1 Finance 4 growth FX & Export Finance Workshop Brian Colgan Irish Exporters Association 2015
2 Typical Bank Relationship Model What do they hope to achieve? To form a relationship to enable an understanding of your business to develop May have a sectoral focus to ensure an understanding of the dynamics in the sector Typically will have strategically placed commercial centres Decision making may be centralised
3 Business Banking- A relationship model
4 Commercial Banking - A Relationship Model Communication is key to productive relationships Early engagement with relationship manager is essential - Discuss possible new contract scenarios - Impact on finance requirements FX, working capital - know what supporting documentation will be required
5 Engagement ; Sales Asset Finance CEO Invoice financing Board CFO Relationship Manager Treasury Services Strategy COO Deposits Special Sectors
6 New Business Evaluate new business opportunities carefully: -ensure resources both human and financial are available to complete contract avoid overtrading - due diligence the contracts avoid onerous conditions that may preclude specific financing arrangements eg. Ban an assignment of debt - Is there significant margin? Don t chase turnover - will performance related security be required by your customer? - Other associated risks eg FX, managing receivables etc.
7 What do we want to achieve? Basic understanding of Trade finance products Funding implications credit policy Understanding the dynamics of currency markets Appreciation of Value at Risk Importance of a Treasury Policy
10 Open Account Trading Most common form of payment used More suitable for stable markets UK, Western Europe and the USA No bank involvement other than receiving funds Goods shipped with no guarantee of payment Importer gets immediate access to goods Exporters issues invoice and sends to importer Importer pays invoice when due. OR DOES HE? Remember to give correct BIC and IBAN for each currency used.
11 Documentary Collections Agreed in advance as part of the sales contract No bank guarantee involved Transaction initiated by exporter goods shipped to importer Entrusts related shipping documents to bank for collection of funds Exporters Bank sends documents to importers bank with instructions : - If no credit terms agreed > Release against payment only - If Credit terms agreed( i.e. 60 days after date of shipment) > Release against acceptance of Bill of Exchange Importer gets control of the goods Importer makes the decision on whether to pay!
12 Letter of Credit Issued in advance of shipment Cannot be cancelled without exporter s agreement (Irrevocable) Cannot be amended without exporter s agreement Unconfirmed letter of credit Confirmed letter of credit Possible to draw funds early Discounting Remember payment decision is based on documents presented by the exporter ( 99% correct is wrong!)
13 Cash in Advance Sounds ideal- no risk Competitive disadvantage Suitable in niche market Importer might not agree to such terms Partial payment in advance? May have to provide Advance Payment Guarantee - Failure to perform allows importer to recourse of advance Impact on credit facilities
14 Case Study SME ABC Ltd 8 Employees T/O 10 million p.a Domestic and European client base Actively seeking opportunities further afield
15 ABC Ltd Overdraft facility 250K Current balance 248K dr Negotiating with credit provider for increased Overdraft facilities or alternatives Domestic and European client base Dilemma How to finance further sales - How to manage payment risks - How to manager currency exposure
16 Success! Company is successful in winning Export Contract to China worth 500k!!
17 The Morning After What happens next??? What are the issues???
18 Issues. Working Capital Getting Paid Currency Exposure Hedge or not to Hedge Which product?
19 Issues- Lets look at these in order Working capital- How can ABC Ltd fund the new order? Increased Working Capital required now! Negotiations in train with Credit Provider Key information? Credit terms agreed at 60 days after shipment One shipment within 60 days of order
20 Working Capital Increased overdraft? Invoice discounting Credit Insurance Discounting Letter of credit * The initial negotiation of the contract should include a consideration of these alternatives
21 Trade finance Solution Use of discountable trade finance products to release working capital however this transaction will require working capital pre shipment. Multiple shipments may provide opportunities to release working capital throughout the duration of the deal? In practice most trade is conducted on an open account basis.
23 Currency Risk Identification Currency? Quantification How much and When? Sensitivity analysis- Value at risk? Product choice Knowledge?
24 Where do I start? A good framework is required - A treasury policy should lay down the parameters to manage the risks associated with the management of liquidity, funding and foreign exchange and interest rate risk. A policy will put discipline and clarity in place for all key personnel. The policy needs to be applied and monitored, across the business not just finance function
25 Treasury policy Identify responsibilities Who needs to do what? What are the guidelines?
26 Treasury Policy Co ordination between: Finance Sales Purchasing Credit control
27 Treasury Policy How much financing will be required? Have facilities ( if required) been arranged? Have discussions with credit providers commenced? Are there alternatives?
