? 6 6 b) By what number can 6 be divided by to give the answer 6? 6 6 c) What number can be added to 6 to give the answer 6? d) What number can be subtracted from 6 to give the answer 6? 6 6 Ex.9 Identify the operation that is performed in the following examples and then find the opposite operation together with the appropriate operand to undo it. (see Example. for a sample solution.) a) 9 b) c) + d) Ex.0 If , then what is 9 6 equal to? Explain why. Ex. Perform the following operations. Please, make sure that you display your answer in a correct way, using the sign. a) 00 b) 0 c) 000 d) 00 0 e) f) Ex. The same number is to be placed in each of the three boxes below. (There may be more than one true statement.) Which of these numbers would make a true statement? a) 0 b) 0 c) d) Repeat the same exercise with Ex. Fill in the blanks. In the exponential expression, is called, is called.

16 Ex. Write the following statement using mathematical symbols (do not perform the operations). a) five raised to the fourteenth power b) twelve cubed c) ten squared d) exponential expression with base equal to and exponent equal to Ex. Expand, meaning write without exponential notation. (do not perform the operations). a) b) c) d) Ex.6 Write the following expressions using exponential notation whenever possible. Do not evaluate. a) b) ( )()()() c) d) ()()()(9) e) ()()()() f) () g) ( + )( + )( + ) h) ( + )( + ) + + Ex. Perform the following operations. Please, make sure that you display your answer in a correct way, using the sign. a) 9 b) c) 0 d) e) 00 f) 0000 g) 6 6 h) Ex. A light year is approximately 6 0. What is another way of writing this number? a) b) c) d) Ex.9 To what power do we need to raise the following numbers to get ? a) 0 b) 00 c) Ex.0 Is exponentiation commutative? Explain your answer. Ex. Name the operation that has to be performed first according to the order of operations. Then evaluate the expressions performing one operation at a time. Please, make sure that you display your answer in a correct way, using the sign. a) b) ( + ) 6 c) 0 + d) e) ( ) f) 0 Ex. Write four different number sentences following both of these rules. (i) Each number sentence must show a different way of getting the number. (ii) Each number sentence must contain at least two different arithmetic operations. For example, 0 +

17 Ex. For each pair of the following expression, the second one is obtained from the first one by rewriting it without parentheses. Evaluate each of them to find out if inclusion of parentheses gives a different result. a) ( + ) + b) ( 0) 0 c) 0 ( ) 0 d) ( + ) + Ex. Write the following statements using mathematical symbols, and then evaluate. Remember about the use of parentheses, but use them only when needed. a) First find the sum of and, and then multiply the result by 000. b) First find the quotient of and, and then multiply the result by 6. c) First subtract from 0, and then add to the result. d) First find the product of and 6, and then add it to. e) First subtract from, and then divide by the result. f) First multiply and, then raise the result to the seventh power. g) First cube, and then multiply the result by 0. h) First divide 6 by 9, and then subtract the result from. i) First find the value of the exponential expression with the base and the exponent, and then add to it. Ex. Perform the following operations any time they are defined. If they are not defined, please write not defined. Please, make sure that you display your answer in a correct way, using the sign. a) 0 b) c) ( + ) d) 0 6 e) ( 0 6) + 6 f) g) h) ( ) i) + 6 j) + k) l) + 0 m) ( + 0) n) 00 o) ( 6 6) 0 p) + q) 00 (9 ) r) s) 0 ( + ) 6 t) ( )( + ) u) + v) + w) x) y) ( + ) z) Ex.6 You know that +. Can you write + instead? Do both statements have the same meaning?

18 Ex. Compare each of the following two expressions and write '' between them, if they are equal, or ' ' if the expressions are not equal. a) b) c) d) ( ) e) e) 9 9 f) (690 ) g) h) 0 0 i) 0 Ex. If you know that 00, apply the principle Equals can be substituted for equals to evaluate. a) 0 b) c) + d) 000 e) 00 f) Ex.9 a) If , then what is 99 6 equal to? Explain how you arrived at you answer. b) If , then what is 96 equal to? Explain how you arrived at you answer. 6

