1 DENSITOMETRIC ASSAYS FOR THE EVALUATION OF WATER SOLUBLE ALKALOIDS FROM CHELIDONIUM MAJUS L. (PAPAVERACEA) ROOTS ln THE AZORES. ALONG ONE YEAR CYCLE M. LEONOR PAVAO & RUY E. PINTO PAVAO, M. LEONOR & RUY E. PINTO Densitometric assays for the evaluation of water soluble alkaloids from Chelidonium nzajus L. (Papaveracea) roots in the Azores, along one year cycle. Arquipilago. Life and Marine Sciences 13A: Angra do Heroismo. ISSN Every 4 weeks. during a one year cycle, water soluble alkaloid extracts were prepared from Ckelidonium majus, L. (great celandine) roots. growing spontaneously on uncultivated ground in the Azores. TLC analysis showed that chelidonine. chelerythrine. sanguinarine. berberine. coptisine, protopine and allocryptopine are present in all the extracts. Fluorescence densitometry (366 nm) was found to be the most adequate densitometric technic to quantify chelidonine, berberine and coptisine. Sanguinarine and chelerythrine were analysed only by the fluorescence method. The use of the absorption mode for the evaluation of chelidonine, berberine and coptisine (at 242 nm. 344 nm and 268 nm. respectively) is also discussed. Chelidonine was the major constituent (about 70% of total quantifed alkaloids); maximum values appeared in July (60% higher than mean value) and minimum in January (60% lower). Both chelerythrine and sanguinarine concentrations showed maximum values in winter (about twice) and minimum in June (about one half). Berberine and coptisine exhibited relative small changes. Berberine and coptisine contents were maximum in July. The concentration of coptisine was minimum in December. PAVAO, M. LEONOR & RUY E. PINTO Ensaios densitomctricos para a avaliagiio, ao longo de um ciclo anual, de alcaldides sol6veis em Bgua de raizes de Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveracea), nos Aqores. Arquipe'lago. CiCncias Biol6gicas e Marinhas 13A: Angra do Heroismo. ISSN Prepararam-se extractos de alcal6ides solliveis em hgua de raizes de Chelidonium maps L. (celidbnia), colhida em terrenos incultos nos A~ores, mensalmente, ao longo de um ano. A separa~jio dos alcal6ides por cromatografia em camada fina mostrou que a quelidonona. queleritrina, sanguinarina. berberina, coptisina, protopina e alocriptopina siio constituintes permanentes dos extractos. Utilizou-se a tccnica dc fluoresc&ncia (366 nm), julgado como o mais adequado, para a densitomttrica da quelidonina, berberina e coptisina. A queleritrinae a sanguinarina s6 foram avaliadas por fluoresc&ncia. Nos casos da quelidonina, berberina e coptisina, C tambtm discutida a utlizaqzo do mod0 de (a 242 nm. 344 nm e 268 nm, respectivamente). A quelidonina revelou ser o constituinte principal (cerca de 70% do total dos alcal6ides avaliados) em todos os extractos; os valores mhximos da sua concentraqjio surgiram em Julho (60% mais alto do que o valor m6dio) e o minim0 em Janeiro (60% mais baixo). As concentra~bes da queleritrina e da sanguinanna foram mais elevadas no invemo (cerca do dobro) e minimas em Junho (cerca de metade). A berberina e a coptisina mostraram varia~bes de relativamente pequenas. As concentraqaes de ambas foram mhximas em Julho, sendo a da coptisina minima em Dezembro. M. Leonor Pavdo, Departamento de Ciencias Tecnoldgicas e Desenvolvimento, Universidade dos Agores, R. Mde de Deus, PT-9500 Ponta Delgada, Agores, Portugal. - Ruy E. Pinto, Departamento de Quinzica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, R. Ernesto Vasconcelos, Bloco CI, 5' Piso, PT-1700 Lisboa, Portugal.
