2 Similarities between DNA & RNA They are both nucleic acids They both have: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, a nitrogenous base.
3 Comparing RNA and DNA There are three important differences between RNA and DNA: RNA DNA SUGAR Ribose Deoxyribose STRANDS Single Double BASE Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine These chemical differences make it easy for the enzymes in the cell to tell DNA and RNA apart.
4 Comparing RNA and DNA (Do not write) The roles played by DNA and RNA are similar to the master plans and blueprints used by builders. A master plan has all the information needed to construct a building. Builders never bring a valuable master plan to the building site, where it might be damaged or lost. Instead, they prepare inexpensive, disposable copies of the master plan called blueprints. Similarly, the cell uses DNA master plan to prepare RNA blueprints. The DNA molecule stays safely in the cell s nucleus, while RNA molecules go to the protein-building sites in the cytoplasm the ribosomes.
5 Functions of RNA The three main types of RNA are: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
6 Messenger RNA messenger RNA (mrna): They carry information from DNA to other parts of the cell.
7 Ribosomal RNA RNA found in ribosomes that help assemble proteins.
8 Transfer RNA carries each amino acid to the ribosome and matches them to the coded mrna message.
9 Transcription Most of the work of making RNA takes place during transcription. During transcription, DNA serve as templates to produce complementary RNA molecules. VHPQM GY EAo Search for video using DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly (by gaylan guevara)
10 Transcription Transcription requires an enzyme, known as RNA polymerase, that is similar to DNA polymerase. RNA polymerase binds to DNA during transcription and attaches the complementary base pairs. A=U, T=A, C=G, G=C
11 Promoters RNA polymerase binds only to promoters. Promoters are: regions of DNA that have specific base sequences signals in the DNA molecule that show RNA polymerase exactly where to begin making RNA.
12 RNA Editing RNA molecules sometimes require bits and pieces to be cut out of them before they can go into action. Introns: the portions of premrna that are cut out and discarded. In eukaryotes, introns are taken out of pre-mrna molecules while they are still in the nucleus. exons: the remaining pieces of mrna that are spliced back together to form the final mrna. olio.htm Animation video
13 RNA Editing Biologists don t have a complete answer as to why cells use energy to make a large RNA molecule and then throw parts of that molecule away. Some pre-mrna molecules may be cut and spliced in different ways in different tissues, making it possible for a single gene to produce several different forms of RNA.
14 Lesson Overview 13.2 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis
15 The Genetic Code The first step in decoding genetic messages is to transcribe DNA to RNA. This transcribed information contains a code for making proteins.
16 The Genetic Code Proteins are made by joining amino acids together into long chains, called polypeptides. As many as 20 different amino acids are commonly found in polypeptides.
17 The Genetic Code RNA contains four different bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. These bases form a language, or genetic code, with just four letters : A, C, G, and U.
18 The Genetic Code Each three-letter word in mrna is known as a codon. A codon consists of three consecutive bases that specify a single amino acid to be added to the polypeptide chain.
19 How to Read Codons Because there are four different bases in RNA, there are 64 possible three-base codons (4 4 4 = 64) in the genetic code. This circular table shows the amino acid to which each of the 64 codons corresponds. To read a codon, start at the middle of the circle and move outward.
20 How to Read Codons Most amino acids can be specified by more than one codon. For example, six different codons UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG specify leucine. But only one codon UGG specifies the amino acid tryptophan.
21 Start and Stop Codons The genetic code has punctuation marks. The methionine codon AUG serves as the initiation, or start, codon for protein synthesis. Following the start codon, mrna is read, three bases at a time, until it reaches one of three different stop codons, which end translation.
25 Translation The decoding of an mrna message into a protein is a process known as translation.
26 Steps in Translation Translation begins when a ribosome attaches to an mrna molecule in the cytoplasm. As the ribosome reads each codon of mrna, it directs trna to bring the specified amino acid into the ribosome. One at a time, the ribosome then attaches each amino acid to the growing chain.
