Liz Day Freshwater Consulting cc 1

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Liz Day Freshwater Consulting cc 1"

Transcription

1 Liz Day Freshwater Consulting cc 1

2 Lecture 1 Introduction Overview of aquatic ecosystems General theory Functions and services of rivers and wetlands Main water quality issues Water chemistry Eutrophication Lecture 2 Managing water quality Stormwater Effluent Diffuse pollution agricultural runoff Ecological buffer areas Best Practice Principles 2

3 Management of freshwater resources is one of the most critical issues for South Africa in the 21 st Century. South Africa is very arid (<500mm of rainfall per year) evaporation rates often higher than rainfall rainfall highly seasonal, and often erratic So water is scarce and its quality is critical in determining its fitness for use by a range of different users 3

4 Water quality is the combined effect of the physical attributes and chemical constituents of a sample of water on a particular user Physical attributes - temp; gradient; flow rate Chemical attributes - salts, nutrient concs; ph etc Users include industry; drinking water; transport; natural environment 4

5 Our natural freshwater resources include Surface water systems rivers and other wetlands [Groundwater] 5

6 6

7 A watercourse is: (a) a river or spring; (b) a natural channel in which water flows regularly or intermittently; (c) a wetland, lake or dam into which, or from which, water flows; and (d) any collection of water which the Minister may, by notice in the Gazette, declare to be watercourse, and a reference to a watercourse includes, where relevant, its bed and banks; 7

8 land which is transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface, or the land is periodically covered with shallow water, and which land in normal circumstances supports or would support vegetation typically adapted to life in saturated soil. 8

9 9

10 Rivers drain the landscape leach solutes from underlying rocks shape the landscape transport sediments to the coast act as natural barriers provide important habitats. These processes result in the provision of services 10

11 Rivers distribute water (used for drinking Riverine organisms purify water Rivers provide silt to floodplains Rivers provide life-support mechanisms for many living resources some of which have value for humans Large rivers can act as transport corridors or boundaries Rivers flush catchment waste... 11

12 headwaters foothills lower river estuary gradient particle size turbulence habitat diversity flow rate O 2 temp. [chemicals] discharge 12

13 rivers function as continua (linked, longitudinal systems) rivers are at the mercy of their catchments riverine organisms depend on upstream features - such as the quantity and type of food SO biological communities differ in different reaches breaking the continuum interferes with natural ecological functioning 13

14 This means that: upstream impacts can affect a whole system 14

15 This means that: upstream impacts can affect a whole system But also: rivers can recover from impacts rivers act as corridors 15

16 16

17 17

18 18

19 19

20 soil type biota (animals and plants have adaptations that allow them to survive specific wetland conditions; e.g. periodic waterlogging hydrology 20

21 A wetland s function depends on its characteristics Wetlands can have functions that are important in terms of Biodiversity and natural ecosystems Human communities 21

22 flood attenuation retention of water improvement in soil structure reduction in drying and erosion of soil maintenance of moist habitats in dry season improving water quality trapping sediment and reducing erosion provision of natural resources educational and tourism resources provision of habitat provision of ecological corridors Nutrients absorbed or trapped in soil roots hold onto water water released slowly downstream 22

23 Different wetlands have different: hydrological biological chemical regimes These affect wetland functioning and composition e.g. It is often as important for a system to dry out as it is to fill up example- Khayelitsha wetlands 23

24 24

25 Dissolved solids / minerals 25

26 Dissolved solids Measured as EC, TDS, salinity Critical to all life processes osmoregulation; water balance etc Include any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water. Major cations and anions are calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates Some small amounts of organic matter 26

27 Arid interior Rivers mainly seasonal evaporative concentration in hot dry season high TDS` South and east equitable climate rivers mainly perennial water is pure - low TDS (after Day and King 1987) 27

28 Dissolved solids / minerals ph Dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand Major nutrients Organic carbon Suspended Sediments Potentially toxic constituents (trace metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons) Microbial parameters (E. coli, viruses, other pathogens) 28

29 Measure of the concentration of [H + ] ions in water ph > 7 is alkaline or basic ph, 7 is acidic ph in freshwater ecosystems can vary between 3 (blackwater rivers) and 10 (calcium carbonate dominated wetlands) ph affects the rate and kind of chemical reactions and the toxicity of various water quality components E.g. ammonia (NH 3 ) 29

30 NH 3 and NH4 + NH 3 toxic at very low concentrations (acute toxicity at 0.1 mg N/L) NH 3 increases with temperature and ph especially over

31 Acute toxicity threshold 31

32 Dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand Oxygen concentration is a critical component of aquatic ecosystems Drives chemical and biological processes E.g. Phosphate released from sediments at low oxygen conc. Affects solubility of iron and manganese (dissolve back into water in anoxic conditions) 32

33 Dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand Oxygen concentration is a critical component of aquatic ecosystems Drives chemical and biological processes E.g. Phosphate released from sediments at low oxygen conc. Affects solubility of iron and manganese (dissolve back into water in anoxic conditions) Oxygen saturation a function of temperature and salinity Solubility decreases with increasing temp Solubility decreases with salinity 33