19 Lesson Topics: Integers; Meaning of <, > ; Comparing integers; Number line; Opposite numbers; Adding and subtracting integers. Suppose that you have dollars and would like to buy a book that costs dollars. You have enough money to buy it. But if the book costs 6 dollars, you no longer can afford it. The only way you can do it is to borrow one dollar. If you do borrow one dollar in order to buy the book, you would then have one dollar less than nothing. In fact, you would be in debt for one dollar or it could be said that you have minus one dollar. Numbers like this are called integers. Integers are numbers of the form,,,, 0,,,, (dots, as always, indicate that the list goes forever). Integers We introduce integers, because sometimes (not always), the operation of subtraction of natural numbers cannot be performed (i.e., the result of subtraction of two natural numbers is not necessarily a natural number). With the help of integers, any subtraction can be performed. Numbers, -, -, - are called negative integers. Numbers,,, are positive integers. 0 is neither positive nor negative. Notice that 0 together with the positive integers are natural numbers. Any natural number is also an integer. To get integers, we just add all the negative numbers to all natural numbers. The set of natural numbers is contained in the set of integers. It looks something like this natural numbers integers Integers are an extension of natural numbers. All rules that are established for natural numbers (order of operation, commutative property of addition and multiplication, the fact that multiplication and division as well as addition and subtraction are opposite operations) are also true for integers. Comparing integers Any two integers can be compared. One integer is either greater than, less than, or equal to another integer.

20 We use symbols <, >, and, of course. < means that is less than. > means that is greater than. The symbol points to a smaller number. Notice that if is less than then is more than, thus < is equivalent to (has the same meaning as) >. We probably all agree with the following statements. A person who has dollars has more than the one who has dollars >. A person who has dollars has more than the one who owes dollars > A person who owes dollars (is better off) has more than the one who owes dollars. The more you owe, the less you have >. Notice that < but > We are going to adopt the following rules for comparison of integers. HOW TO COMPARE INTEGERS We compare two positive integers like we compare natural numbers. For example, > Any positive number is greater than zero or any negative number. For example, >, > 0 To compare two negative numbers drop the minus sign in front of each, compare the resulting positive integers and then reverse the inequality sign. For example, to compare and, compare and first <, and then switch < to > to get >. Any negative number is less then zero. For example, < 0 Example. Fill in blanks using the following symbols <, >, as appropriate. a) 0 b) 9 Solution : a) Any negative number is always less than zero, thus 0 >.

21 b) Since both numbers are negative, we first compare and 9 to get < 9. Then, we reverse the inequality sign to obtain > 9. Example. Put the integers 0, 0, 9 6,, in order from least to greatest. First let us put positive integers in order, < 9. To compare negative integers, we drop their minus signs and compare the resulting positive integers <6<0. To get the comparison of negative numbers, we reverse inequality signs. > 6 > 0. Finally, any positive number is greater than 0 and any negative number is less than 0. Thus, 0 < 6 < < 0 < < 9. Example. Replace each star with a digit so that the inequality is true. a) < * b) > * a) All numbers less than would not work. does not work, because is more than. We need to choose either or 9 to get or 9. b) The inequality > * is true only if < *. For the inequality < * we can choose any number greater than. Since numbers,,...,, 9 satisfy the inequality < *, we can conclude that they also satisfy > *. Number line. Comparing integers with help of a number line Integers can be ordered. We can visualize the order of integers with the help of a number line, a horizontal line that extends from a special point called the origin in both directions. The origin corresponds to the number 0. The number is placed to the right of 0. The distance between point 0 and defines a unit of length. Once 0 and have been placed on the line, this forces everything else. Each integer has a specific place on it. The number, for example, corresponds to a point units away from the origin to the right,, corresponds to a point on the line units away from the origin to the left. 9

22 The distance between two successive integers is always the same and is equal to one unit. So, the distance between and is the same as between and or and 6. The arrowhead on the right-hand side of the line indicates the direction in which numbers increase. So, as we move from left to right on the number line, the numbers get larger. If one number is to the right of another number, it is larger than that number. So, when comparing two integers, we can do that by placing them on a number line. For example, and are plotted on a number line below. Since is to the left of, it means is less than, so we write <. We can also conclude that is to the right of, thus is greater than and write >. < has the same meaning as >. Example. Plot and, and determine which one is greater. since is to the right of, thus > ; is greater. Example. Plot on each of the following number lines. a) b) c) The distance between 0 and defines one unit. Number should be placed units to the right of 0. We get the following plots. a) 0

