ISO Project FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

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1 ISO/TC 46/SC 9 Working Group 1 for ISO Project 15706: International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) and ISO Project 20925: Version identifier for audiovisual works (V-ISAN) ISO/TC 46/SC 9/WG 1 N 267 [replaces WG 1 document N 265] ISO Project Version identifier for audiovisual works and related content (V-ISAN) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS This document follows work started in document N261, N261 revised and N265. Compiled with the assistance of various drafting volunteers (Ken Carter, Carol Cooper, Mike Dolan, Craig Finseth, Richard Kroon, Lawrence Safir, Jane Thacker, Merrill Weiss, John Zelenka) and edited by Carol Cooper to reflect comments offered through WG discussion during their meetings November 7/8, 2004 in Santa Monica. 1. What is a V-ISAN? To understand V-ISAN, one must first understand ISAN. The ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number) is a voluntary numbering system for the identification of audiovisual works. It provides a unique, internationally recognized and permanent reference number for each audiovisual work registered in the ISAN system. An ISAN consists of 16 hexadecimal digits divided into two segments: a 12-digit root segment followed by a 4-digit segment for the identification of episodes or parts when applicable. A V-ISAN is also a registered, globally unique identifier but is for a version of an audiovisual work or related content. It identifies such version throughout its life and is independent of any physical form in which that version or related content exists or is distributed. A V-ISAN consists of 24 hexadecimal digits, the first 16 characters being the International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN) followed by a version segment of 8 characters. V-ISAN provides the foundation for the electronic exchange of information. Without this tool, there is no a standardised or common lexicon with which users or systems can speak to each other. It enables with certainty the identification of a version of a work for a wide variety of applications.

2 page 2 2. How does V-ISAN relate to ISAN? An ISAN identifies the work as a whole. It does not identify any specific version of a work. A V-ISAN identifies a specific version of a work. For example, separate V-ISAN would be assigned to each version of the audiovisual work The Color Purple, such as the German language version, the version used for U.S. theatrical release and the version edited for airline use 3. What differentiates one version from another? What criteria are used? As a rule, if there exists more than one version of a work and it is important to be able to distinguish between them, a separate V-ISAN should be assigned to each. Some examples of changes to works resulting in new versions of audiovisual works to which a V-ISAN may be issued are: changes to a specific language track or the arrangement of language tracks; changes to the subtitling; changes in specific image or sound formats, such as: o wide screen vs. "pan & scan"; o standard definition vs. high definition; o high quality to low quality (e.g., D1 tape to VHS tape transfer) o change from AC3 to MP4 sound encoding editing of an audiovisual work for a specific purpose, such as: o edits for length or episodic structure or presentation structure o edits to alter commercial placement o o edits for content advisory reasons a change in the technical data stream that affects the content of the work (e.g. a different software program to generate background images; the vertical blanking interval for closed captioning). 4. What types of changes do not constitute a new version of a work? Normally, if distinguishing between two versions matters for the purposes of interchange and communication with trading partners, then new V-ISAN would be issued, and otherwise not Some examples of changes related to works that do not qualify as new versions for V-ISAN registration purposes and for which a V-ISAN would not be issued are: a change in the rights or ownership of an audiovisual work; creation of a composite work using two existing episodes as it results in the creation of a new work not a new version a change in recording medium (e.g., a tape-to-tape copy); a change in the price or fees associated with use of an audiovisual work;