34 Influenced by: PHOTOSYNTHESIS BIOCHEMICAL AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS in sediments and water e.g. decomposition (uses oxygen) Biological Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand 34

35 35

36 Nitrogen and phosphorus based Include: Total phosphorus - orthophosphates Inorganic nitrogen nitrates, nitrites, (ammonia and ammonium) Phosphorus usually the growth-limiting nutrient in freshwater ecosystems (NB: not marine systems) 36

37 Natural: Nitrogen: atmosphere, soils, organic matter Phosphorus: minerals, soils, organic material, Anthropogenic Agriculture: livestock and fertilisers Effluents (sewage and other) Residential gardens Stormwater runoff Detergents 37

38 38

39 What is it? Enrichment of water with nitrogen and or phosphorus which results in an array of changes such as increased production of algae and other water plants and a deterioration in water quality 39

40

41 What is it? Enrichment of water with nitrogen and or phosphorus which results in an array of changes such as increased production of algae and other water plants and a deterioration in water quality Effects: Algal blooms Taste and odour in treated water Biodiversity impacts and bluegreen algae Low oxygen in bottom waters fish kills 41

42 42

43 Classifying Eutrophication Trophic status Oligotrophic Mesotrophic Eutrophic Hypertrophic Implication Moderate species diversity Low productivity No nuisance algae / aquatic plants No bluegreen algae High species diversity Moderate productivity Some nuisance algae / aquatic plants No TOXIC bluegreen algae Low species diversity High productivity Blooms of nuisance algae / aquatic plants Often toxic bluegreen algae Very Low species diversity Very high productivity Blooms of nuisance algae / aquatic plants Often toxic bluegreen algae Nitrogen (mg N/l) Phosphorus (mg P/l) <0.5 < >10 >

44 Dissolved solids / minerals ph Dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand Major nutrients Suspended Sediments Potentially toxic constituents (trace metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons) Microbial parameters (E. coli, viruses, other pathogens) 44

45 Organic or inorganic Affect water clarity (and plant growth) May cause abrasion of gills Affect downstream erosion and sedimentation processes Mechanism to distribute nutrients on floodplains Transport phosphorus, heavy metals Organic content affects oxygen concentration 45

46 Typically adsorb onto organic material / clays / sediments Usually most concentrated in depositional areas Can accumulate in aquatic organisms Ammonia Heavy metals Toxicity often affected by other variables (e.g. hardness, ph, temperature) 46

47 Usually proxies for human health risk Very high concentrations indicate sewage spills Main parameters measured: total coliforms; Escherichia coli Strict guidelines for contact and non contact recreation, based on likelihood of exposure and concentration of organism 47

48 LECTURE 2 48

49 River and wetland characteristics and natural function Main water quality constituents Dissolved solids / minerals ph Dissolved oxygen and oxygen demand Major nutrients Suspended Sediments Potentially toxic constituents (trace metals, pesticides, hydrocarbons) Microbial parameters (E. coli, viruses, other pathogens) Eutrophication 49

50 Changes in water quality Effluent Stormwater Case study Diep River Ecological buffer areas Best Practice Principles 50

51 Changes in water quantity Changes in river morphology (e.g. canalisation) Loss of natural wetland buffers pollution Pollution: the degradation of natural systems by the addition of harmful substances - usually in the form of effluents: a number of chemicals and solids are discharged into rivers - point source pollutants - easy to control /identify - diffuse source pollutants 51

52 NB pollution can also be too much or too little water 52

53 Usually depend on catchment land-use Include: Industrial effluent Domestic effluent (treated and untreated sewage effluent, pool discharges, irrigation systems) Stormwater runoff Contaminated groundwater seepage Agricultural return flows Landfill sites Livestock feedlots etc 53

54 Issues often landuse-related 54

55 Low flows low dilution Increased salinity Increased nutrients 55

56 Degradation and loss of resilience Systems prone to erosion Salinisation Economic effects of poor water quality nationally and internationally 56

57 Water quality changes often linked to water quantity changes Increased stormwater flows Inflows of treated and untreated sewage effluent Both 57

58 Toxic effects Heavy metals Ammonium toxicity Bacterial contamination human health Others Eutrophication Aquatic weeds organic build=up Low oxygen Changes in vegetation Lowering salinities 58

59 Pollution abatement study ice and FCG

60 60

61 Electrical [conductivity (ms/m)] Electrical conductivity Custom Standard (-, -, -, 2833) rtv06 Diep00 Diep00a rtv04 rtv11 rtv05 rtv09 rtv10 Median 2 x Std Dev. Min & Max. 61

62 62

63 Red lines indicate Target value (7ug/L); chronic toxicity threshold (15ug/L) and acute toxicity threshold (100ug/L) 63

64 E [coli (counts/100 ml)] Escherichia coli rtv06 Diep00 Diep00a rtv04 rtv11 rtv05 rtv09 rtv10 Median 2 x Std Dev. Min & Max. 64

