# Finance for Cultural Organisations Lecture 5. Interest Rates and Bond Valuation

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1 Finance for Cultural Organisations Lecture 5. Interest Rates and Bond Valuation

2 Lecture 5: Interest Rates and Bond Valuation Know the important bond features and bond types Understand bond values and why they fluctuate Understand bond ratings and what they mean Understand the impact of inflation on interest rates Understand the term structure of interest rates and the determinants of bond yields Reading RWJ Ch7, HBP Ch5,6. 2

3 Bond Definitions Bond Par value (face value) Coupon rate Coupon payment Maturity date Yield or Yield to maturity

4 Present Value of Cash Flows as Rates Change Bond Value = PV of coupons + PV of par Bond Value = PV of annuity + PV of lump sum Remember, as interest rates increase present values decrease So, as interest rates increase, bond prices decrease and vice versa

5 Valuing a Discount Bond with Annual Coupons Consider a bond with a coupon rate of 10% and annual coupons. The par value is \$1,000 and the bond has 5 years to maturity. The yield to maturity is 11%. What is the value of the bond? B = PV of annuity + PV of lump sum B = 100[1 1/(1.11) 5 ] / ,000 / (1.11) 5 B = =

6 Valuing a Premium Bond with Annual Coupons Suppose you are looking at a bond that has a 10% annual coupon and a face value of \$1000. There are 20 years to maturity and the yield to maturity is 8%. What is the price of this bond? B = PV of annuity + PV of lump sum B = 100[1 1/(1.08) 20 ] / / (1.08) 20 B = =

7 Graphical Relationship Between Price and Yieldto-maturity (YTM) Bond Price % 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% Yield-to-maturity (YTM)

8 Bond Prices: Relationship Between Coupon and Yield If YTM = coupon rate, then par value = bond price If YTM > coupon rate, then par value > bond price Why? The discount provides yield above coupon rate Price below par value, called a discount bond If YTM < coupon rate, then par value < bond price Why? Higher coupon rate causes value above par Price above par value, called a premium bond

9 The Bond Pricing Equation Bond Value = 1- C 1 (1+ r r) t + F (1+ r) t

10 Interest Rate Risk Price Risk Change in price due to changes in interest rates Long-term bonds have more price risk than short-term bonds Low coupon rate bonds have more price risk than high coupon rate bonds Reinvestment Rate Risk Uncertainty concerning rates at which cash flows can be reinvested Short-term bonds have more reinvestment rate risk than longterm bonds High coupon rate bonds have more reinvestment rate risk than low coupon rate bonds

11 Figure 7.2

12 Computing Yield-to-maturity Yield-to-maturity is the rate implied by the current bond price Finding the YTM requires trial and error if you do not have a financial calculator and is similar to the process for finding r with an annuity If you have a financial calculator, enter N, PV, PMT, and FV, remembering the sign convention (PMT and FV need to have the same sign, PV the opposite sign)

13 YTM with Annual Coupons Consider a bond with a 10% annual coupon rate, 15 years to maturity and a par value of \$1,000. The current price is \$ Will the yield be more or less than 10%? N = 15; PV = ; FV = 1,000; PMT = 100 CPT I/Y = 11%

14 YTM with Semiannual Coupons Suppose a bond with a 10% coupon rate and semiannual coupons, has a face value of \$1,000, 20 years to maturity and is selling for \$1, Is the YTM more or less than 10%? What is the semiannual coupon payment? How many periods are there? N = 40; PV = -1,197.93; PMT = 50; FV = 1,000; CPT I/Y = 4% (Is this the YTM?) YTM = 4%*2 = 8%

15 Table 7.1

16 Current Yield vs. Yield to Maturity Current Yield = annual coupon / price Yield to maturity = current yield + capital gains yield Example: 10% coupon bond, with semiannual coupons, face value of 1,000, 20 years to maturity, \$1, price Current yield = 100 / 1, =.0835 = 8.35% Price in one year, assuming no change in YTM = 1, Capital gain yield = (1, ,197.93) / 1, = = -.35% YTM = = 8%, which the same YTM computed earlier

17 Bond Pricing Theorems Bonds of similar risk (and maturity) will be priced to yield about the same return, regardless of the coupon rate If you know the price of one bond, you can estimate its YTM and use that to find the price of the second bond This is a useful concept that can be transferred to valuing assets other than bonds

18 Bond Prices with a Spreadsheet There is a specific formula for finding bond prices on a spreadsheet PRICE(Settlement,Maturity,Rate,Yld,Redemption, Frequency,Basis) YIELD(Settlement,Maturity,Rate,Pr,Redemption, Frequency,Basis) Settlement and maturity need to be actual dates The redemption and Pr need to be input as % of par value

19 Differences Between Debt and Equity Debt Not an ownership interest Creditors do not have voting rights Interest is considered a cost of doing business and is tax deductible Creditors have legal recourse if interest or principal payments are missed Excess debt can lead to financial distress and bankruptcy Equity Ownership interest Common stockholders vote for the board of directors and other issues Dividends are not considered a cost of doing business and are not tax deductible Dividends are not a liability of the firm and stockholders have no legal recourse if dividends are not paid An all equity firm can not go bankrupt merely due to debt since it has no debt

