Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA Chromosomes and DNA Replication

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1 Ch. 12: DNA and RNA 12.1 DNA A. To understand genetics, biologists had to learn the chemical makeup of the gene Genes are made of DNA DNA stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next B. How does DNA carry information, decide traits, and replicates itself? DNA is a long molecule made up of units called nucleotides Each nucleotide is made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base There are four kinds of bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) C. Watson and Crick made a 3D model of DNA It is a double helix, in which two strands are wrapped around each other It is like a twisted ladder Sugar and phosphates make up the sides of the ladder Hydrogen bonds between the bases hold the strands together In base pairing, bonds form only between certain base pairs Adenine and thymine; A-T Guanine and cytosine; G-C 12.2 Chromosomes and DNA Replication A. Most prokaryotes have one large DNA molecule in their cytoplasm Called a DNA plasmid B. Eukaryotic cells have 1000 times more DNA than prokaryotic cells DNA is in the nucleus and packed into s DNA coils tightly around proteins called histones

2 It coils more and more to form a thick fiber called chromatin, which makes up the C. Before a cell divides, it copies its DNA in a process called replication D. During DNA replication The DNA molecule separates by an enzyme that unzips it The base pairs are separated and the strands unwind Each strand of the DNA molecule serves as a pattern for the new complementary strand Following the rules for base pairing, new bases are added to each strand A with T, G with C An enzyme, DNA polymerase, add new nucleotides to the strands and proofreads it The end result is two identical strands exact copies of each other Replication may happen at hundreds of sites along the DNA strand DNA replication DNA replication activity 12.3 RNA and Protein Synthesis A. A gene is a segment of DNA that has the code for a certain protein Many proteins are enzymes, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions. Proteins are each specifically designed to build or operate a component of a living cell. B. For a gene to work, the genetic instructions in that segment of DNA must be decoded The first step is to copy the DNA sequence into RNA RNA is a molecule which contains instructions for making proteins C. RNA is similar to DNA, except for three differences: The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose RNA is single-stranded RNA has uracil in place of thymine D. RNA is copied from DNA in a process called transcription where:

3 The enzyme RNA Polymerase binds to DNA and separates the two DNA strands RNA Polymerase builds a complementary strand of RNA using one strand of DNA as the template The DNA is transcribed into RNA following base-pairing rules except that uracil binds to adenine Transcription video E. There are three main kinds of RNA: Messenger RNA (mrna) has the instructions for joining amino acids into a chain to make a protein Ribosomal RNA (rrna) - Proteins are assembled on ribosomes, which are made up of proteins and rrna Transfer RNA (trna) during protein construction it transfers each amino acid to the ribosome carries each amino acid to the ribosome according to the coded message in mrna each trna carries only one kind of amino acid the three bases are called the anticodon, and match up with a codon F. The directions for making proteins are found in the order of the four bases A, U, C, G The genetic code is read three letters at a time, called a codon Each codon, or group of three nucleotides, stands for a particular amino acid Some amino acids are specified by more than one codon One codon is a start signal for translation There are three codons that can signal the end of a protein G. Translation is the process in which the cell uses information from mrna to make proteins Translation takes place on ribosomes mrna is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus

4 The mrna moves into the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome As each codon of the mrna moves through the ribosome, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome by trna The ribosome joins together each amino acid; in this way the chain grows When the ribosome reaches a stop codon, it releases the newly formed polypeptide and the process of translation is complete Translation video Protein synthesis active art 12.4 Mutations A. Mutations are mistakes made when cells copy their own DNA B. Mutations are changes in the genetic material of the cell Gene mutations are changes in a single gene A point mutation occurs at a single point in the DNA sequence of a gene Substitution - when one base replaces another only one amino acid is affected Point mutation video If a nucleotide is added or removed, it causes a frameshift mutation This changes the whole sequence of codons May change every amino acid after that point can cause the gene to make a completely different protein can alter a protein so much that it is unable to function Insertion a base is added to the strand Deletion a base is deleted from the strand In a mutation, there is a change in the number or the structure of s There are four kinds of chromosomal mutations:

5 Deletions involve the loss of all or part of a Duplications produces extra copies of parts of the Duplication & deletion video Inversions reverse the direction of part of the Translocations occurs when part of one breaks off and attaches to another Translocation & Inversion video C. While most mutations are harmful, some mutations have little or no effect on gene expression Some mutations are the cause of genetic disorders Beneficial mutations may produce proteins with new or altered activities that can be useful 12.5 Gene Regulation A. Genes can be turned on and off as different proteins are needed In prokaryotes, some genes are turned on and off by a section called an operon An operon is a group of genes that work, or operate, together In bacteria, one operon controls whether the organism can use the sugar lactose as food It is called the lac operon The lac genes are turned off by repressors and turned on by the presence of lactose Operators and promoters are DNA sequences in the operon that control when genes are turned on and off When the cell needs a certain protein, RNA polymerase attached to the promoter and makes a messenger RNA that is translated into the needed protein When the cell no longer needs the protein, it makes another protein called the repressor The repressor attaches to the operator This blocks the promoter so RNA polymerase cannot attach to it This turns the genes of the operon off

6 B. Most eukaryotic genes are controlled individually and have regulatory sequences that are much more complex than those of the lac operon In eukaryotes, genes are regulated by enhancer sequences located before the point at which transcription begins Some proteins can bind directly to these DNA sequences Ways in which these proteins affect transcription include: Increasing the transcription of certain genes Attracting RNA polymerase Blocking access to genes Chapter 12 Resources

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