65 65

66 66

67 67

68 68

69 PO4-P 69

70 NH3-N 70

71 E. coli 71

72 72

73 73

74 74

75 Modelling inputs: Dryweather flow concentrations Landuse/constituent E-coli NH4 Nitrate TSS Ortho-P TP Fe Zn Subsidized housing 2.2 E Informal housing 3.5 E Residential Industrial & Commercial (Killarney) Industrial & Commercial (Montague) Stables Potsdam WWTW DWAF General standards DWAF Special Standards

76 Catchment level best practice Monitoring Retrospective design not always possible 76

77 Catchment level best practice Monitoring Retrospective design not always possible Low flow diversions Cost and capacity issues 77

78 78

79 79

80 80

81 Limits, guidelines and targets Legal aspects general and special limits Ecological aspects chronic and acute toxicity ranges target water quality objectives 81

82 SUBSTANCE/ PARAMETER GENERAL LIMIT SPECIAL LIMIT DWAF Target Water Quality Range (TWQRs) DWAF guidelines: Acute toxicity value Faecal Coliforms (per 100ml) COD (mg/l) 75* 30* ph ph should not vary from the range of background ph values for a specific site and time of day by >0.5 of a ph unit or by > 5%, whichever estimate is the more conservative Ammonia (mg/l) Nitrate/Nitrite (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) Increases should be < 10% of the background TSS concentrations at a specific site and time Ortho-Phosphate (mg/l) 10 1 (median) and 2.5 (maximum) Inorganic phosphorus concentrations should not be changed by >15% from that of the water body under local, unimpacted conditions at any time of year AND the trophic status of a water body should not increase. 82

83 Depend on the quality and quantity of effluent Quality and characteristics of the receiving water body 83

84 DWA effluent limits DWA ecosystem / human health guidelines Stormwater controls National (through NWA) Local / municipal Aim to address water quality and water quantity aspects of stormwater Planning / landuse guidelines Ecological buffers 84

85 City of Cape Town s Policy for Stormwater Management for new developments Requires predevelopment water quantity (flood peaks) Water quality amelioration: Total P and TSS Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) Figure from City of Cape Town 85

86 Development setback areas / Ecological buffer areas Legislated in the City of Cape Town s Policy for Developments in floodprone areas Best practice landuse approach 86

87 Definition: a strip of land adjacent to a watercourse, wetland or vlei required for the protection and enhancement of these systems (City of Cape Town 2009) 87

88 88

89 Limit the effects of diffuse and point source runoff Provide erosion protection Provide space to implement water sensitive urban design mechanisms (WSUDS) Allow runoff diffusion Provide continuous corridors for flora and fauna Allow space for future rehabilitation 89

90 Legislated by the City of Cape Town 10 to 70m wide Width depends on the required functions of the buffer and the sensitivity and/or importance of the wetland Need ongoing management and controls activities that may contribute to the degradation or loss of resilience of the aquatic ecosystem not allowed (e.g. paving, fertilisers, sewage pipelines) 90

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness Total Suspended Solids (TSS) are solids in water that can be trapped by a filter. TSS can include a wide variety of material, such as silt, decaying plant and animal matter, industrial wastes, and sewage.

More information

LIMNOLOGY, WATER QUALITY

LIMNOLOGY, WATER QUALITY LIMNOLOGY, WATER QUALITY PA RANI ET E R S, AN D c 0 IV D IT I 0 N S AND ECOREGIONS Water Quality Parameters Nutrients are important parameters because phosphorous and nitrogen are major nutrients required

More information

AgriLife Extension Solutions

AgriLife Extension Solutions Understanding Water Quality Reports for Your Pond Todd Sink, Ph.D. Extension Fisheries Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Mikayla House Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water quality tests

More information

STORMWATER MONITORING: POLLUTANTS, SOURCES, AND SOLUTIONS

STORMWATER MONITORING: POLLUTANTS, SOURCES, AND SOLUTIONS RICHLAND COUNTY STORMWATER MANAGEMENT DIVISION STORMWATER MONITORING: POLLUTANTS, SOURCES, AND SOLUTIONS As part of the federal government s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit (NPDES)

More information

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics:

Welcome to the Understanding Dissolved Oxygen learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: Introduction Welcome to the learning module. This section provides information on the following topics: How dissolved oxygen is defined and measured in numbers Why dissolved oxygen is important Natural

More information

DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water

DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water Abstract.: 112 DRAINAGE DISCHARGE AGREEMENTS A WAY OF MANAGING RISK Mr. Sam Green Goulburn-Murray Water ABSTRACT Goulburn-Murray Water (G-MW) owns, operates and maintains an extensive regional drainage

More information

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html

Phosphorus. Phosphorus Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management. www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Phosphorus Phosphorus Brochure Lake Whatcom Cooperative Management Reducing Phosphorus Website Washington State Department of Ecology www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/phosphorus/phosphorusban.html Nutrients

More information

Water Quality Tests Summary

Water Quality Tests Summary Water Quality Tests Summary Contents Water Quality Tests 13 Water Quality Index 14 Temperature 17 ph.. 17 Chloride and Salinity 19 Turbidity 19 Nitrate Phosphates 21 Water Hardness Calcium and Magnesium

More information

INTRODUCTION TO SUDS

INTRODUCTION TO SUDS INTRODUCTION TO SUDS BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF SUDS SUDS, or Sustainable Drainage Systems, is an approach to drainage which has the objective of minimising the impact that the surface water runoff from any development

