Definition of OhmegaPly

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2 Definition of OhmegaPly OhmegaPly is a thin film Electrodeposited On Copper NiP metal alloy (RESISTOR CONDUCTOR MATERIAL) that is laminated to a dielectric material and subtractively processed to produce planar resistors. Because of its thin film nature, it can be buried within layers without increasing the thickness of the board or occupying any surface space like discrete resistors. COPPER COPPER ELECTROPLATING RCM NICKEL PHOSPHOROUS LAMINATION OHMEGAPLY LAMINATE 2

3 Sheet Resistivity Offerings Sheet Material Typical Resistivity Tolerance Applications 10 Ω/ 3% 25 Ω/ 5% 50 Ω/ 5% 100 Ω/ 5% 250 Ω/ 10% Developed for seriestermination resistors as ORBIT (Ohmega Resistor Built In Trace) and also used for other applications, like flexible heaters Extensivelyused for series/parallel termination resistors Usedaspullup/pulldown resistors for electronic logic circuits 3

4 Design Guidelines Explanation of Ohms Per Square Sheet resistivity (stated in Ohms per square) is dimensionless A square area of resistive material = sheet resistivity of resistive material E.g., a 25 Ω/ (Ohms/Square) sheet resistance L1 = W1 L2 = W2 L3 =W3 N1 = 1 N2 = 2 N3 =3 R1 = 25 Ohms R2 = 25 Ohms R3 = 25 Ohms Resistor value = sheet resistivity x ratio of length to width (R =Rs x L/W) E.g., at 25 Ω/Sq. sheet resistivity Length = (30 mils) Width = (15mils) Resistor value = 25 Ω/Sq. x (30mils/15mils) = 25 Ω/Sq. x 2 squares = 50 ohms 4

5 OhmegaPly Parallel Termination Buried Resistors A. Parallel Trace Termination A Parallel Termination resistor [R] is selected to match the trace impedance [Z o ] and may be taken to GND or Vcc [the Power Supply]. A reflection will occur when the termination resistor [R] does not match the trace impedance [Z o ]. Some designers set the termination resistor value somewhat higher then Z o to reduce the amplitude of the reflection. 5

6 OhmegaPly Parallel Termination Buried Resistors B. Example layouts and circuits of parallel termination resistor 3 D Drawing of parallel termination resistors in a BGA package Resistors are terminated in the ground/power plane Ground plane supportsheat dissipation and providesshielding shielding Resistor size can be as small as 7mils x 7mils (limited by resistor power and tolerance requirements) 6

7 C. Typical layout for parallel termination resistors 1) 44 ohm parallel termination resistors in a BGA Resistor length = 35 mils Resistor width = 20 mils Resistor squares = 35mils/20mils l/ l = 1.75 squares Resistance = 25 ohm/square X 1.75 squares = 44 ohms Resistor 7

8 Example of Parallel Resistor Layout 2) Ø 0.013in. Ø 0.024in. Ø 0.034in. 1.27mm. Resistor Area = 0.010" x " Applied Voltages = in 2 Power = (1.5V) 2 / 47 ohms = mw Power Density per resistor element = mw / in 2 = Watts per in 2 Buried Resistor Buri uried Resistor 1.27mm in in in in in n. Using 25 ohm / square material Tolerance: Preferred: 47 ohm +/- 10% Acceptable: 47 ohms +/- 15% Plane Clearance Buried Resistor Buried Resistor Copper Pad All dimension in inches unless otherwise noted. 47 Ohm Buried Resistor 8

9 Example of Parallel Resistor Layout 3) Tolerance: Preferred: 100 ohm +/- 10% Acceptable: 100 ohms +/- 15% Using 100 ohm / square material 0.183in. Finished Hole Drilled Hole Ø 0.018in. Ø 0.015in in in. Pad Ø 0.030in. Plane Clearance 30 x x in " around element in in in in. Resistor Area = 0.030" x 0.030" Applied Voltages = in 2 Power = (1.8V) 2 / 100 ohms = mw Power Density per resistor element = mw / in 2 = 36 Watts per in 2 100/100 Ohm Buried Resistor 9

