Overview of Network Interface Types, Configurations, and Best Practices on IBM DataPower Gateway Firmware Version 7.1

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1 IBM Software Group Overview of Network Interface Types, Configurations, and Best Practices on IBM DataPower Gateway Firmware Version 7.1 Phil Johnson Chris Sloan IBM DataPower Software Engineers 8/26/2015 WebSphere Support Technical Exchange Click to add text

2 Agenda Network Interface Types and Configuration Network Settings Routing Table Standby Control Common Gotchas WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 2

3 Shared Interface Settings IP Configuration Mode: Static (most common) Manually define IP, static routes, and gateways. DHCP Automatic configuration and assignment of IPv4 address and routing. SLAAC Automatic configuration and assignment of IPv6 address and routing. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 3

4 Shared Interface Settings Primary IP Address: The IP address in CIDR format. Secondary IP Addresses: Any additional IP addresses to be configured on the interface. IPv4 and IPv6 default gateways: The default gateway used to route traffic if no static route is defined. The gateway must be in the same subnet as the primary IP. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 4

5 Shared Interface Settings Static Routes: Provide a route to a specific destination host range Multiple Static routes can be configured for an interface. The next hop gateway must be in the same subnet. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 5

6 Ethernet Interfaces Machine Types 7199, 7188 & 8436 (Physical): Refers to the physical interfaces (1g and 10g interface ports) Machine Type 5725-T09 (Virtual): Refers to the configuration of the virtual NICs on the device (default is 4) The interface configuration options are the same for physical and virtual DataPower devices. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 6

7 WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 7

8 Ethernet Interfaces Advanced Tab MAC Address: Use the NIC's burned-in MAC address by default. Users have the ability to use a custom unicast 48-bit hex MAC address, where the first byte must be even Physical mode: Typically use Auto to negotiate to determine the best speed & duplex. Manually set the physical mode on both ends of the link if there is a problem with Auto WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 8

9 Ethernet Interfaces Advanced Tab Offload Processing to Hardware: By default DataPower offloads TCP/IP processing of packets to the NIC to improve performance using Generic Segmentation Offload (GSO). IPv6 DAD attempts: Number of times DataPower will check for duplicate IPv6 addresses. IPv6 neighbor discovery delay: Delay between attempts to determine the linklayer address of a neighbor on the same (local link) network, verify the reachability of a neighbor, and track neighboring devices. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 9

10 WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 10

11 VLAN Interfaces Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) are logical Ethernet networks. There can be several VLANs configured on a single interface Frames are modified with a VLAN tag Switches must be configured to trunk mode in order to use VLAN interfaces VLANs allow for reduced necessity of phyisical interface configuration. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 11

12 [$34540DD2BF17598B.jpg] WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 12

13 Link Aggregation Interfaces Benefits of Link Aggregation: Throughput Both transmit-based and LACP can increase throughput potential. Transmit-based distributes outgoing traffic among all links. LACP can use all links for incoming and outgoing traffic. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 13

14 Link Aggregation Interfaces Redundancy Eliminates a common single point of failure, which is the uplink to a switch. This single point of failure could be caused by the appliance NIC, the physical cable, or the switch/switch port. These can all be eliminated as a single point of failure by using link aggregation. All 3 types of aggregation can handle failover of a single interface/link. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 14

15 Link Aggregation Interfaces Aggregation Mode: Active-backup: One link is active and the other links are backup. If the active link is lost, switches to a backup link. Transmit: A single link for incoming traffic, distributes outgoing traffic among all links. LACP: Requires LACP support on switch. Provides automatic failover and can use the throughput of all links. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 15

16 Link Aggregation Interfaces Ethernet Links: The list of ethernet interfaces to be used in the aggregation. After adding the interface to the aggregation, the option enable for link aggregation must be on for the ethernet interface. The ethernet interfaces used can not be part of another link aggregation or part of a VLAN interface. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 16

17 [$34540DD2BF17598B.jpg] WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 17

18 Network Settings Block nonmanagement traffic for invalid interface configuration New to version and up When enabled (recommended) the appliance will not accept service traffic if there is an invalid interface configuration. Disable ICMP Can disable the appliance responding to ICMP requests. The specific types are Echo, Timestamp, Information, and Address Mask. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 18

19 Network Settings Disable ECN (default: off): Controls if ECN-capable sessions are used. ECN is used for communicating network congestion. Enable destination-based routing (default: off): This should only be enabled for backwards compatibility if necessary. When on, the appliance will respond to client requests from any interface instead of the receiving interface. Relax interface isolation (default: on): Allows packets to be received as long as the interface contains an IP in the same subnet. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 19

20 Network Settings Disable interface isolation (default: off): When set to off, packets are only accepted if the destination is explicitly configured on that interface. TCP attempts: The number of times a TCP SYN is retried when there is no response. ARP attempts: The number of times a failed ARP is retried. ARP attempt interval: Number of milliseconds between ARP attempts. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 20