More information

APPENDIX 7: INFORMATION ON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

APPENDIX 7: INFORMATION ON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS APPENDIX 7: INFORMATION ON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS Laboratory Analysis: The principal chemical analyses undertaken on most water bodies includes analyses for ph, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Colour,

More information

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS overflow can lead into a permeable conveyance system to increase further the benefit and reduce the need for pipe systems. Pollutant removal rates have been shown to be high, with some pollutants being

More information

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WASTEWATER TREATMENT Freshwater WASTEWATER TREATMENT Water Quality 1. INDICATOR (a) Name: Wastewater treatment. (b) Brief Definition: Proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged

More information

Section 5.3 - Surface Water Quality of the La Salle River (Source: Manitoba Water Stewardship)

Section 5.3 - Surface Water Quality of the La Salle River (Source: Manitoba Water Stewardship) Section 5.3 - Surface Water Quality of the La Salle River (Source: Manitoba Water Stewardship) The La Salle River Watershed from a Water Quality Perspective. A number of reports/studies have been conducted

More information

Pollution Sources NEIGHBORHOOD WATER QUALITY

Pollution Sources NEIGHBORHOOD WATER QUALITY Lesson 2. Pollution and Water Quality Keywords: pollutants, water pollution, point source, non-point source, urban pollution, agricultural pollution, atmospheric pollution, smog, nutrient pollution, eutrophication,

More information

Example: 2. Solution. Provide depth D = 1.5 m. Sewage flow = 10000 x 170 x 0.80 x 10-3 = 1360 m 3 /d. Now, 0.182(1+. = 1.562. Q L = 2.

Example: 2. Solution. Provide depth D = 1.5 m. Sewage flow = 10000 x 170 x 0.80 x 10-3 = 1360 m 3 /d. Now, 0.182(1+. = 1.562. Q L = 2. Example: 2 Design low rate trickling filter for secondary treatment of sewage generated from 10000 persons with rate of water supply 170 LPCD. The BOD 5 after primary treatment is 110 mg/l and BOD 5 of

More information

6 Chemicals from human settlements

6 Chemicals from human settlements 6 Chemicals from human settlements 6.1 Introduction The world is becoming increasingly urban, particularly in developing countries. The transition of people from rural areas to cities represents a major,

More information

Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ. Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008

Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ. Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008 Basic Nutrient Removal from Water Beta Edition Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008 Presentation Outline Salt Lake County waters / 303(d) listings

More information

Don t spit in the well - you may need to drink from it! -- Unknown, Russia.

Don t spit in the well - you may need to drink from it! -- Unknown, Russia. Don t spit in the well - you may need to drink from it! -- Unknown, Russia. WATER POLLUTION Water is a unique substance, because it can naturally renew and cleanse itself, by allowing pollutants to settle

More information

Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC

Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC 3 Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds Forty-six states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia (collectively referred to as states in the rest of this

More information

Maine Department of Environmental Protection Program Guidance On Combined Sewer Overflow Facility Plans

Maine Department of Environmental Protection Program Guidance On Combined Sewer Overflow Facility Plans Maine Department of Environmental Protection Program Guidance On Combined Sewer Overflow Facility Plans OVERVIEW The objective of a Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Facility Plan is to abate CSO discharges

More information

Freshwater Resources and Water Pollution

Freshwater Resources and Water Pollution Visualizing Environmental Science Freshwater Resources and Water Pollution Chapter 10 Copyright The Importance of Water Life on Earth would be impossible without water All living organisms contain water

More information

Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution

Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution Sewerage Management System for Reduction of River Pollution Peter Hartwig Germany Content page: 1 Introduction 1 2 Total emissions 3 3 Discharge from the wastewater treatment plants 4 4 Discharge from

More information

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL

GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL GUIDELINES FOR LEACHATE CONTROL The term leachate refers to liquids that migrate from the waste carrying dissolved or suspended contaminants. Leachate results from precipitation entering the landfill and

More information

Curt Kerns, M.S., R.P.Bio., C.F.S. WetlandsPacific Corp. 250-722-7117 www.wetlandspacific.com

Curt Kerns, M.S., R.P.Bio., C.F.S. WetlandsPacific Corp. 250-722-7117 www.wetlandspacific.com Curt Kerns, M.S., R.P.Bio., C.F.S. WetlandsPacific Corp. 250-722-7117 www.wetlandspacific.com Presentation Historical perspectives Present perspectives How wetlands function Examples of natural wetlands

More information

Missouri Streams. Fact Sheet. By Danny Brown & Jim Czarnezki Edited by Chris Riggert & Sarah Wolken

Missouri Streams. Fact Sheet. By Danny Brown & Jim Czarnezki Edited by Chris Riggert & Sarah Wolken Missouri Streams Fact Sheet By Danny Brown & Jim Czarnezki Edited by Chris Riggert & Sarah Wolken Chemical parameters play an important role in the health, abundance, and diversity of aquatic life. They

More information

Our Florida Ponds and Lakes. Roy Beckford Natural Resources Agent University of Florida, IFAS Lee County

Our Florida Ponds and Lakes. Roy Beckford Natural Resources Agent University of Florida, IFAS Lee County Our Florida Ponds and Lakes Roy Beckford Natural Resources Agent University of Florida, IFAS Lee County Florida s Natural Landscapes Dry Flatwoods Wet Flatwoods Wetlands Diagrammatic View Claiming the

More information

Long Term Challenges for Tidal Estuaries

Long Term Challenges for Tidal Estuaries A view from a former tidal river manager expert with experience from 6 decades living at, with and from the Tidal River Elbe chairman of the European Interreg Project TIDE (Tidal River Development) Land

More information

Lecture 23. Acid rain.