27 Steps in Translation Each trna molecule carries just one kind of amino acid. In addition, each trna molecule has three unpaired bases, collectively called the anticodon which is complementary to one mrna codon. The trna molecule for methionine has the anticodon UAC, which pairs with the methionine codon, AUG.
28 Steps in Translation The polypeptide chain continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mrna molecule. When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases both the newly formed polypeptide and the mrna molecule, completing the process of translation. Transcription and translation video lhh20rgy bgkpeao vh4q_taky O6uRb1D38&list=PL60C69E2C64C2 9289
29 The Roles of trna and rrna in Translation Ribosomes are composed of roughly 80 proteins and three or four different rrna molecules. These rrna molecules a. hold ribosomal proteins in place b. locate the beginning of the mrna message. c. carry out the chemical reaction that joins amino acids together.
30 The Molecular Basis of Heredity What is the central dogma of molecular biology? The central dogma of molecular biology is that information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein.
32 The Molecular Basis of Heredity Gene expression is the way in which DNA, RNA, and proteins are involved in putting genetic information into action in living cells. Despite their enormous diversity in form and function, living organisms display remarkable unity at life s most basic level, the molecular biology of the gene.
33 Lesson Overview 13.3 Mutations
34 Types of Mutations Cells sometimes make mistakes in copying their own DNA, inserting the wrong base or even skipping a base as a strand is put together. These variations are called mutations, from the Latin word mutare, meaning to change. Mutations are heritable changes in genetic information.
35 Types of Mutations All mutations fall into two basic categories: Gene Mutations: which produce changes in a single gene. Chromosomal Mutations: which produce changes in whole chromosomes. gene mutations chromosomal mutations
36 Gene Mutations point mutations- a type of gene mutations that occurs at a single point in the DNA sequence. They generally occur during replication. If a gene in one cell is altered, the alteration can be passed on to every cell that develops from the original one. Point mutations include substitutions, insertions, and deletions.
37 Substitutions A type of point mutation in which one base is changed to a different base. Substitutions usually affect no more than a single amino acid, and sometimes they have no effect at all. In this example, the base cytosine is replaced by the base thymine, resulting in a change in the mrna codon from CGU (arginine) to CAU (histidine). However, a change in the last base of the codon, from CGU to CGA for example, would still specify the amino acid arginine.
38 Insertions and Deletions These are point mutations in which one base is inserted or removed from the DNA sequence. Insertions and deletions are also called frameshift mutations because they shift the reading frame of the genetic message. Frameshift mutations can change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation and can alter a protein so much that it is unable to perform its normal functions.
39 Point Mutation Video
40 Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal mutations involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. These mutations can change the location of genes on chromosomes and can even change the number of copies of some genes. There are four types of chromosomal mutations: deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation.
41 Chromosomal Mutations Deletion involves the loss of all or part of a chromosome.
42 Chromosomal Mutations Duplication produces an extra copy of all or part of a chromosome.
43 Chromosomal Mutations Inversion reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome.
44 Chromosomal Mutations Translocation occurs when part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another. Chromosomal mutation video GIED4Yo
45 Effects of Mutations Genetic material can be altered by natural events or by artificial means. Some mutations that affect individual organisms can also affect a species or even an entire ecosystem. Stressful environmental conditions may cause some bacteria to increase mutation rates. This can actually be helpful to the organism, since mutations may sometimes give such bacteria new traits, such as the ability to consume a new food source or to resist a poison in the environment.
46 Mutagens Mutagens chemical or physical agents in the environment that cause mutations. Chemical mutagens include certain pesticides, a few natural plant alkaloids, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollutants. Physical mutagens include some forms of electromagnetic radiation, such as X-rays and ultraviolet light. Causes of mutations video ch?v=0wrnxcgkcws
47 Harmful Effects Some of the most harmful mutations are those that dramatically change protein structure or gene activity. The defective proteins produced by these mutations can disrupt normal biological activities, and result in genetic disorders. Some cancers, ex. are the product of mutations that cause the uncontrolled growth of cells.