3 page 3 assigning different V-ISAN to distribution copies to distinguish between them for subsequent tracking 5. What does a V-ISAN look like? The V-ISAN identifier is being developed as a 96-bit number composed of a 64-bit ISAN (registered in accordance with ISO 15706:2002) followed by a 32-bit version segment. When the V-ISAN is printed or otherwise displayed for the human-eye, it will be represented as an ISAN of 16 hexadecimal digits followed by a version segment of 8 hexadecimal digits, using Arabic numerals 0 through 9 and letters A through F of the Latin alphabet. The resulting 96-bit number will have to be registered with a designated V-ISAN registration agency in order to be recognized as a V-ISAN for business transactions involving the exchange and use of information about versions of audiovisual works. EXAMPLE: RRRR-RRRR-RRRR-EEEE-X-VVVV-VVVV-Y In the above example: "RRRR-RRRR-RRRR-EEEE" represents a registered ISAN for a specific audiovisual work. The Rs represent the 12-digit root segment and the Es the 4-digit episode. "X" represents the check character for that ISAN, calculated in accordance with ISO 15706:2002 (the ISAN standard). "VVVV-VVVV" represents the version identifier segment linked to that ISAN. This combination of the ISAN and the version identifier segment constitutes the V-ISAN. "Y" represents the check digit for that V-ISAN. The V-ISAN check digit is calculated over the positions labeled "R", "E", and "V". The position labeled "X" (i.e. the ISAN check digit) is not included in the calculation of the V-ISAN check digit. 6. What is related content in the context of V-ISAN assignment? ISAN identifiers are assigned to audiovisual works that must have a video component and it is not possible to assign ISANs to audio-only works. V-ISAN identifiers are primarily assigned to versions of audiovisual works. However, unlike ISAN, a V-ISAN may be assigned to "related content" which includes such things as individual audio or subtitle tracks, as long as those tracks are related to a work that would otherwise qualify for an ISAN. For example, a feature film released in the US with English audio and no subtitles can receive an ISAN identifier. It can also receive a V-ISAN identifier (based on that root ISAN). The same film, when released in France and modified to contain French audio instead of English, can receive a second V-ISAN (again, based on that same root ISAN of the original release). In addition, a 3rd such V-ISAN can be assigned to just the French audio track. The primary purpose of this is to allow the identification and distribution of the audio track separately

4 page 4 from the video component. The same can be done with subtitling tracks and other content related to the audiovisual work that otherwise qualifies for an ISAN. 7. How is V-ISAN used? Who are the potential users? On a general level, users of the V-ISAN identifier can be grouped into three categories: 1. Those who manage and/or own the asset, that is, the version of the work 2. Those who reference the database of information about the version of the work 3. The consumer Some users may have applications and needs in more than one category. Some examples of users together with a description of their possible interest are: those interested in the licensing of audiovisual works and in the management of permissions and payments for use of these works such as the stakeholders/rightsholders including (but not limited to) producers, writers, directors, actors, composers parties involved in the administration of rights for audiovisual works, such as collecting societies to assist in the allocation of royalties; those releasing or exhibiting different versions of works to an audience, such as broadcasters; those who manage databases about audiovisual [and versions of] works and/or rely on electronic exchange of data, such as television listing services; those who track and report on the use of versions of audiovisual works such as audience measurement and ratings companies; those managing the cataloguing and/or preservation of collections of audiovisual works, such as archivists; organizations involved with engineering and encoding standards for the television, motion picture and broadcasting industries; those who need to exchange accurate data about specific versions of audiovisual works such as parties involved in anti-piracy measures, customs officials and Interpol 8. What benefits are there to having a V-ISAN? There are many benefits to having a V-ISAN and some are: Using the ISAN as its root, V-ISAN provides an even more precise and unique identification of a specific version or other content related to an audiovisual work; The specificity of the V-ISAN takes the guesswork out of tracking usage of similar audiovisual works; The V-ISAN identifier can be independent of any physical form the content may take or in means by which it may be distributed;