2 INTRODUCTION all the collected plants combined together) was coarsely powdered. Chelidoniurn rnajus L. (great celandine) is a medicinal plant known since immemorial times Chemicals in Eastern and Central Europe and in some regions of Asia and America. Many alkaloids (at All chemicals were of analytical grade. Berberine least 25) have been identified from the latex of chloride (2H20), chelidonine and sanguinarine this Papaveracea. However, the alkaloid identity and contents change with climate, organ and were from ExtrasynthkseB, Geenay, developmental stage of the plant (TERNBAH France. Chelerythrine, protopine, allocryptopine 1958; KIM et al. 1969; KUSTRAK et al. 1982). and coptisine were kindly provided by Professor Also, it has been difficult to obtain both a Slavik (Purkine University, Brno, Czech Rep.). satisfactory separation and estimation of the nitrogen bases, due to the similarity of their Water soluble alkaloid extracts chemical structures (for a revision see SEQUEIRA DE MEDEIROS 1984). The determination of total alkaloids from roots In Portugal, the plant is mainly used in the was carried out according to KUSTRAK et al. Azores islands, for the properties of its latex (1982), except that the extract was refluxed for (PEREIRA 1953). As we are interested in our own 112 hour and let stand at least 24h at room plants and their biochemical effects in mammals (SEQUEIRA DE MEDEIROS 1990), it is important to choose the best harvesting time in the Azores. Because no work about alkaloids in this plant has been reported in Portugal, we decided to carry out the present study. The purpose is to examine the variations in the major components in water soluble alkaloid extracts (WSA) prepared from the roots of Chelidorziurn rnajus, during a single growing season, by assaying a new quantitative densitometric methodology. Separations of the alkaloid fractions were done by TLC, using three solvent systems. Fluorescence and absorption densitometric assays were carried out to evaluate the identified benzophenanthrydine and protoberberine bases: chelidonine, chelerythrine, sanguinarine, coptisine, berberine, protopine and allocryptopine. MATERIALS AND METHODS temperature (LAVENIR& PARIS 1965). All the residues were dried under N2. One part of powdered material was refluxed for 112 hour with sixfold volume of methanol. The solvent was removed by distillation (80 C) and the residue fully dried at 100 C under N2. The dry methanolic residue was extracted by several work-ups with portions of 3N sulfuric acid until the decanted liquid gave a negative Mayer test. The acidic extracts were combined, made alkaline (ph9) with concentrated aqueous ammonia, and the liberated alkaloids shaken out with chlorophorm. The separated chlorophorm layer was freed of solvent by distillation and the residue was dried as before. WSA were obtained by adding sucessive small portions of hot distilled water to the alkaloid concentrate, until no yellow colour was observed. Then, the solutions were evaporated until dry and weighed. Plant TLC procedure Plants were harvested every 4 weeks, during a Spotting samples were prepared by dissolving the one year cycle, on uncultivated ground in the dry WSA in methanol (1 mgwsa/ml). Samples island of S. Miguel. Roots (3-4 kg) were of 10 and 20 pl were applied on ready made separated from the aerial parts and dried at 50-5x20cm glass plates, covered with a 0.25 thick 60 C for 3 days. The dried material (tissues from silica gel-60 G-FZs4 layer (MerckB).
