South America is comprised of thirteen countries. These countries include:

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1 Countries South America is comprised of thirteen countries. These countries include:

2 Colombia. Colombia is located in the northern portion of South America. Its borders are the Pacific Ocean to the west and north, Panama to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, and Peru and Ecuador to the southwest. Colombia is about twice the size of Texas. Its climate is tropical along the coasts and cooler in the highlands. Colombia's landscape consists of eastern and coastal plains with central highlands. The Andes Mountains run through the country. Colombia's natural hazards include occasional droughts and earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions in the central highlands. Colombia is the only country of South America with coasts on both the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Venezuela. Venezuela, in northern South America, is bordered by Colombia to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the north, Guyana to the east, and Brazil to the southeast. Venezuela is twice as large as California. Its climate is tropical and cooler in the highlands. The landscape of the country includes the Andes Mountains and the Maracaibo Lowlands in the northwest, a central plains region, and the Guiana Highlands in the southeast. Natural hazards here include floods, rockslides, mudslides; and occasional droughts. Venezuela is home to the world's highest waterfall. Guyana. Like Venezuela and Colombia, Guyana is in the northern part of South America. The Atlantic Ocean forms its northern border. It lies east of Venezuela, west of Suriname, and north of Brazil. Guyana is a little smaller than Idaho. Its major physical features include its savannas, low coastal plains, and highlands. The climate here is tropical with cooling trade winds. Flash floods are a common occurrence during its two rainy seasons. Suriname. Suriname also is in the north of South America. Its northern border is the Atlantic Ocean. It is a bit larger than the state of Georgia. It is bordered by Guyana to the west, French Guiana to the east, and Brazil to the south. Suriname's tropical climate is cooled by trade winds. The landscape of Suriname consists mostly of tropical rain forests. It has many rolling hills and narrow swampy coastal plains. Suriname, South America's smallest independent country, is not troubled by natural hazards.

3 French Guiana. In the northern part of South America, French Guiana is bordered by Suriname to the west and Brazil to the west and south. The Atlantic Ocean forms its northeastern border. It is slightly smaller than Indiana. French Guiana is mostly an unsettled wilderness. Its central region is hills and mountains, which drop to low plains along the coasts. Its tropical climate is constant year round. Severe storms here frequently result in flooding. Brazil. Brazil is the largest country in South America and covers most of the continent's land mass. It is just a little smaller than the entire U.S. All the countries of South America border Brazil except Chile and Ecuador. The terrain of Brazil is diverse. The Amazon basin lies in the north and west. In the southeast are highland areas. Plateaus and coastal plains are also part of the Brazilian landscape. Like the terrain, Brazil's climate varies. It is mostly tropical, but more temperate in the south. Droughts are a frequent problem in the northeast. The southern area is threatened by flooding and frost. Bolivia. Bolivia is located in central South America. Its borders are Brazil to the north and east, Argentina and Paraguay to the south, Chile to the southwest, and Peru to the west. Bolivia is just a bit less than three times the size of Montana. The major landforms of Bolivia include the Andes Mountains, a highland plateau, hills, and the plains of the Amazon Basin. Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake, is shared by Bolivia and Peru. Elevation affects the climate, which ranges from humid and tropical to semiarid and cold. The northeast region is subject to flooding. Bolivia is one of South America's two landlocked countries; the other is Paraguay. Peru. In western South America, Peru is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, Ecuador to the northwest, Colombia to the northeast, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, and Chile to the south. Peru is a little smaller than Alaska. The Andes run through the center of the country. Plains lie along its western coasts. To the east is the lowland jungle of the Amazon Basin. Peru's climate is diverse; it ranges from temperate to extremely cold in the Andes, to the dry western desert, to tropical in the east. Natural hazards here include flooding, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis, and mild volcanic eruptions. It shares control of Lake Titicaca, the world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia. Peru is home to the slope of Nevado Mismi, the origin of the Amazon River.

4 Ecuador. Bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, Peru to the south and east, and Colombia to the north, Ecuador is located in northwest South America. Quito, its capital city, lies just south of the equator. Ecuador is a bit smaller than Nevada. Ecuador's landscape is characterized by the Andean central highlands, coastal plains, and eastern jungle. Its climate is tropical along the coast and in the Amazon jungle and cooler in the highlands. Ecuador's natural hazards include occasional droughts, frequent volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, and floods. Ecuador is home to Cotopaxi, the world's highest active volcano. Chile. Chile, located along South America's western coast, is a long, narrow country. Its borders are the Pacific Ocean to the west, Argentina to the east, Bolivia to the northeast, and Peru to the north. Chile is just a little less then twice the size of Montana. The Atacama Desert, the world's driest desert, lies in northern Chile. The Andes run along its coast. Its central portion is a fertile valley. Chilean climate is temperate; it is cool in the south, desert in the north, Mediterranean in the center. Chile's natural hazards include earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Chile's geographic location places it close to trading routes for both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Argentina. Located in southern South America, Argentina is bordered by Chile to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Uruguay to the east, Brazil to the northeast, and Paraguay and Bolivia to the north. Argentina, the second largest country in South America, is three-tenths as large as the United States. The Andes run along its western border. The plateau of Patagonia is in the south. Pampas cover its northern portion. Although Argentina's climate is mainly temperate, it is extremely cold in the southeast, and dry in the southwest. Natural hazards include earthquakes, windstorms, and flooding. Like its western neighbor, Chile, Argentina is well-positioned near Atlantic and Pacific trade routes. It is home to Laguna del Carbon, the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere.

5 Paraguay. Paraguay, located in central South America, is one of South America's two landlocked countries. It is bordered by Argentina to the west and south, Brazil to the east, and Bolivia to the north. Paraguay is a little smaller than California. The Rio Paraguay runs through the country. East of the river lie forested hills and grassy plains; west are marshy plains. Scrub and dry forest cover the rest of the country. The climate of Paraguay ranges from tropical to subtropical. The eastern portion receives heavy rainfall and the west is semiarid. Natural hazards include flooding. Most of Paraguay's population is concentrated in its southern region. Uruguay. Uruguay, in southern South America, is wellpositioned, with the Atlantic Ocean forming its southern border. Argentina forms its western border and Brazil its eastern border. Uruguay is almost as large as the state of Washington. Grassland covers three-fourths of the country. Uruguay's landscape consists mainly of fertile coastal lowlands, plains, and low hills. It benefits from a warm, temperate climate but lacks mountains, which act as a natural barrier to extreme weather conditions. For this reason, high winds are a frequent problem.

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