23 b) c) Example.6 Plot the following three numbers,, on a number line and then find a number such that a) it is greater than all the above three numbers. b) it is greater than two of the the above three numbers and less than one of them. a) The numbers greater than,, must be to the right of the numbers,,, thus any number,, 6,... would be a correct answer. b) The numbers greater than two of those numbers must be to the right of,. They must also be to the left of, as numbers less than. Thus any number among, 0,, would be a correct answer. Opposite numbers For each non-zero integer, there is the integer, called opposite, that is the same distance from 0, but in opposite direction. For example, is the opposite of. The distance from 0 of and is the same. The opposite of is, the opposite of 6 is 6. The opposite of 0 is 0. Zero is the only number that is the opposite of itself. Example. Find the opposite numbers of a) b) a) b)

25 Since this time we always go to the left (first units, then units to the left), the answer has to be negative. Indeed, we land on, so. Operations +, + are addition of integers but when we write or addition is also assumed. Those statements are equivalent to + ( ) + ( ). Before we proceed any further, let us observe how the parentheses are used in the above expressions. They are placed according to the following convention. Any time two operation signs (+ and in these cases) are next to each other, parentheses must be used to separate those two signs. We write: We do not write : + () + Now, we are ready to present the rules of additions of integers. HOW TO ADD INTEGERS When adding two integers of the same sign (two positive or two negative numbers), take the sum of the numbers. The sign of the result will be the same as the sign of numbers (if both positive, the result is positive, if both negative, the result is negative). For example, + We add and to get. Both numbers are positive, thus the result is positive. + ( ) We add and to get. Both numbers are negative, thus the result is negative. When adding a negative number to a positive number (or a positive number to a negative number), take the difference of the numbers. The sign of the result will be the same as the sign of the larger number. For example, + We subtract from to get. Number is larger than and is preceded by a plus sign, thus the result is positive. + ( ) We subtract from. Number is larger than and is preceded by a minus sign, thus the result is negative.

29 a) Which thermometer shows the highest temperature? b) Which thermometer shows the lowest temperature? c) What is the difference in temperature between the thermometers C and D? d) What is the difference in temperature between the thermometers E and F? e) Which thermometer(s) show(s) a temperature higher than 0? f) Which thermometer(s) show(s) a temperature lower than? g) List all temperatures from the lowest the highest. Ex. The following temperatures were recorded at different locations at a given time. Location A Location B Location C Location D Location E Location F Location G 6 0 a) Where was it warmer that day, in location A or F? b) Where was it warmer that day, in location A or G? c) Where was it warmer that day, in location C or D? d) In what location was it the warmest? e) In what location was it the coldest? f) List all temperatures from the lowest to greatest. Ex. Fill in blanks using the following symbols <, >, as appropriate. a) b) c) 0 0 d) 0 e) f) g) h) Ex.6 Write the following integers in order from lowest to greatest. a),, 0,, 0, b),,,,, c) 6,,,, 6, 9 Ex. Replace each star with a digit such that the inequality is true (more than one answer is possible). a) * < 6 b) * < 6

30 c) * > d) * > Ex. Ex.9 Plot the following numbers on a number line. a) b) c) c) Plot on each of the following number lines. a) b) c) Ex.0 Plot the following pairs of numbers on the same number line and determine which one is greater, which one is smaller. Use <, > symbols when writing your answer. a) 6 and b) and c) and d) and Ex. List all integers that are less than but greater than (if it helps, use a number line). Ex. Plot the following three numbers,, on a number line and then find a number such that a) It is greater than all the above three numbers. b) It is less than all the above three numbers. c) It is greater than two of the above three numbers and less than one. d) It is less than two of the above three numbers and greater than one. Ex. Find the opposite number of the following numbers. a) b) 6 c) 0 d) 0 Ex. Plot a) together with its opposite. b) together with its opposite. Ex. Imagine a very high building with a very deep underground section and an elevator moving between all floors. The ground level will be called 0 level. The levels above the ground are levels,,, and the underground levels are,,,... Answer the following questions by writing a corresponding numerical statement and then evaluating it. a) A person enters the building on the ground floor, takes the elevator floors up and then floors down. What is the level he will end up with? b) A person enters the building on the ground floor, takes the elevator floors down and then 6 floors up. What is the level he will end up with? c) A person enters the building on the ground floor, takes the elevator floors down and then floors down again. What is the level he will end up with?