3 Chelidonine, chelerythrine, sanguinarine, berberine, coptisine, protopine and allocryptopine in methanolic solutions (concentrations between 1 and 10rnh4, according to the respective fluorescence intensity) were used as comparison standards. Three developing systems (S,, S2 and S3) were selected for the TLC procedure (KUSTRAK et al. 1982). The compositions of S1, S2 and S3 are the following: - xylene- methylethylketone-methanol-diethylarnine 20:20:2:0.5 (vol) - chloroform-ethil acetate-methanol 30:45:25 (~01) - ciclohexane-diethylamine 85: 15 (vol) Each eluent was freshly prepared before being poured into the tank, which walls had been previously covered with Whatman 3M filter paper. Unidirection developments of 16 cm were allowed at room temperarature. The chromatograms were scrutinized under UV irradiation (366 nm), using a Camag lamp; for initial confirmation tests, some of them were also sprayed with the Dragendorff reagent. A relatively large number of alkaloid fractions was observed. However, only those for which we had standards were identified, by using the Rf comparison between the standards and the unknown alkaloids. TLC procedures and the respective densitometric analysis were always performed in the same day. fluorescence and by absorption densitometry. Chelerythrine and sanguinarine (from S chromatograms) were evaluated only by the fluorescence mode. In fact, both the Rf values and the absorptive hmax are too close together to permit resolution using the absorptive method. In all cases, given the presence of unknown fractions, a horizontal scanning was performed, along the spots with the same Rf on different runs of the same sample. The run speed of the plates in the densitometer was programmed to be 1 mm/s and the integrator paper sheet speed was 4 mrnfs. All the fluorescence determinations were carried out by using a K400 filter and a 366 nm exciting irradiation on the selected spots. Calibration curves were used to calculate, for each alkaloid, the standard applied amount responsible for each "densitometer unit" (Table 1). Also, different volumes of methanolic solutions, with concentrations between 0.02 and 0.04 mg of WSA/ml were applied and proportionality between concentrations and respective densitogram area was observed. For the absorption evaluations, each alkaloid analysis wavelength was selected from the respective WNIS spectrum (absorptive hmax of the alkaloid in aqueous solution): 242 nm for chelidonine, 344 nm for berberine and 268 nm for coptisine (SEQUEIRA DE MEDEIROS 1990). The procedure was the same as described for fluorescence (Table 1). Densitometric analysis All the densitometric estimations were performed by a TLC Scanner I1 (Camag), provided with a fluorescence detector and connected to an integrator Hewlett-Packard, model 3392A. A 10 nm thick beam from the mercury lamp was selected for all scannings. Each of the following alkaloids was evaluated from the chromatograms where a better resolution was observed: chelidonine was quantified from SI, coptisine from S2 and berberine from S3 chromatograms,. by RESULTS AND DISCUSSION TLC analysis For the best resolution, solvent S1 allowed the separation of 14 alkaloid fractions; however, only the alkaloids that could be compared with reference standards were identified (Table 2). S1 showed to be the best solvent system for evaluating the benzo[c] phenanthrydine bases, when in low concentrations. Besides, it was the
4 only one that revealed the presence of allocryptopine, wich is not fluorescent at 366 nm; when using S2, allocryptopine was partially mixed with berberine and overlapped with chelidonine in S3 chromatograms. S2 was particulary useful to detect protopine by fluorescence, since no such behaviour was observed for this alkaloid, when using the other two developing systems. However, its resolution was not good enough to quantify it. S2 also allowed a better resolution of berberine and coptisine than S1, but was unable to make the distinction among the three benzo[c] phenanthridine bases. S3 was the best solvent for the resolution of chelidonine, chelerythrine and sanguinarine, when no other alkaloids were present. In fact, when using S3 for the development of WSA samples, chelidonine and allocryptopine have identical Rf and the same occurred with coptisine and chelerythrine. Sanguinarine was poorly detected with S3. X4 was recognized as one of the main, but not identified, fluorescent alkaloids in all the extracts. Table 1 Concentration of standard alkaloids (per "densitometer unit"). Values represent meanksd (6 samples) Solvent Alkaloid Modell (nm) Conc. (pg) Table 2 WSA composition patterns by TLCRf may be considered as typical values (error <lo%, for a large number of applications) S Alkaloid Rf Fluoresc. Colour (366 nm) (Dragendorff) C 0 bright yellow brown B 0.02 bright green violet X yellow - X greenish yellow - A dark yellow 1 P brownish yellow X light blue - X pink yellow X light pink - X violet - X pink yellow Ch 0.69 yellow yellow Chr 0.71 bright yellow yellow S 0.75 red light pink C 0.02 bright yellow brown B+X bright green violet A dark yellow 2 P 0.12 blue brownish yellow Y light blue - Y light pink - X pink yellow Ch+Chr+S 0.66 yellow orange X light pink - 1 Chelidonine Fl k0.02 Z violet blue - Abs k yellow yellow Chelerythrine Fl C~+A 0.19 yellow yellow Abs X4+P 0.26 yellow dark yellow Sanguinarine Fl B 0.37 bright green violet Abs O+ 0.5 C+Chr 0.41 yellow dark yellow 2 Coptisine Fl S 0.5 pink light pink Abs Sl=xylene- methylethylketone- methanol-diethyl- ProtoDine fl./ * 0.4 arnine 20:20:2:0.5 (vol); S2= chloroform-ethil acetate- Abs methanol 30:45:25 (vol); Sg=ciclohexane-diethylamine 3 Berberine Fl ~ : 15 (vol); Ch=chelidonine; Chr= chelerythrine; S=sanguinarine; B=berberine; C= coptisine; P= Abs'1344 0'05* protopine;a= allocryptopine.; XI-X~, Yl, Y2, Z1- F1. = Fluorescence; Abs. = Absorption. Zg=not identified alkaloid fractions.