50 Harmful Effects Sickle cell- a disorder associated with changes in the shape of RBC. Normal RBC are round. Sickle cells are long and pointed. Sickle cell is caused by a point mutation. Among the symptoms of the disease are anemia, severe pain, frequent infections, and stunted growth.
51 Beneficial Effects For example, Insects being able to resist chemical pesticides. Microorganisms adapting to adapt to new chemicals in the environment.
52 Beneficial Effects Plant and animal breeders often make use of good mutations. Ex. when a complete set of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis, the gametes that result may produce triploid (3N) or tetraploid (4N) organisms. The condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy.
53 Beneficial Effects Polyploid plants are often larger and stronger than diploid plants. Important crop plants including bananas and limes have been produced this way. Polyploidy also occurs naturally in citrus plants, often through spontaneous mutations.
DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis, and Mutations Chapters 12-13.3 1A)Identify the components of DNA and explain its role in heredity. DNA s Role in heredity: Contains the genetic information of a cell that can
Name lass Date RN and Protein Synthesis Information and Heredity Q: How does information fl ow from DN to RN to direct the synthesis of proteins? 13.1 What is RN? WHT I KNOW SMPLE NSWER: RN is a nucleic
DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis This isn t a baaaaaaaddd chapter!!! The Discovery of DNA s Structure Watson and Crick s discovery of DNA s structure was based on almost fifty years of research by other
13.2 Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Introduction: *A specific sequence of bases in DNA carries the directions for forming a polypeptide, a chain of amino acids (there are 20 different types of amino acid).
Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for
PART A: MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS DNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS B 1. One of the functions of DNA is to A. secrete vacuoles. B. make copies of itself. C. join amino acids to each other.
12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin
Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes
DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results
Lab #5: DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis Heredity & Human Affairs (Biology 1605) Spring 2012 DNA Stands for : Deoxyribonucleic Acid Double-stranded helix Made up of nucleotides Each nucleotide= 1. 5-carbon
Thursday 8th March COPY LO: To be able to describe polypeptide synthesis including transcription and splicing Starter Explain the difference between transcription and translation BATS Describe and explain
Protein Synthesis Protein Synthesis How Genes Become Constituent Molecules Mendel and The Idea of Gene What is a Chromosome? A chromosome is a molecule of DNA 50% 50% 1. True 2. False True False Protein
Chem 121 Chapter 22. Nucleic Acids 1. Any given nucleotide in a nucleic acid contains A) two bases and a sugar. B) one sugar, two bases and one phosphate. C) two sugars and one phosphate. D) one sugar,
Provincial Exam Questions Unit: Cell Biology: Protein Synthesis (B7 & B8) 2010 Jan 3. Describe the process of translation. (4 marks) 2009 Sample 8. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis? A.
1 DNA Coloring - Transcription & Translation Transcription RNA, Ribonucleic Acid is very similar to DNA. RNA normally exists as a single strand (and not the double stranded double helix of DNA). It contains
Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular
Translation Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. In translation, the cell uses the genetic information contained in mrna to
13.4 Gene Regulation and Expression Lesson Objectives Describe gene regulation in prokaryotes. Explain how most eukaryotic genes are regulated. Relate gene regulation to development in multicellular organisms.
Name lass Date hapter 12 DN and RN hapter Test Multiple hoice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. Pearson Education, Inc. ll rights reserved.
MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER 1 Mutation A heritable change in the genetic material Essential to the continuity of life Source of variation for natural selection New mutations are more likely to be harmful
Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order
Name Student # Ms. Campbell Protein Synthesis Practice Questions Regents L.E. 1. A sequence of three nitrogenous bases in a messenger-rna molecule is known as a 1) codon 2) gene 3) polypeptide 4) nucleotide
BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before
Genetics Test Biology I Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Avery s experiments showed that bacteria are transformed by a. RNA. c. proteins.
