# COS Lecture 8 Autonomous Robot Navigation

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1 COS Lecture 8 Autonomous Robot Navigation Instructor: Chris Clark Semester: Fall Figures courtesy of Siegwart & Nourbakhsh

2 Control Structure Prior Knowledge Operator Commands Localization Cognition Perception Motion Control 2

3 Sensors: Outline Sensor Examples 1. Encoders 2. Range Sensors 3. Heading Sensors 3

4 Sensors: Encoders A digital optical encoder is a device that converts motion into a sequence of digital pulses. By counting a single bit or by decoding a set of bits, the pulses can be converted to relative or absolute position measurements. Optical encoders are Proprioceptive sensors Can integrate signal to obtain robot position 4

5 Sensors: Encoders Most encoders are composed of a glass or plastic code part with a photographically deposited pattern organized in tracks. As lines in each track interrupt the beam between a photoemitter-detector pair, digital pulses are produced. 5

6 Sensors: Encoders There are two main types 1. Absolute encoders which measure the current orientation of a wheel. 2. Incremental encoders which measure the change in orientation of a wheel. 6

7 Sensors: Encoders Absolute Encoder The optical disk of the absolute encoder is designed to produce a digital word that distinguishes N distinct positions of the shaft. Checks each track E.g

8 Sensors: Encoders Absolute Encoder 12 track example: 8

9 Sensors: Encoders 9 Absolute Encoder The resolution of the encoder will depend on the number of tracks. Each track is either clear or black (1 or 0), giving 2 T possible combinations for T tracks. For the example above, there are 3 tracks, yielding 8 possible combinations of track readings. Divided among 360 degrees, this leaves a resolution of 360/8 = 45 degrees. Disadvantage: Needs a larger disk or strip for higher resolution

10 Sensors: Encoders Gray Code: The most common types of numerical encoding used in the absolute encoder are gray and binary codes Gray code uses an ordering of binary numbers such that only one bit changes from one entry to the next. Gray codes for 4 or more bits are not unique. 10

11 Sensors: Encoders Gray Code: 11 Gray codes for 4 or more bits are not unique

12 Sensors: Encoders Why Gray Code? Gray code is used is to eliminate errors that occur due to timing inconsistencies. When a disk moves from one position to the next, the different bit flips will occur at different times. Example: When changing from 0011 to 0100, three different bits get flipped. If these happen at different times, the encoder could spit out 0011, 0111, 0101, This gives 2 erroneous measurements. 12

13 Sensors: Encoders Incremental Encoders Incremental encoders operate by means of a grating moving between a light source and a detector. 13

14 Sensors: Encoders Incremental Encoders They need a reference for position measurement. Higher resolution can be obtained more easily. Needs a decoder to detect direction and position/ velocity. 14

15 Sensors: Encoders Incremental Encoders 4X Decoding: A B A B A B A B A B 15 Counter Clockwise Rotation

16 Sensors: Encoders Incremental Encoders 4X Decoding: Resolution is 360/4N, where N is the number of gratings

17 Sensors: Encoders Incremental Encoders Example: Encoder with 2 tracks instead of 2 sensor positions. Home position track. 17

18 Sensors: Outline Sensor Examples 1. Encoders 2. Range Sensors 3. Heading Sensors 18

19 Sensors: Range Sensors Range sensors make use of propagation speed of sound or electromagnetic waves respectively. Distance traveled by a wave is given by: d = c t 19 d = distance traveled c = speed of wave propagation t = time of flight

20 Sensors: Range Sensors For sound, v = 0.3 m/ms For electromagnetic signals, v = 0.3 m/ns If distance = 3 m: t ultrasonic = 10 ms t laser = 10 ns t laser is difficult to measure, laser range sensors are expensive and difficult 20

21 Sensors: Range Sensors Quality of range sensors depend on: Uncertainties of time of arrival of reflected signal Inaccuracies in time of flight measure (laser) Opening angle of transmitted beam (sound) Interaction with the target (specular reflections) Variation of propagation speed 21

22 Sensors: Ultrasonic Range Sensors Sensor transmits a packet of ultrasonic pressure waves d = c t / 2 The speed of sound c (340 m/s) in air is: c = γ R T γ = ratio of specific heats R = gas constant T = temperature in Kelvin 22

23 23 Sensors: Ultrasonic Range Sensors

24 Sensors: Ultrasonic Range Sensors Frequency typically khz Wave generated by piezo transducer Receiver may coincide with transmitter Problem with objects too close, Blanking time! Sound beam propagates in cone, not points 24

25 Sensors: Ultrasonic Range Sensors Other problems Soft surfaces that absorb most of sound energy Surfaces that are not perpendicular to the direction of sound, get specular reflection Low Bandwidth 25

26 Sensors: Example Application 1 26 Clark, Cal Poly SLO

27 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Transmitted and received beams coaxial Transmitter illuminates target with beam Receiver detects time needed for round-trip Can get 2D or 3D information using mirror sweeps 27

28 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Methods for measuring time of flight: Use pulsed laser and measure time of flight directly Measure the phase shift 28

29 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Phase Shift Measurement: Wavelength λ relates to modulating freq. f as: λ = c/f Total distance is: D = L + 2D 29

30 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors We want to measure the distance to target 2D = λ θ / 2π Where θ is the phase difference between the transmitted and received beams. 30 Note there is theoretical ambiguity in range estimates

31 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Schematic and examples: a) Schematic b) EPS Technologies c) SICK 31

32 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Schematic and examples (cont ): 32 d) Hokuyo URG Scanning laser range finder

33 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Schematic and examples (cont ): 33 e) SICK in 3D scanning configuration

34 Sensors: Time of Flight Laser Range Sensors Uncertainty Uncertainty of the range is inversely proportional to the square of the received signal amplitude. Dark, distant objects will not produce such good range estimated as closer brighter objects 34

35 Sensors: Triangulation Laser Range Sensors Distance is proportional to 1/x D = f L / x 35

36 Sensors: Structured Light Range Sensors Project structured light on target Use camera to perceive light Simple geometry will determine range H = D tanα 36

37 Sensors: Structured Light Range Sensors Project structured light on target No correspondence problem 37

38 Sensors: Example Application 2 38 Kondo, Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology

39 Sensors: Outline Sensor Examples 1. Encoders 2. Range Sensors 3. Heading Sensors 39

40 Sensors: Heading Sensors Can determine orientation and inclination Can be Proprioceptive (e.g. gyroscope) or Exteroceptive (e.g. compass). Used with velocity information from encoders to obtain robot position estimate Dead Reckoning 40

41 Sensors: Heading Sensors Compass Over 4000 years old Uses earth s magnetic field to provide absolute measure for orientation Disadvantages: Earth s magnetic field is weak Field is easily disturbed by other magnetic objects Not dependable for indoor environments 41

42 Sensors: Heading Sensors Example: Deventech Compass good precision (0.1 degrees). poor accuracy (within 3-4 degrees) 42

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