Lecture 23. Acid rain. Lecture 23. Acid rain. Part2. Effects of acid rain. Objectives: 1. Alkalinity: The acid buffer. 2. Effects of acid rain. Readings: Turco: p. 278-284 ; Brimblecombe: p. 178-184 1. Alkalinity: The acid buffer.

More information

Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options. Feedback from the Riskbase workshop

Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options. Feedback from the Riskbase workshop Origins and causes of river basin sediment degradation and available remediation and mitigation options Feedback from the Riskbase workshop Corinne Merly 1, Olivier Cerdan 1, Laurence Gourcy 1 Emmanuelle

More information

Water and Wastewater. Sample Collection and Analysis

Water and Wastewater. Sample Collection and Analysis Water and Wastewater Sample Collection and Analysis December 2011 Introduction Accurate testing of drinking water is crucial to maintaining the health and safety of Islanders who rely on this resource.

More information

WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM

WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM LeifBasherg (1) OlujZejlllJul Jessen (1) INTRODUCTION The current paper is the

More information

Drinking Water Quality for Poultry

Drinking Water Quality for Poultry Drinking Water Quality for Poultry Prepared by: Thomas A. Carter Specialist in Charge Extension Poultry Science Ronald E. Sneed Extension Biological and Agricultural Engineering Specialist Published by:

More information

Nutrient removal from wastewater by wetland systems

Nutrient removal from wastewater by wetland systems Nutrient removal from wastewater by wetland systems Ishadeep Khanijo Abstract: For past so many years wetlands have served functions like providing habitat for aquatic and terrestrial plants and animals,

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 Read the Fremont Examiner article below and answer the questions that follow. (a) Identify ONE component of the sewage that is targeted for removal

More information

Total Suspended Solids: The Hows & Whys of Controlling Runoff Pollution

Total Suspended Solids: The Hows & Whys of Controlling Runoff Pollution New State Storm Water Rules: WHAT MUNICIPALITIES NEED TO KNOW Total Suspended Solids: The Hows & Whys of Controlling Runoff Pollution Stormwater management by Wisconsin municipalities is under scrutiny.

More information

Urban Water Quality August 2010

Urban Water Quality August 2010 Urban Water Quality August 2010 1 Otago Regional Council Urban Water Quality Strategy Vision Good water quality allows for the safe, healthy and enjoyable appreciation and use of Otago water environments.

More information

Observatory monitoring framework indicator data sheet

Observatory monitoring framework indicator data sheet Observatory monitoring framework indicator data sheet Environmental impact: Water Indicator DA3: Nitrate and phosphate levels in rivers The EU Water Framework Directive has resulted in the need to change

More information

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality

Backyard Buffers. Protecting Habitat and Water Quality Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other

More information

Infrastructure Services Shetland Islands Council. Advice Note 3

Infrastructure Services Shetland Islands Council. Advice Note 3 Infrastructure Services Shetland Islands Council Advice Note 3 Aim This advice note is produced to highlight that the disposal of surface water requires early consideration in the development process.

More information

Chapter 1 BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY

Chapter 1 BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY Chapter 1 BACTERIA AND WATER QUALITY What are Bacteria? What are Indicator Bacteria? How Do Bacteria Get Into Streams and Rivers? What Risks Do Bacteria Pose To Human Health? Georgia Bacterial Standards

More information

APPROVAL AMENDMENT HISTORY

APPROVAL AMENDMENT HISTORY Prepared by: Aurecon South Africa (Pty) Ltd STORMWATER MANAGEMENT PLAN TOKAI ESTATE (DRAFT 1) Submission date: 11 January 2013 Contact Person: Francois du Toit T: +27 21 526 6950 F: +27 21 526 9500 E:

More information

Lesson 5: Water Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Sampling

Lesson 5: Water Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Sampling Lesson 5: Water Conductivity and Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Sampling Time Frame: Two 45-50 minute class periods Grade Level: 8 th 12 th Grade Overview: There are a wide variety of inorganic substances

More information

A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium

A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium What is a Water Quality Guideline? The British Columbia Ministry of Environment develops ambient water quality guidelines (WQGs) to assess

More information

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation wellcare information for you about Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation Within a household, water may serve many functions beyond everyday household uses such as drinking, cooking, laundry,

More information

Sugarcane Production and the Environment. Jason Clay, WWF-US Better Sugar Meeting, June 21

Sugarcane Production and the Environment. Jason Clay, WWF-US Better Sugar Meeting, June 21 Sugarcane Production and the Environment Jason Clay, WWF-US Better Sugar Meeting, June 21 WWF and Agricultural Commodities The goal reduce measurably the most significant social and environment impacts