31 Ex.6 Answer the questions by first writing a corresponding numerical statement and then evaluating it. a) Alice, when going to a store, had \$0. She spent (with the help of a credit card) \$60 in the store. What is her net worth now? b) Alice does not have any money. She borrowed \$ on Monday, and then \$ on Tuesday. Assuming that she did not have any additional income, what is Alice s financial standing? Ex. Answer the questions by first writing a corresponding numerical statement and then evaluating it. a) The temperature in Alaska at am was 6 0 F. The temperature dropped by 0 F during the next hours. What was the temperature at am? b) The temperature in Alaska at am was 6 0 F. The temperature rose by 0 0 F during the next hours. What was the temperature at am? Ex. In April the water level of the Hudson River was (seven inches below the average level). After May s precipitation, the water level rose by inches. What was the water level then? Write a numerical statement corresponding to this situation and evaluate it. Ex.9 Represent each of the following operations as a movement on a number line (see page 0) and then evaluate them. a) 9 + b) 9 c) 9 d) 9 + e) f) Ex.0 First, determine, if the final answer is positive or negative, and only then perform the indicated operations. a) + b) c) 0 Ex. Perform the indicated operations. a) b) c) + d) + e) + 0 f) g) 9 h) + 6 i) j) k) l) m) 0 n) 6 6 o) 6 + p) + q) r) + Ex. Rewrite the following expressions without double signs and then evaluate them. a) ( ) b) 0 ( + ) c) + ( ) d) ( + ) e) ( + 6) f) ( 9) g) + ( ) h) 0 ( + 6) i) ( ) j) + ( 6) k) 9 + ( + ) l) + ( 6) m) 0 ( ) n) ( + ) o) 9 + ( ) p) ( ) q) ( ) r) ( + ) 9

32 Ex. Evaluate. a) b) 0 + ( ) c) ( ) d) 0 e) ( ) f) + ( + ) g) 0 0 h) i) ( ) j) + 9 k) 6 l) 6 ( 6) Ex. Choose any number. Perform the following operations on it. a) take the opposite of the number b) Increase the obtained number by c) Take the opposite of the number obtained in the previous step above d) Increase the number from the previous step by What is the number you get after completing (a)-(d)? How about if you repeat steps (a)-(d) times? Or times? 0

35 ( ) replace double signs + group all negative numbers together + add all negative numbers + 0 add the resulting numbers Example. Perform the indicated operations. a) ( ) + + ( ) b) + ( + ) ( 6) a) ( ) + + ( ) + b) + ( + ) ( 6) In (b), before adding, we grouped all positive and negative integers together. Multiplication of integers Multiplication of integers is similar to multiplication of natural numbers except that the sign of the product must be determined. Here are the rules for multiplication (for some justification for these rules, see (*)). HOW TO MULTIPLY INTEGERS When multiplying two integers of the same sign (two positive or two negative numbers), take the numbers without their signs and multiply them. The sign of the result will be positive. For example, 6 or ( ) 6 We multiply by to get 6. Both numbers are of the same sign, thus the result is positive. When multiplying a negative number and a positive number (or a positive number and a negative number), the numbers without their signs and multiply them. The sign of the result will be the negative. For example, 6 or ( ) 6 We multiply by to get 6. The numbers are of the opposite sign, so the result is negative. It might help to notice that rules for signs in multiplication are exactly the same rules we used in case of double signs. Namely, (+)(+) (+) ()(+) () ()() (+) (+)() () Let us also recall important convention: Any time two operation signs (+,,, or ) are next to each other, parentheses must be used to separate those two signs. It should be noticed that even if the multiplication sign is not explicitly displayed, we assume it is there, and place parentheses. (*) Here is one possible way we can justify the rules for multiplication (do not worry if you find it difficult to understand you can still perform the operations - the understanding will come with time). If you win dollars times, you total is 6 (the product of two positive numbers is positive); If you lose dollars times, your total is 6 (the product of one positive and one negative number is negative); You have a dollar penalty () that you do not pay two times () and the result is you are ahead by plus 6 dollars (the product of two negative numbers is positive).