10 Parallel termination resistors on an inner layer of a PCB 10

11 OhmegaPly Series Termination Buried Resistors A. Series Trace Termination Series Termination requires a resistor [R] placed near the source. The Series Termination resistor [R] should be selected so that the combination of the resistor [R] and the output resistance [Z s ] of the driver matches the trace impedance [Z o ]. 11

12 OhmegaPly Series Termination Buried Resistors B. Example layouts and circuits of series termination resistor 3 D Drawing of series termination resistors in a BGA package Resistors are terminated on existing layers Proper layout improves signal integrity and increase performance 12

13 C. Typical layout for series termination resistors 1) 63 ohms series termination resistors in a BGA Resistor length = 25 mils Resistor width = 10 mils Resistor squares = 25 mils/10 mils = 2.5 squares Resistance = 25 ohm/square X 2.5 squares = 63 ohms Resistor 13

14 Example of Series Resistor Layout 2) 50, 125, 250 & 600 ohms series termination resistors using 25 ohms/square OhmegaPly 14

15 Example of Series Resistor Layout 3) Copper pads 50 ohms series termination resistors ina BGA package using 50 ohms/square OhmegaPly 15

16 Series termination resistors for telecom switching card 16

17 Series Termination Buried Resistors Using ORBIT (Ohmega Resistor Built in Trace) ORBIT uses the trace itself for the resistor, and therefore, requires no additional board area, thereby enabling higher I/O and component density and reduced form factor. With resistor built in trace, the CAD layout is simplified by the elimination of the resistor terminations ORBIT as series terminating resistors. 17

18 Enlargement of ORBIT as series terminating resistors. 18

19 Fan out layout of series termination in a BGA package 19

20 Fan out of series termination resistors in a HDI layout with Micro BGA 20

21 A. Thermal/Mechanical Isolation Optimum Design The primary purpose of thermal or mechanical isolation is to reduce stress due to the flow of heat from a plated through via or surface mount pad during soldering, process, reflow, hot air, etc Secondarily, it also acts as a mechanical isolation preventing resistance change during via drilling and/or x,y and z axis dimensional movement of the PCB. The recommended thermal isolation distance from the edge of the plated through hole to the resistor element is 10 mils, and 5mils for laser drill microvias Distance for laser drill COPPER PAD THERMAL ISOLATION PLATED THROUGH HOLE RESISTOR ELEMENT Thermal/mechanical isolation 21

22 1) Thermal Isolation An inner layer showing thermal isolation of OhmegaPly resistors Isolation distance of OhmegaPly resistors from the edge of the drill hole to the resistor elements 22

23 2) Mechanical Isolation A server backplane showing mechanical isolation of OhmegaPly resistors due to the use of press fit connectors 23

24 B. OhmegaPly Power Dissipation vs. Area of Element at 25 C Ambient POWER DENSITY OF OHM/SQ. MATERIAL VERSUS DIFFERENT RESISTOR AREA AT 25C AMBIENT For resistor area larger than 1100 mil 2, the recommended power dissipation at 25 C ambient is as follows: ) Density (mw/mil 2 Power y = 76.5x y = 61.2x y = 54.5x y = 45.9x y = 39.7x Ω/ MilliWatts/mil 2 10 Ohm/Sq. 25 Ω/ MilliWatts/mil 2 25 Ohm/Sq. 50 Ω/ MilliWatts/mil Ω/ MilliWatts/mil 2 50 Ohm/Sq. 250 Ω/ MilliWatts/mil Ohm/Sq. 250 Ohs/Sq Resistor Area (mil 2 ) The recommended e power dissipation of small resistor sto aea(ess area (less than 1100 mil 2 ) at 25 C ambient Maximum power dissipation depends on the ambient temperature, resistor element size, and laminate/circuit board thermal properties. Dissipation improves with the use of natural heat sinks such as ground and power planes. Typical power dissipation for most PRT resistor designs operating at an ambient of less than 70 C is approximately 1/10 to 1/8 watt. 24