28 Treasury Policy- Management of the Exposure Volatility- information and awareness of currency movements Sensitivity the value at risk as a consequence of currency movement Policy- level of acceptable risk
29 EUR Vs USD (1- Year History)
30 EUR Vs USD ( 5-Yr History)
31 EUR Vs USD High Lows 2011 High Low Average High Low Average High Low Average High Low Average (to date) High Low Average
32 Foreign Exchange Risk Management of the Exposure Information- How do I get it? Cheaply? - Prices - Market Sentiment - Expectations - Speak to an expert Awareness What s going on? Discipline - Follow the policy, do not chase the rate Review the policy!
33 Product Choice Spot Forward contract (requires credit approval) Options (tendering) & may require a premium Keep it simple Talk to your treasury provider
34 Recap Questions Discussion
35 The Invoice Discounting Market In Ireland as at June ,932 businesses using ID or Factoring, total Funding 1.25bn In the UK ID is seen as integrated in supporting SME & Corporate sectors whereby 43,921 businesses use some form of ID, Factoring or Stock finance, total Funding 19.3bn Invoice Finance is increasingly being viewed as the norm for providing working capital vs. more traditional overdraft. As it provides a greater degree of flexibility to fund sales growth and is typically cheaper for facilities greater than 250k.
36 Invoice Discounting- What is it? An asset based finance product Releases cash tied up in trade debtors Secured by a first charge over the Book Debts Revolving facility no repayment schedule Purely a funding facility credit control remains with the client
37 Key benefits of an Invoice Discounting Facility Facility grows in line with Sales thereby supports sales growth of business Can typically release more funding than overdraft Is a revolving facility i.e. not repayable over a defined term Is often cheaper than an overdraft Generates additional MI for clients - debtor days, credit ratings of customers etc. Can be used for a number of different purposes, providing added value opportunities
38 Uses of Invoice Discounting Working capital Acquisitions / Mergers MBO s / MBI s Capital Expenditure Negotiate better trading terms with suppliers thereby avail of settlement discounts, bulk purchase of stock Can enable client to offer extended payment terms to customers Partially / fully replace overdraft, potentially providing a release of personal security
39 Typical Criteria within Ireland Irish or UK registered trading entity Selling on a B2B basis, on credit Satisfactory trading performance Satisfactory credit control processes, audit trail for invoices raised, quality & spread of customer base important Nature of trade critical some sectors more suitable than others.
40 Suitable Sectors Manufacturing Wholesale & Distribution Services Recruitment, temporary labour Haulage & Logistics Food & Drinks Generally - The more simple the nature of the business, the easier to provide funding on an invoice discounting basis
41 Unsuitable Sectors? Retail Construction Software Development / Project based work Marketing / Brand Development Maintenance Contractors Presence of potentially onerous contracts including Sale or Return, Stock rotation, staged billing, invoicing in advance, rebates, warranties, liquidated damages etc. These will need to be assessed by the Funder.
42 Bank / Funder Assessment Review the spread of the debtors report is there an over-reliance on a single customer? Assess ageing profile of the sales ledger debtor days? Review the Terms of Trade / Contracts, determine the complexity of the nature of trade Assess quality of debtors / previous bad debt history Assess credit note levels Assess robustness of the audit trail to support invoices raised
43 Funding Export Debt Invoice Finance can form one part of a suite of working capital facilities to help fund export trade i.e. can operate alongside Letters of Credit. Typically export debt is defined as sales to non Irish & non UK customers i.e. Irish Funders typically treat invoices raised to UK customers the same as those raised to Irish customers. Different Funders have different levels of Risk Appetite in this area disclosure of Facility to certain export customers can be required or the requirement of credit insurance is also common. Generally, sales to good quality debtors based in Europe / OECD are fundable.
44 Myths Vs Reality Myths Reality -Lender of Last resort -Lender of best potential, large UK / -Expensive -Cumbersome admin -Domestic debtors only US corporates commonly use this form of finance -Typically cheaper interest rates than o/d or term debt -Internet based systems, technology improving continuously, minimal paperwork -Export debtors can be funded too
45 Case Study Export Specialist manufacturer supplying into the medical and pharmaceutical sector Largest customer represents 50% of sales based in mainland Europe. All other debtors are based in ROI / UK Company approached bank for an increase in its existing overdraft ( 100k) to help fund the increased level of sales Company was subsequently offered a working capital facility, comprising of a 50k overdraft and a 200k Invoice Finance Facility
46 Case study contd. Invoice finance facility was offered as two alternatives - (i) Fund the European Debtor to 50% of the sales ledger balance operating the facility on a disclosed / confirmed basis Or -(ii) Fund the European debtor to 30% of the sales ledger balance but on a confidential basis In both instances the provision of credit insurance was not required due to the strong credit rating of the debtor
47 Thank you! Brian Colgan Head of the National Export Hub Irish Exporters Association
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