36 We write: We do not write: ( ) ( ) Do not write since it would no ( ) longer mean multiplication but subtraction. Example. Perform the indicated operations. a) ( 9)( ) b) 6( ) c) (0)() a) ( 9)( ) use the rule ()() (+) b) 6( ) use the rule (+)() () c) ( 0)() 0 use the rule ()(+) () Example. Write the following operations using mathematical symbols and evaluate them. Remember about placing parentheses when needed. a) multiplied by b) The product of and a) ( ) b) ( ) Division of integers The rules for division of integers are very similar to the rules for multiplication. HOW TO DIVIDE INTEGERS When dividing two integers with the same sign (two positive or two negative numbers), find the quotient of the numbers. The sign of the result will be positive. For example, ( ) 6 We divide 6 by to get. Both numbers are of the same sign, thus the result is positive. When dividing a negative number by a positive number (or a positive number by a negative number), find the quotient of the numbers. The sign of the result will be negative. For example, ( ) 6 We divide 6 by to get. The numbers are of the opposite sign, so the result is negative.

37 Once again we follow the important conventions for parentheses. We write: We do not write: ( ) Again, we have the same rules for determining the sign of the result of division. (+)(+) (+) ()(+) () ()() (+) (+)() () Example.6 Perform the indicated operations. a) ( ) b) 9 c) a) ( ) use the rule (+)() () b) 6 use the rule ()() (+) 9 c) use the rule ()(+) () Example. Write the following operations using mathematical symbols. Remember about parentheses. a) divided by b) The quotient of and a) b) or ( ) or ( ) Multiplication of more than two integers Let us perform the following operations. ( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( )( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) 6 ( )( )( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( ) 6( ) (Notice the use of parentheses) We can observe the pattern of the sign in the problems above. The sign alternates. If we multiply an even number of negative numbers, the result is positive (even numbers are,, 6,... ). If we multiply an odd number of negative numbers, the result is negative (odd numbers are,,,... ).

38 It happens because if we have an even number of minuses we can put them in pairs, and each pair can be replaced by plus, so at the end we have a positive answer. If we have an odd number of minuses one minus is left and the result is negative. Now consider the product of not only negative, but also positive numbers. Notice that multiplication by a positive number does not change the sign of the result. What was positive stays positive. What was negative, stays negative. Thus, the sign of the product is determined only by the number of negative integers that are factors of the product. To determine the sign of the product of two or more integers, count the number of minus signs. If there are even number of minus signs, the result is positive; if odd, the result is negative. For example, ( )( ) Since there are (even number) of negative factors, the result is positive. ( )( )( )()(0) 90 Since there are (odd number) of negative factors, the result is negative. Please, notice that you do not have to remember this rule. You can always perform multiplication step by step, and you will get the same result. Eventually, if you perform a lot of multiplications, you will remember it anyway. Example. Perform the indicated operations. a) ( )( )( 6) b) 0()()( )() a) ( )( )( 6) The answer is negative since there are three ( is odd) negative numbers in this product. b) 0 ()()( )() 0 The answer is positive since there are two ( is even) negative numbers in the product. 6

39 Example.9 Write the expression the product of, 00 and using mathematical symbols and evaluate it. Remember about placing parentheses when needed. ( 00)( ) 00 Just like in case of addition, when we were able to change the order of terms of addition, we can change the order of factors in multiplication. For example, ( 00) 00 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) Both, addition and multiplication have this nice property, NOT division, NOT subtraction. Example.0 Write the expression ( )( 6) in three different ways using the fact that factors of any product can be rearranged. ( )( 6) 6( )() 6()( ) ( 6)() Note that the product will be 60 regardless of how the factors were arranged. Opposite numbers in the light of multiplication Recall that for each integer we can find its opposite. For example, is the opposite of, is the opposite of. The opposite of 0 is 0. In general, to take the opposite of a number other than 0 means to reverse its sign. The operation that changes the sign is the multiplication by. ( ) To find the opposite of a number we multiply the number by. Opposite of is Opposite of is ( ) We will use the minus sign to mean the opposite of. So, we can say that the opposite of the opposite of (let s say) is: () and what we mean by that is : ( ) ( ) So, now, the expressions as ( ( )) have not only some meaning (the opposite of opposite of ), but also can be evaluated. ( ( )) ( )( ) Since there are negative numbers in the product (or three minuses in front of ), the answer is negative. Example.. Write the following expressions as a product of ' s and the number. Evaluate. a) () b) ( ( ))

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