More information

Swamp Area Passive Treatment System Kettle Creek Watershed, Clinton County, PA

Swamp Area Passive Treatment System Kettle Creek Watershed, Clinton County, PA Swamp AMD Chemistry Swamp Area Passive Treatment System Kettle Creek Watershed, Clinton County, PA A Technical Report for Trout Unlimited and the Kettle Creek Watershed Association Prepared by Hedin Environmental

More information

Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion

Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion Chapter 5 Toxic Substances in Anaerobic Digestion Toxicity in AD A variety of inorganic and organic wastes can cause toxicity in anaerobic digesters. Many toxic wastes are removed in primary clarifiers

More information

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development

A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development A Developer s Guide: Watershed-Wise Development Environmental Protection What is a watershed? It does not matter how far away you build from a creek, lake, or the ocean, you are in a watershed. Another

More information

Spatial analysis of Yamuna River water quality in pre- and post-monsoon periods

Spatial analysis of Yamuna River water quality in pre- and post-monsoon periods Water Quality: Current Trends and Expected Climate Change Impacts (Proceedings of symposium H0 held during IUGG2011 in Melbourne, Australia, July 2011) (IAHS Publ. 3, 2011). Spatial analysis of Yamuna

More information

EUROPEAN WATER RESOURCES AND POLICY

EUROPEAN WATER RESOURCES AND POLICY EUROPEAN WATER RESOURCES AND POLICY What is the current water situation? The current water situation in Europe, according to a European Commission brochure, is described as: 20% of all surface water in

More information

Government Decree on Water Resources Management

Government Decree on Water Resources Management NB: Unofficial translation; legally binding texts are those in Finnish and Swedish Ministry of the Environment, Finland Government Decree on Water Resources Management (1040/2006) Given in Helsinki on

More information

case study 7: south east queensland healthy waterways partnership

case study 7: south east queensland healthy waterways partnership 2 Australia s National Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities introduction South-east Queensland s marine systems support large populations of dugongs

More information

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP Environmental Science Objectives Revised 11-19-08

Broken Arrow Public Schools AP Environmental Science Objectives Revised 11-19-08 1 st six weeks 1 Identify questions and problems that can be answered through scientific investigation. 2 Design and conduct scientific investigations to answer questions about the world by creating hypotheses;

More information

Part B Integrated Monitoring Design for Comprehensive Assessment and Identification of Impaired Waters Contents

Part B Integrated Monitoring Design for Comprehensive Assessment and Identification of Impaired Waters Contents Part B Integrated Monitoring Design for Comprehensive Assessment and Identification of Impaired Waters Contents Chapter 10. Selecting Metrics or Indicators of WQS Attainment... 10-2 Chapter 11. Monitoring

More information

Unit 1. Physical, chemical and biological Characteristics of Wastewater

Unit 1. Physical, chemical and biological Characteristics of Wastewater The Islamic University of Gaza- Civil Engineering Department Advanced Sanitary Engineering- ECIV 5325 Unit 1. Physical, chemical and biological Characteristics of Wastewater Based on Dr. Fahid Rabah lecture

More information

Chapter 14 Quiz. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 14 Quiz. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 14 Quiz Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT true regarding the Chesapeake Bay? a. it is one of many small

More information

EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia

EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia Background The occurrence of ammonia (NH 3 ) in the water source is often associated with pollution due to

More information

CH. 21 (+ 22): Water Pollution Types of water pollution Sources of water pollution Clean Water Act Treatment of waste water

CH. 21 (+ 22): Water Pollution Types of water pollution Sources of water pollution Clean Water Act Treatment of waste water CH. 21 (+ 22): Water Pollution Types of water pollution Sources of water pollution Clean Water Act Treatment of waste water Possible Test Questions: 1. List and discuss 6 categories of water pollutants.

More information

Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. CIVL 1112 Detention Ponds - Part 1 1/12

Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. Detention Ponds. CIVL 1112 Detention Ponds - Part 1 1/12 CIVL 1112 - Part 1 1/12 The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth. The water cycle, also known as the

More information

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture

SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture SoCo Policy Seminar, Brussels, 28 May 2009 1 SoCo: European Overview on soil degradation processes related to agriculture by E. Rusco, L. Montanarella, B. Marechal JRC IES Land management and Natural Hazards

More information

HOW WATER QUALITY INDICATORS WORK

HOW WATER QUALITY INDICATORS WORK HOW WATER QUALITY INDICATORS WORK Following are summaries of water quality indicators from several sources collated by the International Water Institute. They provide information about how the specific

More information

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description

Birmingham City University / Students Union Aspects and Impacts Register. Waste. Impacts description Birmingham City University / Students Union and Impacts Register Waste Production of non - hazardous waste Production of hazardous waste Storage of non - hazardous waste Potential for waste to be disposed

More information

Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping.

Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping. Sewage Discharge in Estuaries: The case for Trapping. Group N- Sarah Wrigley, Bryony Wood, Laura Wicks, Helen Whiting, Daniel Wood, David Willock, Nicholas Wilson, Joanna Williams, Luke Warwick and Alex

More information

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) A guide for developers We are the Environment Agency. It s our job to look after your environment and make it a better place for you, and for future generations. Your

More information

Chapter 2. The Nitrogen Cycle

Chapter 2. The Nitrogen Cycle Chapter 2 Plants need at least seventeen elements to grow. Three of these elements carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen are referred to as "building blocks." Plants get these elements from air and water. The other

More information

The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)].

The concentration of water is a constant so we can combine it with Keq by dividing both sides of the equation by [H2O(l)]. Dissolved Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Every atmospheric gas is in equilibrium with that gas dissolved in ocean water. The concentrations of two of these are particularly important. The concentration of oxygen

More information

Syllabus for Course work for Ph. D. Environment Science and Technology

Syllabus for Course work for Ph. D. Environment Science and Technology Syllabus for Course work for Ph. D. Environment Science and Technology 1 Title: Course work for PhD Environmental Science Nature of the Course- The course work will consist of three papers: 1. Tools and

More information

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil. Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

More information

Standard methods in water analysis

Standard methods in water analysis Branch General analytical laboratories; water analysis Keywords Water analysis; standard methods; ASTM; DIN; ISO; USP; EPA; SLMB; EN; SCA; titration; ion chromatography; voltammetry; branch 1; branch 2

More information

2013 Summit Lake Water Quality Report Prepared by Thurston County Environmental Health Division

2013 Summit Lake Water Quality Report Prepared by Thurston County Environmental Health Division 13 Summit Lake Water Quality Report Prepared by Thurston County Environmental Health Division PART OF TOTTEN INLET WATERSHED LENGTH OF LAKE:. miles SHORELINE LENGTH: 5. miles LAKE SIZE: 53 acres BASIN

More information

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS?

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories Inc. Kearney, NE Commercial fertilizer is a source of plant nutrients that can be applied to soil to nourish crops when the

More information

4. Environmental Impacts Assessment and Remediation Targets

4. Environmental Impacts Assessment and Remediation Targets 4. Environmental Impacts Assessment and Remediation Targets 4.1 Environmental Impacts Significant additional development in the Alder Creek watershed is not anticipated at this time; however, there are

More information

Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with

Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with Water Treatment Filtration Lab Brandon Lyons P.5 APES Abstract: How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life when it is discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water

More information

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers

Ecosystem Ecology. Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems. Productivity and energy. Autotrophs: primary producers Heterotrophs: consumers Ecosystem Ecology 1. Overview of material and energy flows in ecosystems 2. Primary production 3. Secondary production and trophic efficiency 4. Ecological Pyramids Trophic levels energy flow through ecosystems

More information

Hydrological and Material Cycle Simulation in Lake Biwa Basin Coupling Models about Land, Lake Flow, and Lake Ecosystem

Hydrological and Material Cycle Simulation in Lake Biwa Basin Coupling Models about Land, Lake Flow, and Lake Ecosystem Sengupta, M. and Dalwani, R. (Editors). 2008. Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12 th World Lake Conference: 819-823 Hydrological and Material Cycle Simulation in Lake Biwa Basin Coupling Models about Land,

More information

Quantification of Reactive Phosphorus in Lake Mendota Sediments

Quantification of Reactive Phosphorus in Lake Mendota Sediments Quantification of Reactive Phosphorus in Lake Mendota Sediments By: Jeremy, Advisor Dr. Mike Penn Most of the phosphorus (P) that enters lakes from external inputs is attached to soil or sediment. This

More information

Issue: 2 Adopted by Council: 20/02/07. Directorate of Environment and Regeneration Planning Services

Issue: 2 Adopted by Council: 20/02/07. Directorate of Environment and Regeneration Planning Services Issue: 2 Adopted by Council: 20/02/07 Directorate of Environment and Regeneration Planning Services LOCAL PLANNIING GUIIDANCE NOTE NO..19:: SUSTAIINABLE DRAIINAGE SYSTEMS Background The provision of adequate

More information

CHAPTER II SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ELEMENT

CHAPTER II SURFACE WATER MANAGEMENT ELEMENT CHAPTER II TABLE OF CONTENTS Objective 1-Master Stormwater Management Plan Implementation... 1 Objective 2- Meeting Future Needs... 5 Objective 3- Concurrency Management... 6 Objective 4- Natural Drainage

More information

Pond Remediation Case Study Chatham: Assessment & Selection of Alum Treatment for Lovers Lake & Stillwater Pond

Pond Remediation Case Study Chatham: Assessment & Selection of Alum Treatment for Lovers Lake & Stillwater Pond Pond Remediation Case Study Chatham: Assessment & Selection of Alum Treatment for Lovers Lake & Stillwater Pond 2 nd Annual Cape Coastal Conference June 5-6, 2014 Robert A. Duncanson, Ph.D. Town of Chatham

More information

Artificial Floating Islands: Creating artificial ecosystems for habitat restoration

Artificial Floating Islands: Creating artificial ecosystems for habitat restoration Artificial Floating Islands: Creating artificial ecosystems for habitat restoration Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are human-made floating structures capable of supporting aquatic vegetation. The idea

More information

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From?

