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1 Section 1.4 Name: Opening Activity: Where in the cell does transcription take place? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Transcription Video New Information:

2 Protein Synthesis: pages As we said before, the production of proteins is known as protein synthesis, and the amount and kind of proteins that are produced in a cell determine the structure and function of the cell(s), and in turn the organism. For example, if your DNA codes for the feature of brown hair, it will produce the proteins necessary for you to have a brown hair. Using the pages listed above, complete and review the information below about proteins and protein synthesis: Remember that proteins are made up of one or more, which consists of a specific sequence of linked together by peptide bonds. The function of a protein depends on its three-dimensional structure, which is determined by its - sequence. During proteins synthesis, the sequence of nucleotides in an mrna transcript is translated into a sequence of. The genetic information necessary for making proteins is encoded in a series of three mrna nucleotides, called a. Each codon codes for a specific amino acid and based off the possible combinations of the 4 RNA nitrogen-bases, possible codons exist. Some codons, however, do not code for an amino acid at all. For example, AUG, which is the codon, and also codes for the amino acid methionine, send the message to the ribosome to start translation. The three stop codons (,, ) cause the ribosome to stop translation. is the process of assembling proteins from the information in mrna. It begins when mrna leaves the through pores in its membrane. The mrna then migrates to the, where protein synthesis occurs. The amino acids that will be linked together into proteins are transported to the ribosomes (where translation occurs) by molecules. Each trna molecule has two important areas: and area where the amino acid is attached and a loop with a sequence of nucleotides called an. This area allows for the correct amino acids to bond together in the

3 protein because the trna anticodon always bonds with its complementary base pairs on codons of the mrna strand. Ribosomes are composed of and proteins are the sites of proteins synthesis. RIbosomes that are free in the cytosol produce proteins that will be used in the. Ribosomes that are attached to the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum produce proteins and proteins that will be outside the cell. Protein synthesis begins when a ribosome attached to the codon of an transcript. As the ribosome moves along the mrna transcript, an mrna codon is paired with its anticodon (see figure below). The pairing of the anticodon with the mrna codon causes the amino acid to attach to the previously translated amino acids with a covalent bond called a bond. In this same way, amino acids continue to be added to the polypeptide chain (i.e. the growing protein) until the codon is reached. At this point, the is released from the and the protein is complete. Activity:

4 Protein Synthesis Worksheet Directions: 1 st Fill in the complimentary DNA strand using DNA base pairing rules. 2 nd Fill in the correct mrna bases by transcribing the bottom DNA code. 3 rd Translate the mrna codons and find the correct amino acid using the Codon Table 4 th Write in the amino acid and the correct anti-codon the trna molecule. 5 th The answer to the questions about protein synthesis below the amino acids. 1. A T G G T A G C T A A C C T T mrna is synthesized in translation or transcription? 6. mrna has codon or anti-codons? 7. C A G G A A T T G C T C G A T

5 T T T C A A T C G A C C A A C or 3 codons equal one amino acid? 16. trna brings amino acids to the nucleus or ribosome? 17. A polypeptide is a sequence of proteins or amino acids? 18. trna has codons or anti-codons? 19. trna transfers amino acids during translation or transcription? 20. Ribosomes are the site where translation or transcription takes place? 21. G T A C T C A A G G T C T A G

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