5 Densitometric evaluation Table 3 Considering the described criteria Concentration of alkaloids from water soluble extracts of for the densitometric analysis of Chelidonium roots, along a one year cycle. Values represent mean +. the assayed alkaloids, the sd (3 samples). fluorescence method should be A1 kaloid Ccncentration more reliable than the absorptive Month Mode Ch Chr S B C one. In fact, it takes advantage of locating parameters (Rf and Rb. Fl. 227.k k fluorescence colour at 366 nm). On Abs rt k0.0 the other hand, the selected wavelengths for the absorption &ch Fl b rt Abs k b a0.5 analysis may not correspond exactly to the absorptive hmax of the April Fl a k0.1 alkaloid derivates on the Abs k a0.2 chromatograms. However, a May Fl reasonable agreement was found AbS k0.9 between fluorescence and absorption data obtained for June Fl % h0.3 AbS. 219.k ll.ho.l 65% 1.8 chelidonine, berberine and coptisine standards, but not for July H. 3l7.4k k 0.6 3l.& sanguinarine and chelerythrine Abs. 332.k k 1.2 (Table I). Sept. Fl. 233.k G k k h0.1 No relevant differences were Abs. 276.b k la0.1 registered for chelidonine and berberine concentrations in WSA Oct. Fl by using both methods. For Abs rtO.O coptisine, the values obtained by NOV. H ~ 0.1 absorption were always much Abs h 0.4 higher (at least twice) than the Dec. Fl kO k k kO.O respective fluorescence data (Table A~s. 198.h G ). The fluorescent alkaloids that were estimated represent about one Jan. FI half of the total WS alkaloids. Abs Month=Month of roots harvesting for preparation of extracts: Chelidonine' chelerythrine' Fl.=Fluorescence; Abs.=Absorption; Ch=Chelidonine; Chr=Chelesanguinarine, berberine, coptisine, n/thfine; ~ = - ~ ~ ~ ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ i b ~ ~ ~ f fi ~ i ~ ; ~ ; protopine, allocryptopine and X4 - appeared to be permanent constituents of the latex of Chelidonium roots in S. Miguel during the entire year. Chelidonine is the major alkaloid (about 70% of the quantified alkaloids). Maximum values appeared in July (60% higher than the mean value) and minimum in January (60% lower). Both chelerytrine and sanguinarine concentrations reached maximum values in winter (about twice the mean value) and minimum in June (about one half). Berberine and ~ = ~ ~ ~ t i ~ i ~ ~, coptisine concentrations exhibited relatively small changes along the year. They were maximum in July and minimum in December. It was not possible to identify X4; however, we suggest it is a- homochelidonine. In fact, this alkaloid and chelidonine have similar chemical structures and properties (SANTAVY et al. 1960). Besides, a- homochelidonine is one of the main components of the root latex of the plant (SEOANE 1965; KIM et al. 1969; KUSTRAK et al.