20 The Bond Indenture Contract between the company and the bondholders that includes The basic terms of the bonds The total amount of bonds issued A description of property used as security, if applicable Sinking fund provisions Call provisions Details of protective covenants

21 Bond Classifications Registered vs. Bearer Forms Security Collateral secured by financial securities Mortgage secured by real property, normally land or buildings Debentures unsecured Notes unsecured debt with original maturity less than 10 years Seniority

22 Bond Characteristics and Required Returns The coupon rate depends on the risk characteristics of the bond when issued Which bonds will have the higher coupon, all else equal? Secured debt versus a debenture Subordinated debenture versus senior debt A bond with a sinking fund versus one without A callable bond versus a non-callable bond

23 Bond Ratings Investment Quality High Grade Moody s Aaa and S&P AAA capacity to pay is extremely strong Moody s Aa and S&P AA capacity to pay is very strong Medium Grade Moody s A and S&P A capacity to pay is strong, but more susceptible to changes in circumstances Moody s Baa and S&P BBB capacity to pay is adequate, adverse conditions will have more impact on the firm s ability to pay

24 Bond Ratings - Speculative Low Grade Moody s Ba, B, Caa and Ca S&P BB, B, CCC, CC Considered speculative with respect to capacity to pay. The B ratings are the lowest degree of speculation. Very Low Grade Moody s C and S&P C income bonds with no interest being paid Moody s D and S&P D in default with principal and interest in arrears

25 Government Bonds Treasury Securities Federal government debt T-bills pure discount bonds with original maturity of one year or less T-notes coupon debt with original maturity between one and ten years T-bonds coupon debt with original maturity greater than ten years Municipal Securities Debt of state and local governments Varying degrees of default risk, rated similar to corporate debt Interest received is tax-exempt at the federal level

26 Example A taxable bond has a yield of 8% and a municipal bond has a yield of 6% If you are in a 40% tax bracket, which bond do you prefer? 8%(1 -.4) = 4.8% The after-tax return on the corporate bond is 4.8%, compared to a 6% return on the municipal At what tax rate would you be indifferent between the two bonds? 8%(1 T) = 6% T = 25%

27 Zero Coupon Bonds Make no periodic interest payments (coupon rate = 0%) The entire yield-to-maturity comes from the difference between the purchase price and the par value Cannot sell for more than par value Sometimes called zeroes, deep discount bonds, or original issue discount bonds (OIDs) Treasury Bills and principal-only Treasury strips are good examples of zeroes

28 Floating-Rate Bonds Coupon rate floats depending on some index value Examples adjustable rate mortgages and inflation-linked Treasuries There is less price risk with floating rate bonds The coupon floats, so it is less likely to differ substantially from the yield-to-maturity Coupons may have a collar the rate cannot go above a specified ceiling or below a specified floor

29 Other Bond Types Disaster bonds Income bonds Convertible bonds Put bonds There are many other types of provisions that can be added to a bond and many bonds have several provisions it is important to recognize how these provisions affect required returns

30 Bond Markets Primarily over-the-counter transactions with dealers connected electronically Extremely large number of bond issues, but generally low daily volume in single issues Makes getting up-to-date prices difficult, particularly on small company or municipal issues Treasury securities are an exception

31 Inflation and Interest Rates Real rate of interest change in purchasing power Nominal rate of interest quoted rate of interest, change in purchasing power, and inflation The ex ante nominal rate of interest includes our desired real rate of return plus an adjustment for expected inflation

32 The Fisher Effect The Fisher Effect defines the relationship between real rates, nominal rates, and inflation (1 + R) = (1 + r)(1 + h), where R = nominal rate r = real rate h = expected inflation rate Approximation R = r + h

33 Example If we require a 10% real return and we expect inflation to be 8%, what is the nominal rate? R = (1.1)(1.08) 1 =.188 = 18.8% Approximation: R = 10% + 8% = 18% Because the real return and expected inflation are relatively high, there is significant difference between the actual Fisher Effect and the approximation.

34 Term Structure of Interest Rates Term structure is the relationship between time to maturity and yields, all else equal It is important to recognize that we pull out the effect of default risk, different coupons, etc. Yield curve graphical representation of the term structure Normal upward-sloping, long-term yields are higher than short-term yields Inverted downward-sloping, long-term yields are lower than short-term yields

35 Figure 7.6 Upward-Sloping Yield Curve

36 Figure 7.6 Downward-Sloping Yield Curve

37 Figure 7.7

38 Factors Affecting Bond Yields Default risk premium remember bond ratings Taxability premium remember municipal versus taxable Liquidity premium bonds that have more frequent trading will generally have lower required returns Anything else that affects the risk of the cash flows to the bondholders will affect the required returns

39 Quick Quiz How do you find the value of a bond and why do bond prices change? What is a bond indenture and what are some of the important features? What are bond ratings and why are they important? How does inflation affect interest rates? What is the term structure of interest rates? What factors determine the required return on bonds?

40 Comprehensive Problem What is the price of a \$1,000 par value bond with a 6% coupon rate paid semiannually, if the bond is priced to yield 5% YTM, and it has 9 years to maturity? What would be the price of the bond if the yield rose to 7%. What is the current yield on the bond if the YTM is 7%?

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