115 116 Concepts to be explored: Structure of DNA Nucleotides Amino Acids Proteins Genetic Code Mutation RNA Transcription to RNA Translation to a Protein Figure 12. 1: DNA double helix Introduction Long
Answer: 2. Uracil Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine are found in both RNA and DNA. Thymine is found only in DNA; Uracil takes its (Thymine) place in RNA molecules. Answer: 2. hydrogen bonds The complementary
Name: 1) Which series is arranged in correct order according to decreasing size of structures? A) DNA, nucleus, chromosome, nucleotide, nitrogenous base B) chromosome, nucleus, nitrogenous base, nucleotide,
Basic Concepts of DNA, Proteins, Genes and Genomes Kun-Mao Chao 1,2,3 1 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics 2 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering 3 Graduate
RNA & Protein Synthesis Genes send messages to cellular machinery RNA Plays a major role in process Process has three phases (Genetic) Transcription (Genetic) Translation Protein Synthesis RNA Synthesis
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Brief History 1 1869 - Miescher Isolated nuclein from soiled bandages 1902 - Garrod Studied rare genetic disorder: Alkaptonuria; concluded that specific gene is associated
Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. Beadle and Tatum mutagenized Neurospora to find strains that required arginine
CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA INTRODUCTION DNA : DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is made up of a base consisting of sugar, phosphate and one nitrogen base.the
Name: Date: Period: DNA Unit: DNA Webquest Part 1 History, DNA Structure, DNA Replication DNA History http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/1/concept/index.html Read the text and answer the following questions.
DNA, Replication and Transcription Bob Jesberg NSTA Conference Boston, MA April 3, 2014 1 Workshop Agenda Looking at DNA and Forensics The DNA, Replication i and Transcription i Set DNA Ladder The Double
ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes Page 1 of 22 Introduction Indiana students enrolled in Biology I participated in the ISTEP+: Biology I Graduation Examination
Honors Biology Practice Questions #1 1. Donkeys have 68 chromosomes in each body cell. If a donkey cell undergoes meiosis, how many chromosomes should be in each gamete? A. 18 B. 34 C. 68 D. 132 2. A sperm
AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Julia Keller 12d Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein 1. What is gene expression? Gene expression is the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to
Skills Practice Lab Modeling DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis OBJECTIVES Construct and analyze a model of DNA. Use a model to simulate the process of replication. Use a model to simulate the process
Cancer Cancer is one of the most common diseases in the developed world: 1 in 4 deaths are due to cancer 1 in 17 deaths are due to lung cancer Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men Breast cancer
Nucleus Control center of the cell contains the genetic library encoded in the sequences of nucleotides in molecules of DNA code for the amino acid sequences of all proteins determines which specific proteins
Module 3 Questions Section 1. Essay and Short Answers. Use diagrams wherever possible 1. With the use of a diagram, provide an overview of the general regulation strategies available to a bacterial cell.
