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1 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY 8/26/2013 8:44:21 AM

2 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY -- LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkheim

3 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkheim

4 IMPORTANT FACTORS BEHIND THE EMERGENCE OF SOCIOLOGICAL THINKING Enlightenment (18 th century) new ways of understanding the world in scientific rather than religious terms Industrial revolution (19 th century) new economic forms created in the Industrial Revolution (see pictures) Urbanization Political revolution new political forms and ideas, such as those expressed in the French Revolution

5 ENLIGHTENMENT the Age of Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th-century Europe sought to mobilize the power of reason, in order to reform society and advance knowledge promoted science and intellectual interchange opposed superstition, intolerance and abuses in church and state

6 ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS Originating about , sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza ( ) John Locke ( ) Pierre Bayle ( ) mathematician Isaac Newton ( ) historian Voltaire ( )

7 industrialization

8 early 20th-century, New York City urbanization

9 early 20th-century, New York City urbanization

10 urbanization

11 POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS The French Revolution ( ) period of radical social and political upheaval in France Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy - of monarchy, aristocracy and religious authority - were abruptly overthrown by new Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship and inalienable rights.

12 The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 Political revolution

13 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY -- LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkheim

14 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY -- LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx (see picture -- to be discussed in our discussion on Marxism shortly) Max Weber (see picture -- to be discussed in our discussion on organizations later in the semester) Emile Durkheim

15 Karl Marx ( )

16 Max Weber ( )

17 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY -- LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkheim

18 Emile Durkheim ( )

19 EMILE DURKHEIM KEY CONCEPTS OUTLINE Social facts Anomie Mechanical and organic solidarity Conscience collective

20 EMILE DURKHEIM KEY CONCEPTS OUTLINE Social facts Anomie Mechanical and organic solidarity Conscience collective

21 SOCIAL FACTS According to Émile Durkheim, to become a science, sociology must study social facts. Social facts aspects of social life that shape our individual actions E.g., norms, values, laws, group pressure, etc.

22 EMILE DURKHEIM KEY CONCEPTS OUTLINE Social facts Anomie Mechanical and organic solidarity Conscience collective

23 ANOMIE Anomie (weakening of norms) the rapid process of social change gives rise to many social difficulties linked to anomie E.g., suicide

24 EMILE DURKHEIM KEY CONCEPTS OUTLINE Social facts Anomie Mechanical and organic solidarity Conscience collective

25 MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY Sources of social cohesion Mechanical solidarity solidarity based on homogeneity (typical of traditional societies)

26 MECHANICAL AND ORGANIC SOLIDARITY Organic solidarity solidarity based on interdependency, division of labor specialized institutions working in harmony with each other and function as an integrated whole Durkheim believed organic solidarity is required for a society to function and persist over time Analogy of the body -- Durkheim believed that society should be looked at like a body, with constituent parts necessary to the functioning of the whole. (see also functionalism discussion) Organic solidarity replaces mechanical solidarity -- division of labor (typical of modern societies) would gradually replace religion (typical of traditional societies) as the source of social cohesion in society also based on cooperation and a general agreement on basic values and customs

27 EMILE DURKHEIM KEY CONCEPTS OUTLINE Social facts Anomie Mechanical and organic solidarity Conscience collective

28 CONSCIENCE COLLECTIVE individual conscience a conscience that is personal and distinctive to each of us conscience collective conscience that we share with the entire group; it is not of ourselves, but is society living and acting within us It contains the common states of consciousness, beliefs, sentiments, ideas, and dispositions within individual members

29 CONSCIENCE COLLECTIVE conscience collective strong in traditional societies strong religious character in traditional societies weak in modern societies reduces to cult of individual in modern societies It simply requires that we be kind to one another and be just, that we perform our duty well. individual conscience weak in traditional societies strong in modern societies

30 ORIGINS OF SOCIOLOGY -- LECTURE OUTLINE Important factors behind the emergence of sociological thinking Influential early sociological thinkers Karl Marx Max Weber Emile Durkheim

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