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From? What Is Humic Acid? Humic and Fulvic acids are the final break-down constituents of the natural decay of plant and animal materials. These organic acids are found in pre-historic deposits. Humic matter

More information

BOD / CBOD FROM A TO Z. Amy Starkey Stark County Sanitary Engineers

BOD / CBOD FROM A TO Z. Amy Starkey Stark County Sanitary Engineers BOD / CBOD FROM A TO Z Amy Starkey Stark County Sanitary Engineers What is BOD???? What is BOD? It is a measure of the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic materials.

More information

WATER AND DEVELOPMENT Vol. II - Types Of Environmental Models - R. A. Letcher and A. J. Jakeman

WATER AND DEVELOPMENT Vol. II - Types Of Environmental Models - R. A. Letcher and A. J. Jakeman TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS R. A. Letcher and A. J. Jakeman Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, The Australian National University, Australia Keywords: environmental models, environmental

More information

13.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND

13.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND 13.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND Sl. No. Contents Preamble 13.1 Aim 13.2 Introduction 13.2.1 Environmental Significance 13.3 Principle 13.4 Materials Required 13.4.1 Apparatus

More information

1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria

1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria 1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria 1.7.1 Introduction These guidelines set out standards for evaluating and processing proposed modifications of the 100- year floodplain with the following objectives:

More information

Land Application of Drilling Fluids: Landowner Considerations

Land Application of Drilling Fluids: Landowner Considerations SCS-2009-08 Land Application of Drilling Fluids: Landowner Considerations Mark L. McFarland, Professor and Extension State Water Quality Specialist Sam E. Feagley, Professor and Extension State Environmental

More information

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to: Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements

More information

Septic System Installation Requirements. What is it?

Septic System Installation Requirements. What is it? Septic System Installation Requirements What is it? In order for septic systems to work effectively, they must be properly sited and installed. On-site installation requirements can help ensure proper

More information

Introduction to Nutrient Management, Nutrient Cycling and Regional Nutrient Balance Issues

Introduction to Nutrient Management, Nutrient Cycling and Regional Nutrient Balance Issues Introduction to Nutrient Management, Nutrient Cycling and Regional Nutrient Balance Issues 2005 Fundamentals of Nutrient Management Training Course Dec. 14-15 Tom Basden Ag. and Natural Resources WVU Extension

More information

Integrated Restoration Prioritization

Integrated Restoration Prioritization Integrated Restoration Prioritization Habitat Restoration and Environmental Monitoring Projects Section Restoration Services Division Definition Restoration Prioritization is a process of combining various

More information

Low Impact Development

Low Impact Development Low Impact Development for Linear Transportation Projects Disclaimer This project was developed through an Assistance Agreement under the U.S. EPA Office of Water 104 b(3) Program. It is intended for use

More information

Swimming Pool Maintenance. Information Packet

Swimming Pool Maintenance. Information Packet Swimming Pool Maintenance Information Packet Founded by Congress, Republic of Texas, 1839 Watershed Protection Department P.O. Box 1088, Austin, Texas 78767 Dear Pool Owner, Operator or Contractor: This

More information

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999 World Bank & Government of The Netherlands funded Training module # WQ - 28 Major Ions in Water New Delhi, September 1999 CSMRS Building, 4th Floor, Olof Palme Marg, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11 00 16 India

More information

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT

Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents Soil pollutant any factor which deteriorates

More information

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures.

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures. Page 16 of 87 3.3 Sample Collection, Storage and Preservation Figure 3 details required containers, sample volumes, preservation techniques, and holding times for proper sample collection. A discussion

More information

1.3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality

1.3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality 1.3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality Applicability and Approach...25 General Liquid Effluent Quality...26 Discharge to Surface Water...26 Discharge to Sanitary Sewer Systems...26 Land Application of

More information

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF FORESTRY AND WATER AFFAIRS. General Directorate of Water Management

REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF FORESTRY AND WATER AFFAIRS. General Directorate of Water Management REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF FORESTRY AND WATER AFFAIRS General Directorate of Water Management Content Institutional Structure Legal Arrangements River Basin Protection Action Plans and River Basin

More information

Great Pond Alum Treatment Final Report

Great Pond Alum Treatment Final Report Great Pond Alum Treatment Final Report Town of Eastham, Massachusetts EcoLogic LLC November 21, 2014 Great Pond Alum Treatment Introduction... 2 Chronology... 3 Water Quality Monitoring Results... 4 Pre-treatment

More information

The Nitrogen Cycle. What is Nitrogen? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle. How does the nitrogen cycle work?

The Nitrogen Cycle. What is Nitrogen? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle. How does the nitrogen cycle work? Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle Heather McGraw, Mandy Williams, Suzanne Heinzel, and Cristen Whorl, Give SIUE Permission to Put Our Presentation on E-reserve at Lovejoy Library. What is Nitrogen?

More information

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TURKISH COASTAL SITES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA

WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TURKISH COASTAL SITES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TURKISH COASTAL SITES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA The Mediterranean region, due to its climatic and geographical features, has been the home of many civilizations throughout history.

More information