1 RNA and Protein Synthesis 12.3 Biology Mr. Hines
2 Now we know how DNA (genes) are copied. But how is it used to make a living organism? Most of the structures inside of a cell are made of protein - so we need to make protein. In order to make proteins from DNA, you need RNA RNA Ribonucleic acid
3 The structure of RNA RNA, like DNA, consists of long chain nucleotides. Remember that a nucleotide consists of 3 parts, 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and nitrogenous base.
5 DNA vs RNA DNA RNA Deoxyribose sugar Ribose sugar Double stranded Single stranded Has Thymine Has Uracil
6 Create a strand of RNA from this strand of template DNA ATTGCCGATGAT
7 RNA is used to copy a single gene from the DNA. RNA does not copy the entire DNA molecule, just parts of it. So think of DNA as being a book on how to make a living thing, RNA only copies a paragraph from that book. (genes)
8 Types of RNA The main function of RNA is to make proteins. Protein synthesis making proteins Therefore, the main function of RNA is to perform protein synthesis. Remember from earlier that Proteins are made of amino acids.
9 Proteins are kind of like a squiggled up bunch of spaghetti (made of amino acids) Amino acids
10 RNA will assemble proteins by connecting amino acids.
11 There are 3 kinds of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (mrna) 2. Ribosomal RNA (rrna) 3. Transfer RNA (trna)
13 RNA Messenger RNA is a copy of a single gene taken from the DNA located in the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA assembles proteins. Transfer RNA brings the proper amino acid to the assembly of the protein. The 3 RNA types must work together.
15 Transcription How does RNA copy DNA transcription Transcription process where a gene(s) are copied into an RNA sequence. In other words, transcription is the process where a segment of DNA is converted to RNA.
16 In order for transcription to take place, an enzyme is needed RNA polymerase. RNA polymerase is what does the work. During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands. RNA polymerase then uses one strand of DNA as a template from which nucleotides are assembled in a strand of RNA.
17 Notice that Uracil replaces thymine
18 Transcription takes place in the nucleus Section 12-3 Adenine (DNA and RNA) Cystosine (DNA and RNA) Guanine(DNA and RNA) Thymine (DNA only) Uracil (RNA only) RNA polymerase RNA DNA
19 Template DNA ATCCGGATACAT Complementary DNA mrna
20 Go to pg 113 of packet
21 Video 3 DNA Transcription Click the image to play the video segment.
22 How does the RNA polymerase know which part of the DNA is to be copied? How does it know when to start and stop? RNA polymerase will only bind to parts of DNA called promoters. Promoters will have a specific base sequence (a special word spelled with the base pairs) Similar signals will cause transcription to stop.
23 RNA Editing When a strand of RNA is created, it is not finished similar to a rough draft from a writer. Remember that RNA is made from DNA DNA contains sections called introns and exons.
24 Introns segments of DNA that are not used for Protein Synthesis Exons segments of DNA that are used for Protein synthesis When DNA is copied to form RNA, both introns and exons are copied. RNA editing splices out the introns. RNA editing happens inside of the nucleus.
25 RNA Editing
26 So why do living things have introns what purpose do they serve? It is not clear to scientists. It is hypothesized that one segment of RNA could be used to make different Proteins. To make different proteins from the same segment, different introns could be removed.
27 Numbers 6-9 Page 7,8
28 The Genetic Code Again, proteins are made by connecting amino acids. There are only 20 different kinds of amino acids. Proteins are different from one another based on the order of the 20 amino acids.
29 This is similar to our alphabet - 26 letters forms millions of words, phrases, sentences. The 20 amino acids can form millions of different proteins. So how do 4 bases pairs of RNA code for the 20 amino acids?
30 mrna is the strand of RNA that was copied from the DNA and edited. mrna is commonly referred to as the genetic code. The genetic code is written with 4 letters A, U, C, G The genetic code is read 3 letters at a time. In other words, the genetic code is written in words using 3 letters.
31 Each 3 letter word of mrna is known as a codon.
32 Codon consists of three consecutive nucleotides that specify a single amino acid that is to be added to the Protein. There are 64 combinations of the four base pairs. In order to translate the genetic code, you will need a translation box. The translation box is not in your book. The book uses a translation wheel same function (pg 303)
33 Section 12-3 Translation box
34 The translation box shows all possible combinations for codons. The translation box also reveals which codon matches with which amino acid.
35 Some amino acids have more than one codon. Some codons do not specify for an amino acid they are markers to start or stop. In the English language, the start of a new sentence is indicated with a capital letter and the end of sentence is indicated with a period.
36 Translate this mrna strand AUGCGAUUGGAACCAUAA
38 Translation The messenger RNA serves as instructions for the order in which amino acids should be placed in order to make the protein. If you ever have read instructions, you would know that something has to follow them and put them to use. What follows the instructions? Ribosomes remember ribosomes are located in the cytoplasm on the rough Endoplasmic reticulum.
39 Rough Endplasmic reticulum
41 The process of decoding mrna into proteins is called translation. Translation during translation, the cell uses information from messenger RNA to produce proteins. We will study Translation in 4 Steps.
42 Step A Messenger RNA travels from inside the nucleus to the cytoplasm. mrna then attaches to a ribosome.
43 Section 12-3 Figure Translation
44 Step B The mrna will move by the ribosome (rrna) exposing each codon. As each codon is exposed to the ribosome, the proper amino acid moves to the location by transfer RNA (trna) As the mrna moves along the ribosome, new codons are exposed and more amino acids are added by the trna.
45 Section 12-3 Figure Translation
46 The transfer RNA does this by containing an anticodon An anticodon is a base pair sequence for each codon. Remember that each codon has 3 unpaired bases. In otherwords, every codon has an anti-codon. What are the anti-codons for these codons? AUG GGU AUU ACA
47 Each trna, with the anti-codon, will carry the proper amino acid to the protein chain.
48 Step C As each trna attaches an amino acid, a peptide bond forms between each amino acid this will form the long chain protein. When the peptide bond forms between each amino acid, the trna that brought it will detach.
49 Figure Translation Section 12-3 (continued)
50 Part D This process repeats until the entire protein is completed The protein is finished when the ribosome reaches the stop codon. The mrna is released inside of the cytoplasm. The protein is released inside of the Rough ER for further processing.
51 Figure Translation Section 12-3 (continued)
52 Video 4 Video 4 Click the image to play the video segment. Protein Synthesis
53 The Roles of DNA DNA serves to preserve the information needed to create a living thing. DNA never leaves the nucleus. RNA serves to deliver the proper information to the cytoplasm where proteins can be made. DNA is the instructions, RNA is the workers following the instructions.
54 Genes and Proteins Since living things are mostly composed of proteins, RNA creates the proteins from Amino acids. Proteins can have many functions. Form muscles, cell membrane (active transport), immune system proteins,
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