5 page 5 In addition to providing a version-specific identifier, the V-ISAN system lists the internet domain names or IP addresses of Resolution Service Providers, which provide users access to additional metadata associated with specific V-ISANs. The existence of the Resolution Service Providers in the administration structure for V- ISAN allows for unlimited information about an audiovisual work to be provided, to the extent that a registrant wishes to make it available. 9. Who administers the V-ISAN system? Where do you apply for a V-ISAN? The V-ISAN system is composed of a central V-ISAN Authority, one or more Registration Agencies, and a number of Resolution Service Providers, which together operate to provide V-ISAN services to V-ISAN registrants and users. The V-ISAN Authority is the entity charged with oversight of the V-ISAN system and it maintains a register of all V-ISAN registration records. V-ISAN registrants and other users conduct their business through V-ISAN Registration Agencies. V-ISAN Registration Agencies are appointed by the V-ISAN Authority and they process all registration requests, updates and lookups. The information contained in the V-ISAN register is the minimum necessary to identify the versions of works to which V-ISANs apply. Often a registrant may wish to make additional information about the registered versions available for access. To enable the association of such additional information with a particular V-ISAN registration, contact information, in the form of an IP address, is given for entities providing access to that further descriptive data. Those entities, called Resolution Service Providers, may then be contacted by interested parties using a defined syntax. 10. Who can apply for a V-ISAN? Is it mandatory? What obligations result from this application? Participation in the V-ISAN system is voluntary. That said if there exists more than one version of a work and it is important to be able to distinguish between them, a separate V- ISAN should be assigned to each. Normally, but not necessarily, the entity or individual who is authorized to create or manage a new version of a work and is concerned about making this distinction would be the registrant or applicant to the V-ISAN Registration Agency to obtain the V-ISAN(s). Among other responsibilities, such a registrant must provide and maintain complete, accurate registration information. A V-ISAN cannot be issued unless the associated ISAN has already been issued and, as such, the existence of a valid ISAN forms part of those basic registration requirements. 11. When may an application for a V-ISAN be made? A V-ISAN application can be made at any time after an ISAN is issued for a work and as soon as there are versions of a work, or elements for versions of a work, that must be differentiated from one another. For instance, if there are difference edits of a work created,

6 page 6 or if there are separate audio tracks for different languages that will be used for a work, then a V-ISAN can be assigned to them and used to identify and track them. 12. What information must be provided when applying for a V-ISAN? Together with their contact information, registrants will be asked by a Registration Agency to provide the root ISAN and certain minimal descriptive information about the version of the audiovisual work. Additionally, a registrant is to designate a Resolution Service Provider where, to the extent a registrant wishes to do so, more detailed information about the version (beyond the basic required registration elements) may be captured and made available publicly (with or without a fee). 13. How much will a V-ISAN cost? Reasonable fees may be charged in order to support the registration services. The goal is to encourage registrations of works and use of the database of information and as such, a fee structure and system will be devised to encourage and not be a deterrent to these activities. 14. Who can access information about V-ISANs? Anyone who is interested in obtaining information related to versions of audiovisual works can access information about V-ISANs. Information would be accessed through a V-ISAN Registration Agency and/or Resolution Service Provider. It should be noted that both Registration Agencies and Resolution Service Providers may charge reasonable fees for provision of metadata about V-ISANs. 15. How is it affixed or encoded and/or associated with the specific version? A V-ISAN identifier is a form of metadata related to a version of a work. Within a database(s), it can be connected or linked to other metadata about the version. A V-ISAN can be attached to the physical representations of the versions, for instance, in the form of labels or bar codes on film cans, tape storage boxes, or DVD cases, advertising materials. In those applications requiring a secure attachment, the V-ISAN can be embedded within the essence through such techniques as watermarking. 16. What is a "private number" in the V-ISAN system and how might it be used? ISAN version segments in the range of 1 ( ) through (EFFF FFFF) are registered with the V-ISAN Authority and recorded in the V-ISAN register. The version segments in the range of (F ) through (FFFF FFFF) are not registered with the V-ISAN Authority or recorded in the V-ISAN register. Instead, they comprise the private number space.

