5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary

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1 CH 5 review Name If you haven't outlined the chapter in its entirety, please do so by Jan 1. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A problem with avoidance training is that. A) it tends to produce latent learning B) its effects tend to last only for a short time C) it tends to take effect when it is too late to make a difference in avoiding the problem situation D) the learned behavior sometimes persists when it is no longer effective or necessary explain your answer: 2) Which of the following statements are true? A) Simple behavior is easier to extinguish than complex behavior. B) It is harder to extinguish a response learned on a partial reinforcement schedule than one learned on a schedule of continuous reinforcement. C) Behaviors are harder to extinguish when they are learned in a variety of settings. D) Avoidance training is relatively easy to extinguish. 1) 2) 3) Louie works at a job where he is paid by commission. For every car Louie sells, he gets 10 percent of the profits. Louie being reinforced on a. A) variable-ratio schedule B) variable-interval schedule C) fixed-ratio schedule D) fixed-interval schedule 3) 4) In higher-order conditioning, objects that have no intrinsic value but become reinforcers because of their association with other, more basic reinforcers, are known as reinforcers. A) peripheral B) primary C) central D) secondary 4) 5) A reinforcer that removes something unpleasant from a situation is a(n) reinforcer. A) negative B) secondary C) positive D) primary 5) 6) Schedules of reinforcement apply to A) operant conditioning B) cognitive learning C) classical conditioning D) Pavlov's law of thermodynamics 6) 7) Which of the following statements is true for operant conditioning? A) The greater the variety of settings in which learning takes place, the easier the behavior is to extinguish. B) Complex behavior is easier to extinguish than simple behavior. C) Avoidance training is especially difficult to extinguish. D) The stronger the original learning, the easier it is to extinguish. 7) 8) By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, salivation to the meat was the. A) conditioned stimulus B) unconditioned stimulus C) conditioned response D) unconditioned response 8) 1

2 9) Which of the following behaviors will be MOST difficult to extinguish? A) A man takes the same bus route every day to get to his job. B) A little boy gets 50 cents from his mother each time he dries the dishes C) A teenaged girl gets home before midnight so that her parents will not punish her. D) A woman goes to her local market four days in a row to get prime rib but finds it unavailable. 9) 10) The work of Mary Cover Jones lead to A) ethical experiments B) desensitization therapy C) ethical dilemmas D) equal rights for all 10) 11) Any stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated is called a(n). A) punisher B) negative reinforcer C) antecedent D) aversive stimulus 11) 12) Which of the following statements is true? A) Simple behavior is easier to extinguish than complex behavior. B) The stronger the original learning, the more difficult extinction will be. C) Behaviors learned through punishment are relatively easy to extinguish. D) It is harder to extinguish a response learned on a partial reinforcement schedule than one learned on a continuous reinforcement schedule. 12) 13) When comparing the effects of continuous reinforcement with intermittent reinforcement,. A) both cause equally long-term changes in behavior B) neither causes long-term behavior change C) intermittent reinforcement causes longer-term changes in behavior than continuous reinforcement D) continuous reinforcement causes longer-term changes in behavior than intermittent reinforcement 13) 14) Researchers have discovered that many autoimmune disorders can be successfully controlled without drug treatments through the use of procedures. A) classical conditioning B) desensitization C) operant conditioning D) vicarious learning 14) 15) By pairing the ringing of a bell with the presentation of meat, Pavlov trained dogs to salivate to the sound of a bell even when no meat was presented. In this experiment, salivation to the bell was the. A) unconditioned response. B) conditioned stimulus C) conditioned response D) unconditioned stimulus 15) 16) A group of dogs is taught to salivate to the ringing of a bell by pairing the sound of the bell with the presentation of meat. Once the dogs have been conditioned to the sound of the bell, a black square is presented each time the bell is rung. Soon, the dogs are salivating to the presentation of the black square without it being paired to the presentation of the bell. This is an example of. A) backward conditioning B) response generalization C) higher-order conditioning D) operant conditioning 16) 2

3 17) In classical conditioning the learner is, and in operant conditioning the learner is. A) passive; passive B) passive; active C) active; passive D) active; active explain your answer: 18) Abigail is trying to figure out how she can BEST use employee pay to elicit a high rate of employee productivity over a long period of time. If employees' responses to pay schedules are similar to people's general responses to reinforcement schedules, she should use a schedule. A) variable-ratio B) fixed-interval C) variable-interval D) ratio-interval 17) 18) 19) The use of intermittent pairing the rate of learning while it the final strength of the learned response. A) increases; increases B) reduces; increases C) reduces; reduces D) increases; reduces 19) 20) Biofeedback is an application of. A) operant conditioning B) social learning C) classical conditioning D) preparedness 20) 21) In operant conditioning,. A) continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement B) both continuous reinforcement and partial or intermittent reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time C) neither partial nor continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist for long periods of time D) partial or intermittent reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement 21) 22) Which of the following is NOT an example of preparedness in conditioning? 22) A) Baby ducklings learn to recognize their mother's sight and call as they follow her around, and soon will follow nobody but their mother. B) Rats learn to avoid drinking water with a salty taste that previously made them ill. C) A child learns that brushing his teeth always results in praise from his parents. D) Birds quickly learn to avoid drinking water that is the same color as water that previously made them ill. 23) Abigail is trying to figure out how she can BEST use employee pay to shape her employees' behavior. She is interested in short-term productivity (speed), not consistency, long-term productivity, or employee turnover. According to reinforcement theory, she should use a schedule. A) fixed-interval B) variable-interval C) ratio-interval D) fixed-ratio 23) 3

