2 Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base.
3 Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important differences between RNA and DNA: RNA DNA SUGAR Ribose Deoxyribose STRANDS Single Double BASE Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine These chemical differences make it easy for the enzymes in the cell to tell DNA and RNA apart.
4 Comparing RNA and DNA (Do not write) The roles played by DNA and RNA are similar to the master plans and blueprints used by builders. A master plan has all the information needed to construct a building. Builders never bring a valuable master plan to the building site, where it might be damaged or lost. Instead, they prepare inexpensive, disposable copies of the master plan called blueprints. Similarly, the cell uses DNA master plan to prepare RNA blueprints. The DNA molecule stays safely in the cell s nucleus, while RNA molecules go to the protein-building sites in the cytoplasm the ribosomes.
5 Functions of RNA The three main types of RNA are: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
6 Messenger RNA messenger RNA (mrna): They carry information from DNA to other parts of the cell.
7 Ribosomal RNA RNA found in ribosomes that help assemble proteins.
8 Transfer RNA carries each amino acid to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mrna message.
9 Transcription Most of the work of making RNA takes place during transcription. During transcription, DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules. VHPQM GY EAo Search for video using DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly (by gaylan guevara)
10 Transcription Transcription requires an enzyme, known as RNA polymerase, that is similar to DNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription and attaches the complementary base pairs. A=U, T=A, C=G, G=C
11 Promoters RNA polymerase binds only to promoters. Promoters are: regions of DNA that have specific base sequences signals in the DNA molecule that show RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA.
12 RNA Editing RNA molecules sometimes require bits and pieces to be cut out of them before they can go into action. Introns: the portions of premrna that are cut out and discarded. In eukaryotes, introns are taken out of pre-mrna molecules while they are still in the nucleus. exons: the remaining pieces of mrna that are spliced back together to form the final mrna. olio.htm Animation video
13 RNA Editing Biologists don t have a complete answer as to why cells use energy to make a large RNA molecule and then throw parts of that molecule away. Some pre-mrna molecules may be cut and spliced in different ways in different tissues, making it possible for a single gene to produce several different forms of RNA.
14 Lesson Overview 13.2 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
15 The Genetic Code The first step in decoding genetic messages is to transcribe DNA to RNA. This transcribed information contains a code for making proteins.
16 The Genetic Code Proteins are made by joining amino acids together into long chains, called polypeptides. As many as 20 different amino acids are commonly found in polypeptides.
17 The Genetic Code RNA contains four different bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. These bases form a language, or genetic code, with just four letters : A, C, G, and U.
18 The Genetic Code Each three-letter word in mrna is known as a codon. A codon consists of three consecutive bases that specify a single amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.
19 How to Read Codons Because there are four different bases in RNA, there are 64 possible three-base codons (4 4 4 = 64) in the genetic code. This circular table shows the amino acid to which each of the 64 codons corresponds. To read a codon, start at the middle of the circle and move outward.
20 How to Read Codons Most amino acids can be specified by more than one codon. For example, six different codons UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG specify leucine. But only one codon UGG specifies the amino acid tryptophan.
21 Start and Stop Codons The genetic code has punctuation marks. The methionine codon AUG serves as the initiation, or start, codon for protein synthesis. Following the start codon, mrna is read, three bases at a time, until it reaches one of three different stop codons, which end translation.
25 Translation The decoding of an mrna message into a protein is a process known as translation.
26 Steps in Translation Translation begins when a ribosome attaches to an mrna molecule in the cytoplasm. As the ribosome reads each codon of mrna, it directs trna to bring the specified amino acid into the ribosome. One at a time, the ribosome then attaches each amino acid to the growing chain.
27 Steps in Translation Each trna molecule carries just one kind of amino acid. In addition, each trna molecule has three unpaired bases, collectively called the anticodon which is complementary to one mrna codon. The trna molecule for methionine has the anticodon UAC, which pairs with the methionine codon, AUG.
28 Steps in Translation The polypeptide chain continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mrna molecule. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases both the newly formed polypeptide and the mrna molecule, completing the process of translation. Transcription and translation video lhh20rgy bgkpeao vh4q_taky O6uRb1D38&list=PL60C69E2C64C2 9289
29 The Roles of trna and rrna in Translation Ribosomes are composed of roughly 80 proteins and three or four different rrna molecules. These rrna molecules a. hold ribosomal proteins in place b. locate the beginning of the mrna message. c. carry out the chemical reaction that joins amino acids together.
30 The Molecular Basis of Heredity What is the central dogma of molecular biology? The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein.