7 page 7 These private numbers may be assigned to versions or components of a work following the same rules and used for the same purposes as any ISAN version segment, so long as the associated work has first been assigned an ISAN. However, instead of registering the private number with the V-ISAN Authority (using the services of a V-ISAN Registration Agency), and paying any applicable registration fees, users assign the numbers themselves. This number then only has meaning within the scope of the user that created it. Two different users may assign exactly the same private number to two entirely different versions (or components) of the same work without conflict, since the private number is not intended for exchange between parties. If one wishes to share the version reference number with a third party, then one must obtain a registered ISAN version segment. Private numbers exist so users can integrate the ISAN versioning system into their own internal tracking systems without having to interface with a V-ISAN Registration Agency. They also reduce the cost of adopting the ISAN numbering system by avoiding any external charges for the myriad versions of a work that may be created or tracked for internal purposes, but never exchanged with third parties or presented to the public. Only those versions or components of a work that must be tracked by third parties need receive a registered ISAN version segment. Since the exact same version can be identified by more than one ISAN version segment, there is no conflict with having an internal private number and an external registered number assigned to the same item. 17. How is VISAN different from UMID? UMID is the acronym for Unique Material Identifier. It is an identifier defined by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE). Both V-ISAN and UMID are globally unique and used for labeling and identifying audiovisual material. UMID is most often used to label original production material and material during post production, usually parts of the work-in-process, and as small as a single frame of video. V-ISAN is used to label and reference complete finished works, along with their related finished components. UMID is not registered and, given a UMID, one cannot tell anything about what it might reference without a companion (usually private) registry. V-ISAN is centrally registered and thus, given a V-ISAN, one can find information about the work it references from a publiclyaccessible registry. 18. How does V-ISAN relate to ISBN? ISBN is the acronym for the International Standard Book Number which is also based on an ISO standard. The ISBN is an identifier used for products distributed throughout the booktrade. There is no direct relationship between V-ISAN and ISBN although ISBN may be assigned to selected audiovisual product formats if they are distributed within the book industry's supply chain (e.g. a video in NTSC format that is sold by a book retailer). V-ISAN is used exclusively for versions of audiovisual works and should never be assigned to book products.

8 page How is V-ISAN different from ISRC? ISRC is the acronym for the International Standard Recording Code. It is an identifier system for sound recordings based on an ISO standard (ISO 3901) and administered internationally by the IFPI ( Although the ISRC is used primarily to identify sound recordings, it can also be assigned to music-video recordings which are a form of audiovisual work. V-ISAN is used primarily to identify content such as movies and television programs but it can also be applied to music-video recordings. The decision to apply an ISRC or a V-ISAN or both will be based on the business requirements for subsequent distribution and use of that music-video recording. A music-video recording can bear both a V-ISAN and an ISRC. However, music-video recordings are the only form of audiovisual work that should be assigned an ISRC and V-ISAN must not be assigned to sound recordings. 20. Who developed the V-ISAN? The V-ISAN is being developed as an International Standard within an ISO committee known as ISO/TC 46/SC 9. ISO is the International Organisation for Standardisation, which is a world-wide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140 countries. TC 46 is ISO's Technical Committee (TC) for information and documentation standards. SC 9 is the TC 46 Subcommittee (SC) that develops and maintains ISO standards for the identification and description of information resources. The International Secretariat for TC 46/SC 9 is provided by Library and Archives Canada. The ISO TC 46/SC 9 Secretariat assigned the development of the V-ISAN project to Working Group 1 which was responsible for developing ISO 15706:2002 on the International Standard Audiovisual Number (ISAN). The members of this Working Group are national experts named by ISO's national member bodies from fields of interest such as audiovisual collecting societies, television listing services, broadcast organisations, as well as representatives of international industry associations such as AGICOA, SMPTE, etc. 21. Who can provide additional information about V-ISAN? Information about the ISAN system for identification of audiovisual works and future implementation of its V-ISAN version supplement is available from the ISAN International Agency at: ISAN International Agency 26, rue de Saint Jean, CH-1203 Geneva, Switzerland Web site: Fax:

9 page 9 Information about the development and status of the V-ISAN standard is available on a Web site at: or by contacting: ISO/TC 46/SC9 Secretariat Library and Archives Canada Standards Division - IMO Ottawa K1A 0N4 Canada Fax:

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