4 24) An animal is placed in a box with a bar and also a wire floor that can deliver a mild shock. The experimenter first sounds a buzzer, then a few seconds later turns on the shock. Pressing the bar after the buzzer sounds but before the shock is delivered will prevent the shock from occurring. This is an example of. A) modeling B) punishment learning C) classical conditioning D) avoidance training 24) 25) An experimenter attempting to classically condition a new behavior in a dog unintentionally presents the CS without the US several times during the conditioning process. She finds that this intermittent pairing. A) reduces the rate of learning and the strength of the final learned response B) increases the rate of learning and the strength of the final learned response C) has no effect on the rate of learning or the strength of the final learned response D) increases the rate of learning but decreases the strength of the final learned response 25) 26) An example of a fixed-interval schedule is A) winning money in Atlantic City at a slot machine B) a dog receiving a treat when he sits on command C) getting paid for each hamburger you sell. D) being paid weekly 26) 27) A dog, taught to salivate to the sound of a buzzer, learned that the buzzer was no longer followed by food and stopped salivating to the buzzer. If the dog again heard the buzzer after a few weeks, it would probably salivate. A) True B) False explain your answer: 28) Nagging someone to do something until they do it is an example of. A) negative reinforcement B) positive reinforcement C) punishment D) aversive conditioning 27) 28) 29) to facilitate learning indicates that. A) even when used properly, linking rewards to learning actually reduces natural motivation and creativity B) linking rewards to learning does not compromise either motivation or creativity C) linking rewards to learning reduces motivation but not creativity D) linking rewards to learning reduces creativity but not motivation 29) 30) In an experiment, the pupils of subjects' eyes contracted when a bright light was shown. After continual pairing of the bright light with the sound of a bell, subjects' pupils contracted when they heard the bell. After pairing the sound of the bell with the experimenter's verbal instruction Contract, pupil contraction occurred with just the verbal instruction. In this entire study, the conditioned stimulus is (stimuli are) the. A) bright light B) word contract C) bell D) bell and the word contract What is this type of learning called? 31) Every time a tone sounds, a student has a puff of air blown into her eye. Her eye twitches. After a while, she twitches when she hears the sound.the twitching caused by the air puff is the A) inordinate response B) unconditioned response C) parallel response D) conditioned stimulus 30) 31) 4

5 32) When a consequence isn't experienced first-hand, but only occurs to other people, it is A) unenforceable B) vicarious C) operant D) classical 32) 33) Rachel has found that when she opens the cupboard door to get the cat food, the cats come running to the kitchen. Rachel knows that this is classical conditioning and that the unconditioned stimulus is the and the conditioned stimulus is the. A) cat food; kitchen B) cat food; cupboard door opening C) cupboard door opening; cat food D) kitchen; cat food 33) 34) Conditioning based on previous learning, in which the conditioned stimulus serves as an unconditioned stimulus for further learning, is called conditioning. A) primary B) cue-controlled C) secondary D) higher-order 34) 35) In an experiment, the pupils of subjects' eyes contracted when a bright light was shown. After continual pairing of the bright light with the sound of a bell, the subjects' pupils contracted when they heard the bell. After the pairing of the sound of the bell with the presentation of a black square, pupil contraction occurred with just the sight of the square. In this entire conditioning study, the conditioned stimulus is (stimuli are) the. A) light and square B) bell and square C) square D) bell 35) 36) A cognitive map is a kind of A) classical conditioning B) operant conditioning C) latent learning D) rewarded behavior 36) 37) A rat is given reinforcement after every 10 bar presses. This schedule is A) fixed-ratio B) variable-interval C) fixed-interval D) fixed-ordinal 37) 38) If you want an organism to respond very rapidly with only a brief pause after each reinforcement, which schedule of reinforcement would you choose? A) variable-interval B) Any reinforcement schedule would work as well as any other. C) fixed-ratio D) fixed-interval 38) 39) Positive reinforcement the likelihood that the behavior preceding it will happen again while negative reinforcement the likelihood that the preceding behavior will happen again. A) decreases; decreases B) decreases; increases C) increases; decreases D) increases; increases 39) 5

6 Answer Key Testname: CHAPTER 5 REVIEW 1) D 2) A, B, C 3) C 4) D 5) A 6) A 7) C 8) D 9) C 10) B 11) A 12) A, B, D 13) C 14) A 15) C 16) C 17) B 18) A 19) C 20) A 21) D 22) C 23) D 24) D 25) A 26) D 27) A 28) A 29) B 30) D 31) B 32) B 33) B 34) D 35) B 36) C 37) A 38) C 39) D 6

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