25 Determine and Recommend Resistor Sizes Using the OhmegaPly Spreadsheet Program A - DESIGN SPECIFICATION Please enter the resistance value (R ) in Ohm, power rating (P) in milliwatt, and maximum tolerance (t ) in percent for each desired resistor (R 1, R 2, R 3, R 4 & R 5 ) in table 1 below, and exit the cell to allow the program performs the calculations. R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 Resistance Value (R) in Ohm Power Rating (P) in mw Maximum Tolerance (t) in % Table 1. For designer to enter the resistance, power rating and percent tolerance values of desired resistors B - RECOMMENDED MINIMUM WIDTH AND LENGTH OF DESIRED RESISTORS Sheet R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 Resistivities W 1 L 2 W 2 L 2 W 3 L 3 W 4 L 4 W 5 L 5 (Ohm/Sq.) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) (Mil) t* t* t* P* P* t* t* t* P* P* t* t* P* P* P* t* t* P* P* P* P* t* t* P* P* Table 2. The recommended minimum width and length for each desired resistor which is calculated by the program base on the given values by the designer in table 1. C - RECOMMENDED RESISTOR FOOTPRINTS R s R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 10 Bar Type Bar Type Bar Type Bar Type Serpentine 25 Partial Square Bar Type Bar Type Bar Type Bar Type 50 Partial Square Partial Square Bar Type Bar Type Bar Type 100 Partial Square Partial Square Partial Square Bar Type Bar Type 250 Partial Square Partial Square Partial Square Partial Square Bar Type Table 3. The recommended resistor footprints for different type of sheet resistivities 25

26 Parametric Design in Supermax ECAD of Mentor Graphics Once a resistor is set to be an embedded resistor, the system automatically syntheses multiple permutations of the resistor. For each resistor, the resulting power handling and dimensions are shown and the designer may choose the desired permutation by clicking in the spreadsheet or use the automatic optimization functions to optimize either on total area or by the number of resistance layers needed. 26

27 Parametric Design in Supermax ECAD of Mentor Graphics Supermax ECAD provides an effective platform for the design of embedded passive components resistors, capacitors, inductiors and transformers. Advanced capabilities for embedding passive components Create and place embedded components on any layer Edit components online Automatic synthesis of resistors and capacitors Resistor types: L shape, serpentine, tophat and rectangle Automatic generation of all production documents Firmly integrated with common schematic environments such as Mentor Graphics Design Architect and DxDesigner Integrated with analysis tools and virtual prototyping environments Read and write standard formats such as GDS Design Rule Check (DRC) Since embedded passives are not standard discrete compo nents but are, in fact, DC short circuits, DRC functions needto recognize the differencebetweena DC short circuit and an AC short circuit. With Supermax ECAD, design specifica tions are met with an extensive rules set and online DRC of electrical and manufacturing rules. In addition, Supermax ECAD has online verification of signal integrity rules, clear ance rules, trace resistance, impedance and propagation delays. 27

28 Standard CAD Layout Tools Ohmega resistor design with standard CAD tools Instructions available for: 1. Mentor Boardstation 2. Allegro 3. Intergraph, Classic 4. PAD Power PCB Used in conjunction with the OhmegaPly Excel program, these methods achieved full logic DRC resistor controlled schematic ornet listlevel. level. 28

29 References Please contact Ohmega Technologies (phone: ) or e mail for a copy of the following information: A. General Ohmega Design Guide B. OhmegaPly Spreadsheet Design Program in Excel C. Instructions for Design of OhmegaPly resistors with standard CAD tools 29

30 OHMEGA TECHNOLOGIES, INC ELENDA STREET CULVER CITY, CA PHONE: (310) FAX: (310) WEB SITE: Version 1.0 April 2010 Copyright Ohmega Technologies, Inc. 30

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