B3 Question Which process occurs in the mitochondria in cells? Why do the liver and muscle cells have large number of mitochondria? What is the function of the ribosomes? Answer Respiration occurs in the
BCOR 011, Exam 3 Name KEY Section Multiple Choice: Select the best possible answer. 1. A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the nuclear process of mitosis. For mitosis
Karen Mayes DNA Paper Model Activity Level: Grade 6-8 Students will be able to: 1. Identify the component molecules of DNA. 2. Construct a model of the DNA double-helix. 3. Identify which bases are found
AP * BIOLOGY GENE REGULATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production of this material. Pictures
Review Packet- Modern Genetics Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on The type of molecule represented below is found in organisms. 3. The diagram below represents a structure found in most
Translation Translation: Assembly of polypeptides on a ribosome Living cells devote more energy to the synthesis of proteins than to any other aspect of metabolism. About a third of the dry mass of a cell
DNA Based on and adapted from the Genetic Science Learning Center s How to Extract DNA from Any Living Thing (http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/activities/extraction/) and BioRad s Genes in a bottle
Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism Metabolic processes all chemical reactions that occur in the body Two types of metabolic reactions Anabolism larger molecules are made requires energy Catabolism larger molecules
Biological Sciences Initiative HHMI DNA omponents and Structure Introduction Nucleic acids are molecules that are essential to, and characteristic of, life on Earth. There are two basic types of nucleic
1 of 8 11/7/2004 11:00 AM National Center for Biotechnology Information About NCBI NCBI at a Glance A Science Primer Human Genome Resources Model Organisms Guide Outreach and Education Databases and Tools
Introduction: The Puzzle of Life A Lesson Plan for Life S cien ce Teach ers From: The G reat Lakes S cien ce C ent er, C lev elan d, OH In the Puzzle of Life activity, students will demonstrate how the
Ruth Sundeen Lesson 9 Part 1 Help Your Students Learn Ages: Eighth grade to high school senior Topics: Protein Synthesis Enzymes Experiment to demonstrate fragility of enzymes Greetings and felicitations
Genomes and SNPs in Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Introduction to Genome Browsing with Ensembl Ensembl The vast amount of information in biological databases today demands a way of organising and accessing
1 Introduction What is Ecological enetics? Ecological genetics is at the interface of ecology, evolution, and genetics, and thus includes important elements from each of these fields. We can use two closely
The Nucleus: DNA, Chromatin And Chromosomes Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy, University of Malta. Objectives By the end of this unit the student should be able to: 1. List the major structural
AP BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in eukaryotic cells is called the central dogma of biology. (a) Explain the role of each of the following
2006 7.012 Problem Set 3 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, October 13, 2006. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Which reaction is catalyzed by each
DNA Replication DNA Discovery of the DNA double helix A. 1950 s B. Rosalind Franklin - X-ray photo of DNA. C. Watson and Crick - described the DNA molecule from Franklin s X-ray. What is DNA? Question:
AP BIOLOGY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 Certain human genetic conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, result from single base-pair mutations in DNA. (a) Explain how a single base-pair mutation
Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Q&A Interferons are species specific, so that interferons to be used in humans must be produced in human cells. Can you think
Tutorial II Gene expression: mrna translation and protein synthesis Piergiorgio Percipalle, PhD Program Control of gene transcription and RNA processing mrna translation and protein synthesis KAROLINSKA
Unit 7 Study Guide Section 8.7: Mutations KEY CONCEPT Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may not affect phenotype. VOCABULARY mutation point mutation frameshift mutation mutagen MAIN IDEA: Some mutations
The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates
1. True or False? A typical chromosome can contain several hundred to several thousand genes, arranged in linear order along the DNA molecule present in the chromosome. True 2. True or False? The sequence
Replication Study Guide This study guide is a written version of the material you have seen presented in the replication unit. Self-reproduction is a function of life that human-engineered systems have
Cell Structure and Organization 1. All living things must possess certain characteristics. They are all composed of one or more cells. They can grow, reproduce, and pass their genes on to their offspring.
Initiation of Protein Synthesis (4.1) Lecture 4 Polypeptide Synthesis Overview Polypeptide synthesis proceeds sequentially from N Terminus to C terminus. Amino acids are not pre-positioned on a template.
Chapter 11: Molecular Structure of DNA and RNA Student Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the major experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as
K.Muma Bio 6 Appendix C DNA Replication & Mitosis Study Objectives: Appendix C: DNA replication and Mitosis 1. Describe the structure of DNA and where it is found. 2. Explain complimentary base pairing:
Lecture 26: Overview of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) structure Nucleic acids play an important role in the storage and expression of genetic information. They are divided into
Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion
OBJECTIVES: 1. Compare and contrast the major divisions of metabolism, in terms of a general descriptive sentence, additional descriptive terms, how energy is involved, whether bonds or formed or broken,
Concluding lesson Student manual What kind of protein are you? (Basic) Part 1 The hereditary material of an organism is stored in a coded way on the DNA. This code consists of four different nucleotides:
Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a