32 The Molecular Basis of Heredity Gene expression is the way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells. Despite their enormous diversity in form and function, living organisms display remarkable unity at life s most basic level, the molecular biology of the gene.
33 Lesson Overview 13.3 Mutations
34 Types of Mutations Cells sometimes make mistakes in copying their own DNA, inserting the wrong base or even skipping a base as a strand is put together. These variations are called mutations, from the Latin word mutare, meaning to change. Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information.
35 Types of Mutations All mutations fall into two basic categories: Gene Mutations: which produce changes in a single gene. Chromosomal Mutations: which produce changes in whole chromosomes. gene mutations chromosomal mutations
36 Gene Mutations point mutations- a type of gene mutations that occurs at a single point in the DNA sequence. They generally occur during replication. If a gene in one cell is altered, the alteration can be passed on to every cell that develops from the original one. Point mutations include substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
37 Substitutions A type of point mutation in which one base is changed to a different base. Substitutions usually affect no more than a single amino acid, and sometimes they have no effect at all. In this example, the base cytosine is replaced by the base thymine, resulting in a change in the mrna codon from CGU (arginine) to CAU (histidine). However, a change in the last base of the codon, from CGU to CGA for example, would still specify the amino acid arginine.
38 Insertions and Deletions These are point mutations in which one base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence. Insertions and deletions are also called frameshift mutations because they shift the reading frame of the genetic message. Frameshift mutations can change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation and can alter a protein so much that it is unable to perform its normal functions.
39 Point Mutation Video
40 Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal mutations involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. These mutations can change the location of genes on chromosomes and can even change the number of copies of some genes. There are four types of chromosomal mutations: deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation.
41 Chromosomal Mutations Deletion involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome.
42 Chromosomal Mutations Duplication produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome.
43 Chromosomal Mutations Inversion reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome.
44 Chromosomal Mutations Translocation occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another. Chromosomal mutation video GIED4Yo
45 Effects of Mutations Genetic material can be altered by natural events or by artificial means. Some mutations that affect individual organisms can also affect a species or even an entire ecosystem. Stressful environmental conditions may cause some bacteria to increase mutation rates. This can actually be helpful to the organism, since mutations may sometimes give such bacteria new traits, such as the ability to consume a new food source or to resist a poison in the environment.
46 Mutagens Mutagens chemical or physical agents in the environment that cause mutations. Chemical mutagens include certain pesticides, a few natural plant alkaloids, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollutants. Physical mutagens include some forms of electromagnetic radiation, such as X-rays and ultraviolet light. Causes of mutations video ch?v=0wrnxcgkcws
47 Harmful Effects Some of the most harmful mutations are those that dramatically change protein structure or gene activity. The defective proteins produced by these mutations can disrupt normal biological activities, and result in genetic disorders. Some cancers, ex. are the product of mutations that cause the uncontrolled growth of cells.
50 Harmful Effects Sickle cell- a disorder associated with changes in the shape of RBC. Normal RBC are round. Sickle cells are long and pointed. Sickle cell is caused by a point mutation. Among the symptoms of the disease are anemia, severe pain, frequent infections, and stunted growth.
51 Beneficial Effects For example, Insects being able to resist chemical pesticides. Microorganisms adapting to adapt to new chemicals in the environment.
52 Beneficial Effects Plant and animal breeders often make use of good mutations. Ex. when a complete set of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis, the gametes that result may produce triploid (3N) or tetraploid (4N) organisms. The condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy.
53 Beneficial Effects Polyploid plants are often larger and stronger than diploid plants. Important crop plants including bananas and limes have been produced this way. Polyploidy also occurs naturally in citrus plants, often through spontaneous mutations.
DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can
Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation
Name lass Date RN and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information fl ow from DN to RN to direct the synthesis of proteins? 13.1 What is RN? WHT I KNOW SMPLE NSWER: RN is a nucleic
DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other
From DNA to Protein Chapter 14 Impacts, Issues: Ricin and your Ribosomes Ricin is toxic because it inactivates ribosomes, the organelles which assemble amino acids into proteins, critical to life processes
13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Introduction: *A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids (there are 20 different types of amino acid).
OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand
Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for
Genetics and Cellular Function Genes and nucleic acids Protein synthesis and secretion DNA replication and the cell cycle Chromosomes and heredity Organization of the Chromatin Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes
Chapter 10: Protein Synthesis Biology Let s Review What are proteins? Chains of amino acids Some are enzymes Some are structural components of cells and tissues More Review What are ribosomes? Cell structures
RNA and Protein Synthesis 12.3 Biology Mr. Hines Now we know how DNA (genes) are copied. But how is it used to make a living organism? Most of the structures inside of a cell are made of protein - so we
Unit 6 Study Guide Protein Name pg. 1 1. I can tell the difference between mrna, trna, and rrna. Messenger RNA (mrna) acts as a copy of the instructions for making a protein. mrna carries these instructions
Biology 12 DNA Functions Practice Exam - KEY A. DNA Structure 1. DNA is often called the "code of life". Actually it contains the code for a) the sequence of amino acids in a protein b) the sequence of
DNA, RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes are larger, more complex cells that contain a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Oldest eukarytotic fossil is 1800 million years
Biology 3 Transcription, Translation, and Mutations Dr. Terence Lee Overview 1. DNA and RNA structure 2. DNA replication 3. Transcription makes RNA 4. Translation makes protein James Watson, Francis Crick,
Genetics Notes C Molecular Genetics Vocabulary central dogma of molecular biology Chargaff's rules messenger RNA (mrna) ribosomal RNA (rrna) transfer RNA (trna) Your DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, contains
Name: Class: Date: DNA Proccesses Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Mutations within a DNA sequence are a. natural processes that produce
Ingenious Genes Curriculum Links for AQA AS (7401) and A-Level Biology (7402) 3.1.1 Monomers and Polymers 3.1.4 Proteins 3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules 3.2.1 Cell structure
DNA Finally, we want to understand how all of the things we've talked about (genes, alleles, meiosis, etc.) come together at the molecular level. Ultimately, what is an allele? What is a gene? How does
Biology DNA Protein Synthesis and Fingerprinting Spring 2009 Chains of amino acids 20 named types Create/build structure within organisms Function as important biochemicals Ex: hair, skin, tissues in organs,
Study Guide Chapter 12 1. Know ALL of your vocabulary words! 2. Name the following scientists with their contributions to Discovering DNA: a. Strains can be transformed (or changed) into other forms while
CH 17 Transcription & Translation Basic Principles of Transcription & Translation RNA is the bridge between genes and the proteins for which they code. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction
DNA TM Review And EXAM Review Ms. Martinez 1. Write out the full name for DNA molecule. Deoxyribonucleic acid 2. What are chromosomes? threadlike strands made of DNA and PROTEIN 3. What does DNA control
Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit
Transcription Activity Guide Teacher Key Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Introduction Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein Almost all dynamic functions in a living organism depend on proteins. Proteins are molecular
Exercise 7: DNA and Protein Synthesis Introduction DNA is the code of life, and it is the blueprint for all living things. DNA is contained in all cells, and it is replicated every time a cell divides.
HEREDITY = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...DNA! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes DNA = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) Chromatin=
PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Genetic material of cells GENES units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT Called NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES Phosphate
Protein Synthesis! From DNA to Protein! (Transcription & Translation)! I. An Overview A. Certain sequences of nucleotides in DNA [called genes], can be expressed/used as a code to determine the sequence
12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin
NAME: PERIOD: From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2009 i This activity will help
DNA: Molecule of Life History DNA Structure Protein Synthesis Gene Regulation History of DNA H I S T O By the 1940 s, scientists knew that chromosomes consisted of both DNA and protein but did not know
Section 1 Workbook (unit 2) ANSWERS Complete the following table: nucleotide DNA RN Name: B5. Describe DNA replication 1) Label each base given in the diagram below and describe the 4 primary characteristics
What s the Point? --- Point, Frameshift, Inversion, & Deletion Mutations http://members.cox.net/amgough/mutation_chromosome_translocation.gif Introduction: In biology, mutations are changes to the base
Name: Period: Date: = passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring How?...! I. DNA, Chromosomes, Chromatin, and Genes = blueprint of life (has the instructions for making an organism) = uncoiled
Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes
Tuesday 11/13 Warm Up 1.What are the three parts of a nucleotide? How do two nucleotides link together 2.What binds the two strands of DNA together? Be Specific 3.What are the three main enzymes of DNA
Biology - Student Reader & Workbook Unit 3, Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics - DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis UNIT 3, CHAPTER 4: MOLECULAR GENETICS: DNA STRUCTURE AND... 3 PROTEIN SYNTHESIS... 3 LESSON
16 Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation Ge n e s c a r r y t h e information that, along with environmental factors, determines an organism s traits. How does this work? Although the complete
Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon
DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results
DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA
Complementary Base Pairs: A and T DNA contains complementary base pairs in which adenine is always linked by two hydrogen bonds to thymine (A T). Complementary Base Pairs: G and C DNA contains complementary
Ch 16 and Introduction of Ch 17 This PowerPoint is posted. Replication Transcription Translation Protein! In the start of things lin the 1950 s scientists knew that chromosomes carry hereditary material
Unit 8 DNA Structure, Replication, and Protein Synthesis Objective 3.01 Analyze the molecular basis of heredity including DNA replication, protein synthesis, and gene regulation 1. Which series is arranged
From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation By Dr. Ingrid Waldron and Dr. Jennifer Doherty, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Copyright, 2010 1 In this activity you will learn how
BIOLOGY INSTRUCTIONAL TASKS DNA to Protein Grade-Level Expectations The exercises in these instructional tasks address content related to the following science grade-level expectations: Contents LS-H-B1
Thursday 8th March COPY LO: To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Starter Explain the difference between transcription and translation BATS Describe and explain
INTRODUCTION TO DNA You've probably heard the term a million times. You know that DNA is something inside cells; you probably know that DNA has something to do with who we are and how we get to look the
From Gene to Protein Transcription and Translation i How do the genes in our DNA influence our characteristics? For example, how can a gene determine whether a person is an albino with very pale skin and
Chapter 9 Topics - Genetics - Flow of Genetics/Information - Regulation - Mutation - Recombination gene transfer Genetics Genome - the sum total of genetic information in a organism Genotype - the A's,
Review Questions Translation (protein synthesis) 1. What is the genetic code? The genetic code consists of a sequence of three letter "words" (called 'codons'), written one after another along the length
UNIT 3: Molecular Genetics Chapter 7: Genes and Proteins Synthesis pg. 310-7.5: Genetic Mutation pg. 340-345 Small-Scale Mutations Point Mutation is a change in a single nucleotide within gene. Substitution
Cells DNA and Heredity ! Nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) Determines how cell function " change the DNA and you change the nature of the organism Changes of DNA allows
Transcription Animations Name: Lew Ports Biology Place http://www.lewport.wnyric.org/jwanamaker/animations/protein%20synthesis%20-%20long.html Protein is the making of proteins from the information found
Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis How Genes Become Constituent Molecules Mendel and The Idea of Gene What is a Chromosome? A chromosome is a molecule of DNA 50% 50% 1. True 2. False True False Protein
Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,
Provincial Exam Questions Unit: Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis (B7 & B8) 2010 Jan 3. Describe the process of translation. (4 marks) 2009 Sample 8. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis? A.
Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from Joan Sharp
Section 6.3 Mutations Objectives Identify different changes to DNA within both genes and chromosomes Evaluate effects of changes to DNA on proteins produced and organisms overall survival New Vocabulary
Section 1.4 Name: Opening Activity: Where in the cell does transcription take place? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Transcription Video New Information: Protein Synthesis: pages 193-196 As
1 DNA Coloring - Transcription & Translation Transcription RNA, Ribonucleic Acid is very similar to DNA. RNA normally exists as a single strand (and not the double stranded double helix of DNA). It contains
Multiple Choice Review- Genes 1. Deoxyribonucleic acid nucleotides are composed of a. Ribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of four bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) b. Ribose sugar, a phosphate
tructure of DNA Remember: genes control certain traits, genes are sections of DNA I. tructure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) A. Made of nucleotides 1. nucleotides have 3 main parts a. sugar (deoxyribose)
Genes DNA Replication Classwork 1. Explain why it is necessary to be able to replicate DNA in order to sustain life. 2. What is the appropriate scientific term used to describe a series of bases that code
1 2.1 Nucleic acids the molecules of life Nucleic acids information molecules of the cells form new cells stored in chromosomes in nucleus of the cell in the form of a code in DNA / parts of the code are
Transcription & Translation Part of Protein Synthesis Three processes Initiation Transcription Elongation Termination Initiation The RNA polymerase binds to the DNA molecule upstream of the gene at the
SAM Teacher s Guide DNA to Proteins Overview Students examine the structure of DNA and the processes of translation and transcription, and then explore the impact of various kinds of mutations. Learning
Just One Nucleotide! Exploring the Effects of Random Single Nucleotide Mutations By Beatriz Gonzalez firstname.lastname@example.org Associate Professor, Santa Fe College, Gainesville, Florida In this exercise,
Bioinformatics: Network Analysis Molecular Cell Biology: A Brief Review COMP 572 (BIOS 572 / BIOE 564) - Fall 2013 Luay Nakhleh, Rice University 1 The Tree of Life 2 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cell Structure
Translation Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. In translation, the cell uses the genetic information contained in mrna to
MULTIPLE CHOICE. This exam has 60 questions. All answers go on the SCANTRON provided. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The genetic material of all