6 1982), which seems to agree with the present observations. A possible coptisine and berberine overlap can not explain the higher absorptive values obtained for coptisine, because both berberine concentration and absorptivity were lower than those of coptisine. Thus, the present work suggests that some other alkaloid fraction, with about the same Rf as coptisine (not fluorescent but absorbing at 268 nm) may exist in all the extracts. Its concentration changes along the year, reaching maximum values between January and July and minimum between July and September. Tetrahydroprotoberberi ne a1 kaloid 1 "b Coptisine TLC with solvents 1 and 2 followed by the described densitometric quantitative analysis is a reliable method to quantify chelidonine and berberine in WSA from Chelidonium majus. Solvent 1 also perrnited evaluation of sanguinarine and chelerythrine by the fluorescence method. However, results should be confirmed using other techniques. Concerning coptisine, a new solvent system should be assayed to confum our suggestion that this alkaloid overlaps with a non-fluorescent unknown. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to express their gratitude to Prof. Jira Slav* (J.Ev.Purkint! University, Bmo, Czech Rep.), for the generous gifts of chelerythrine, protopine, allocryptopine and coptisine. We are grateful to Dr. Alan Bolten for revision of the English language. REFERENCES Sanguinarine ro Chelidonine Figure 1. Biosynthetic relationshipis among some alkaloids of Chelidonium majus (adapted from BATTERSBY et al. 1975). According to BATTERSBY et al. (1975) benzophenanthridine alkaloids arise by a modification of the tetrahydroprotoberberine skeleton. Namely, chelidonine and sanguinarine (chelerythrine has the same aromatic system) are formed from a common intermediate (Fig. 1). This agrees with our findings that concentration of chelidonine is higher when sanguinarine and chelerythrine are lower. BA~TERSBY, A.R., J. STAUNTON, H.R. WILTSHIRE, J. FRANCIS & R. SOUTHGATE Biosynthesis. Part XXII. The origin of Chelidonine and of Other Alkaloids derived from the Tetrahydroprotoberberine Skeleton. Journal of Chemical Society Perkin 1 12: KIM, H.K., N.R. FARNSWORTH, N.R. BLOMSTER & H.H.S. FONG Biological and phytochemical evaluation of plants V: isolation of two cytotoxic alkaloids from Chelidonium majus. Journal of PharmaceuticaL Sciences 58 (3): KUSTRAK, D.J.P., Z. KALODERA & L. HOLM Seasonal changes of alkaloid contents in celandine (Chelidonium majus L.). Acta Pharmaceurica Jugoslavica 32: LAVENTR, R. & R.R. PARIS Sur les alcaloides de la Chklidoine (Chelidonium majus L.) Repartition dans divers organes, isolement de la stylopine B partir des fruits. Annales pharmaceutiques franqaises 23 (5): PEREIRA, S. A Plantas empregadas na medicina popular nas ilhas dos A~ores. Boletim da ComissZo Reguladora dos Cereais do Arquipe'lago dos &ores 17:
7 SANTAVY, F., M. HOR& M. MATUROVA & J. BRABANEC Constellation of chelidonine and explanation of some of its reactions. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications 25: SEOANE, E Alcaloides del Chelidonium rnajus. Anales de la Real Sociedad Espafiola de Fi'sica y Qui'mica, SCrie B, 61(5): SEQUEIRA DE MEDETROS, M.L.P Revisiio das propriedades de Chelidonium majus L. (Papaveracea), planta existente nas ilhas dos Aqores. Arquipe'lago. Strie CiCncias da Natureza. 5: SEQUE~A DE MEDEIROS, M.L.P Contribuipio para o estudo dos principais alcaldides solheis em dgua de Chelidonium majus L. da ilha de S. Miguel e sua influe^ncia em alguns parhmetros bioquimicos relativos ao murganho. Ph D Thesis. Universidade dos Agores. Ponta Delgada. 278pp. TERNBAJI, M Des alcaloides isolcs du Chelidonium majus L.. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad voor Nederland 93: Accepted 30 August 1995.
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Lo Fong Him(19) Chan Lik Sang(2) Title: Making your own acid-base indicator Date: 26 th April, 2010 Objective: To determine what substances can be used as acid-base indicator Theory: Acid-base indicators
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STRUCTURAL FORMULA (±1S-(2-[N-3-(2-oxotetrahydro thienyl)]acetamido)-thioglycolic acid) C 8 H 11 NO 4 S 2 M.W. = 249.307 DESCRIPTION Color : White to ivory white Appearance : Microcrystalline powder SOLUBILITY
Exercise 2 Reaction of Blue Food Dye with Bleach 2 Introduction In the experiment, you will study the rate of the reaction of FD&C Blue #1 (Blue #1 is denoted by E number E133 in food stuff) with sodium
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