Geologic Structures. Folds on the Island of Crete

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1 Geologic Structures Folds on the Island of Crete

2 Geologic Structures Geologic structures are dynamically-produced patterns or arrangements of rock or sediment that result from, and give information about, forces within the Earth Structures are produced as rocks change shape and orientation in response to applied stress Namibia, Africa

3 a) Compressive Rocks are squeezed Types of Stress Stress = force per unit area (that which causes rocks to deform) Strain = deformation in response to stress Results in shortening or flattening b) Tensile Rocks are pulled apart Results in stretching and elongation c) Shear Rocks are sheared Results in a sort of smearing Geologic structures are indicative of the type of stress and its rate of application, as well as the physical properties of the rocks or sediments a b c

4 a) Elastic strain Stress and Strain The type of rock, the temperature and pressure, and the rate of stress all influence how a rock will accommodate strain When stressed, rocks can behave with: Occurs when material recovers its initial shape after the stress is reduced or removed b) Ductile (Plastic) strain Occurs when the rock bends but doesn t break c) Brittle strain Occurs when the rock breaks rather than bending Geologic structures are indicative of the type of stress and its rate of application, as well as the physical properties of the rocks or sediments Compressional waves (p waves) in an earthquake Brittle strain Ductile strain

5 a) Folding Responses to Stress Produced by compressive stress on ductile rocks a b) Faulting b Produced by any type of stress on brittle rocks Or both!

6 Responses to Stress c) Tilted beds Danxia Landform, China Related to faulting and folding Deformation can change the orientation of rock layers Cocked Hat mountain, Brooks Range, AK

7 Responses to Stress d) Jointing Can form in response to any type of stress or as a result of cooling Fractures in a rock along which no movement has occurred Often promotes weathering since joints provide access for water Giants Causeway, County Antrim, Northern Ireland

8 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Axial Plane = plane of symmetry Fold axis (hinge line) = surface trace of axial plane Fold limb STRESS STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Fold limb Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

9 Folds What kind of fold is this?

10 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

11 Folds What kind of fold is this?

12 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

13 Folds What kind of fold is this?

14 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

15 Folds What kind of fold is this?

16 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

17 Folds What kind of fold is this?

18 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

19 Folds What kind of fold is this?

20 Folds Wavelike bends in a layered rock Formed by COMPRESSIVE STRESS Monocline Anticline Looks like an A Syncline Overturned anticline and syncline

21 Faults Fractures along which movement has occurred Formed by ANY KIND of STRESS Hanging wall Hanging wall Footwall Footwall

22 Types of Faults Faults are considered active if movement has occurred along them within the last 11,000 years. Dip-slip faults have movement parallel to the dip of the fault plane In normal faults, the hanging-wall block has moved down relative to the footwall block In reverse faults, the hanging-wall block has moved up relative to the footwall block

23 Types of Faults Strike-slip faults have movement that is predominantly horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault plane A viewer looking across to the other side of a right-lateral strike-slip fault would observe it to be offset to their right A viewer looking across to the other side of a left-lateral strike-slip fault would observe it to be offset to their left Right-lateral San Andreas Fault

24 Types of Faults Dip-slip faults have movement parallel to the dip of the fault plane Fault blocks, bounded by normal faults, that drop down or are uplifted are known as grabens and horsts, respectively Grabens associated with divergent plate boundaries are called rifts Thrust faults are reverse faults with dip angles less than 30 from horizontal

25 Faults What kind of faults? Which is the hanging wall? The footwall? Right or left lateral?

26 Normal faults, upper right side is the hanging wall

27 Right lateral, strike slip fault

28 Thrust fault (reverse fault)

29 Graben, normal faulting

30 Reverse Fault

31 Left lateral, strike slip fault What does she want to know? How to keep track? Or the organization of it by the Borough? They haven t announced this year s yet, but it should start in May I believe (although this year they could probably start in April). How s the binding coming?

32 Orientation of Geologic Structures Geologic structures are most obvious in deformed sedimentary rocks Tilted beds, joints, and faults are planar features whose orientation is described by their strike and dip Strike is the compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of an inclined plane with a horizontal plane Dip is the direction and angle from horizontal in which a plane is oriented

33 WHAT KIND OF ROCK IS THIS?? Rock Identification Review Karri Sicard & Trish Gallagher Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS)

34 Sedimentary, Igneous, or Metamorphic? Key vocabulary Clasts Broken pieces of rock or minerals Amorphous you can see no crystals or clasts Examples: obsidian volcanic glass, chert silicious ooze Crystals another word for mineral, all different shapes Matrix the background that the minerals or rocks are in Lets Practice!

35 ROCK TYPE Flow Chart

36 Sedimentary, Igneous, or Metamorphic? It's an Igneous Rock if It has a bubbly, frothy or glassy texture It is fine-grained, uniform and hard It contains bubble-like cavities that may be lined with minerals It s a Sedimentary Rock if It is soft enough to be scratched by a knife It is obviously made up of different particles It contains fossils, bedded layers, rounded clasts It s a Metamorphic Rock if It has a fine, uniform texture It contains obvious streaks or clumps of minerals It is made mostly of quartz or calcite It contains minerals like garnet

37 Identifying Sedimentary Rocks

38 Igneous Rocks Based on mineral ID! Mafic vs. Felsic

39 Metamorphic Rocks

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