21 Network Settings Enable reverse path filtering (default: off): When off, the interface accepts packets with a source address it cannot route. When on, packets with a non-routable source address are ignored. This must be off to use standby control. Enable TCP window scaling (default: on): Allows window scalling, which can negotiate window sizes greater than 64 KB. Starting ephemeral port: The lowest port used for outbound TCP/UDP connections. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 21

22 [$34540DD2BF17598B.jpg] WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 22

23 Routing Table When traffic is bound for a destination IP which is outside the local network of the configured interfaces, DataPower will look to the routing table to determine the next hop. Routes are pointed to gateways, which act as access points to traffic entering and exiting the local network. Without proper routing, traffic cannot find it's destination and can cause outages WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 23

24 Routing Table If no static route is a match for the destination IP, DataPower will use the default route. A static route of ' ' is the same as a default route. There is a route added automatically for local traffic which is created automatically when an IP/Subnet is defined for an interface. Local traffic does not leave the subnet. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 24

25 Routing Table Default Route: The default route is a catch-all route which typically points to the Internet. A default route should only be configured if one exists for the network (check with your networking team) There should be one default route configured for all interfaces on the device. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 25

26 Routing Table Static Routes: Used to route traffic via specific interfaces. Static routes are matched first based on prefix length, with 32 being the most specific. In the case of a tie, the metric is used. The lower the metric, the higher the priority. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 26

27 [$34540DD2BF17598B.jpg] WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 27

28 Standby Control Can be enabled on all interface types (ethernet, VLAN, and link aggregation). A standby group is a collection of interfaces on different appliances which share responsibility for a single virtual IP (VIP). As long as one interface from the group is up, the VIP will accept traffic. This provides increase failover capabilities and reduces single points of failure in the topology. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 28

29 Standby Control Group Number: The standby group number in the multicast domain. This number must be unique per multicast domain. Primary virtual IP address: The IP address used by the active group member. Secondary virtual IP addresses: Additional VIPs which can be used for handling incoming traffic. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 29

30 Standby Control Enable Preemption (default: off): When preemption is enabled, the highest priority interface will takeover traffic when it rejoins the group. This forces more failovers than necessary and is recommended to be disabled. Priority: Each interface in a group is assigned a priority. The interface with the highest priority seeks to be the active member. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 30

31 Standby Control Authentication Data: Used to authenticate if the interface is a member of the group. All members must use the same token. Hello Timer: The frequency to broadcast hello messages, which are used to gauge member's status. Hold Timer: The duration to wait before attempting failover. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 31

32 WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 32

33 Common Gotchas Multiple Default Routes Can lead to unexpected routing and ultimately failed connections. IP Conflicts Most common when importing a backup from another environment. Half-Duplex Physical Mode Setting Can lead to collisions, resulting in lost data/packets. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 33

34 Common Gotchas No static routes or default gateway defined for an interface This results in the interface only being able to communicate with other nodes in the same subnet. Simple typos in IPs, subnet masks, and gateways. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 34

35 Summary Network Interface Types and Configuration Ethernet, VLAN, and link aggregation interfaces provide multiple ways to configure the applaince to handle network traffic. Network Settings There are a lot of appliance wide settings which can be tweaked. These are generally recommended to be left as the default unless the change is needed for a specific use case. Routing Table The routing table controls how network traffic communication is handled by the appliance. This relies on static routes and default gateways to determine the approriate interface to use for communication. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 35

36 Summary Standby Control DataPower offers standby control, which can provide high availability and failover at the network interface level between a group of appliances. Common Gotchas Ensure your routing table is configured as expected. It is recommended to work with your network team as there are likely normal setups depending on your environment. When exporting/importing configuration ensure that IPs are changed to prevent duplicate IP conflicts. Beware of small typos which may not fail when entered, but can cause unexpected network behavior. WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 36

37 DataPower Links The difference between "default" and static routes on the DataPower appliance Troubleshooting intermittent network errors on DataPower IBM DataPower Handbook Volume II: DataPower Networking: Second Edition (Volume 2) WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 37

38 Connect with us! 1. Get notified on upcoming webcasts Send an to with subject line wste subscribe to get a list of mailing lists and to subscribe 2. Tell us what you want to learn Send us suggestions for future topics or improvements about our webcasts to WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 38

39 Questions and Answers WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 39

40 Additional WebSphere Product Resources Learn about upcoming WebSphere Support Technical Exchange webcasts, and access previously recorded presentations at: Discover the latest trends in WebSphere Technology and implementation, participate in technically-focused briefings, webcasts and podcasts at: Join the Global WebSphere Community: Access key product show-me demos and tutorials by visiting IBM Education Assistant: View a webcast replay with step-by-step instructions for using the Service Request (SR) tool for submitting problems electronically: Sign up to receive weekly technical My Notifications s: WebSphere Support Technical Exchange 40

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