Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide

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1 Unit 6 ~ Learning Guide Name: INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following notes and questions as you work through the related lessons. You are required to have this package completed BEFORE you write your unit test. Do your best and ask questions about anything that you don't understand BEFORE you write the unit test. U6L1 NOTES: INTRODUCTION (web notes and video) YOU SHOULD WATCH THE INTRODUCTION VIDEO AND THE DNA VS RNA VIDEO BEFORE PROCEEDING ANY FURTHER! Protein Synthesis DNA replication produces an. Protein synthesis to produce. Do not confuse these 2 processes!!!! Page 1 of 16

2 DNA is the (or template) containing for the (structural and functional). Proteins are put together in the, but DNA never leaves the. A copy of the DNA must be made. This copy is called (mrna). Think of it this way, there has to be some mechanism to get the message from DNA that is confined in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm and this is done with the aid of a messenger molecule called messenger RNA or mrna. Only the genes for the specific required proteins are copied into. The process of making the mrna from a DNA template is called. The newly synthesized mrna molecule then travels into the cytoplasm where it is into proteins. DNA > mrna > Protein Transcription Translation U6L1 PRACTICE: INTRODUCTION 1. is the process of making an identical strand of DNA and occurs in the nucleus. (1 mark) 2. Protein synthesis refers to the process of using the information encoded in DNA to make proteins and involves two steps: a. where DNA is used as a template to make mrna. (1 mark) b. where mrna is used to direct the synthesis of proteins. (1 mark) 3. Please state where in the cell the following processes occurs (3 marks): a. Replication: b. Transcription: c. Translation: Page 2 of 16

3 U6L2 NOTES: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (web notes and video) Codons Nitrogenous bases in DNA contain the instructions for making proteins. Many amino acids make up a protein. The code for protein synthesis is transcribed from a DNA into a molecule called (mrna). Once the code is transcribed each set of 3 bases on the is called a. There are possible combinations/codons o there are 4 possible bases read in groups of three 4 3 = 64 o However, we only have about amino acids therefore, most amino acids have more than 1 codon. Often the codons only differ in the last base. Example: the codons CAA and CAG both code for the amino acid known as glutamine Duplicate codons may be a way of / the effects of mutations. The duplication of codons is called. The genetic code is basically " " where the same codons stand for the same A.A. in all living things. This suggest that all living things. AUG which is Methionine is a, whereas UAA and UAG are. At the end of each mrna strand there are long chains of bases (Adenine Tail). This is so the body can detect that the mrna is still functional. When enough protein is created the Adenine tail. This tells the body that this particular mrna is to produce its protein. The cell will then the no longer functional mrna (lysosomes will be involved in this process) Page 3 of 16

4 Transcription A. The gene in is selected, isolated and uncoiled by the enzymes. The gene codes for the that will eventually be produced. The Hydrogen bonds between the complimentary base pairs are broken to provide the DNA template. B. Free-floating join complementary to the selected gene on the DNA template. The enzyme RNA assists with this. Remember these two important points: -The DNA strand is called the - ***Uracil always joins to Adenine when forming the. There is no in RNA. Thymine is only found in DNA*** C. The enzyme glues the alternating sugar-phosphate backbone together. D. Enzymes break the bond that is temporarily formed between the newly synthesized mrna molecule and the DNA template and then the mrna is released from the DNA template. We now have an strand. E. The joins back together and the mrna passes through the nuclear envelope through the nuclear pores into the cytoplasm. F. DNA recoils back up into its with the help of enzymes. YOU SHOULD WATCH THE TRANSCRIPTION VIDEO BEFORE PROCEEDING ANY FURTHER! Page 4 of 16

5 Translation G. STEP 1: - mrna becomes associated with a in the cytoplasm which is made up of ribosomal RNA (rrna) and proteins. When the mrna comes near the two ribosomal subunits, the large subunit to the mrna. The first trna's anticodon* then and binds to the mrna before the small subunit can attach. Once both subunits are attached a functional complex is formed. Note that each trna that is determined based on its anticodon. * anticodon = a set of 3 nucleotides at the "base" of the trna that will bind to a complimentary mrna codon H. STEP 2: - A second trna comes in, compliments and binds to the second mrna codon. The ribosome then assists in transferring the amino acid from the, forming a peptide bond between the amino acids in the process. The ribosome then moves down the mrna by, the first (now empty trna) is released and recycled such that it can pick up another amino acid. Meanwhile, a third complimentary trna binds to the third mrna codon and the amino acid transfer, peptidebonding, chain elongation process is continued so on and so forth. I. STEP 3: - The ribosome continues to read/translate the mrna strand and a chain grows until a is reached. Once the terminator codon is reached the finished polypeptide (protein) is released. The mrna will then be read by more ribosomes (mass production of identical proteins) or. Many ribosomes may be found together,. This group of ribosomes is called a. YOU SHOULD WATCH BOTH OF THE TRANSLATION VIDEOS AND THE CODON CHARTS VIDEO BEFORE PROCEEDING ANY FURTHER! Page 5 of 16

6 Codon Charts Please use the codon chart provided to answer the following where the template DNA strand is: TTA TGC TCC TAA 1. What is the complimentary DNA sequence to the above template sequence? 2. What is the complimentary mrna sequence to the above template sequence? 3. What amino acid sequence does the above template sequence code for? 4. In order, what would be the sequences of the trna anticodons necessary to translate the above template sequence? Page 6 of 16

7 Mutations: Any change in the DNA of an Organism. Truths about Mutations: Most are minor Many are harmful Some are lethal Very few are helpful Which types of mutations are these? Types of Mutations: Germ Mutation - occurs in gametes (egg or sperm cells) Somatic Mutation - occur in body cells Chromosomal Mutations: Page 7 of 16

8 Gene Mutations: 5. Point mutations - a change in a single nitrogen base in DNA. 6. Frame-shift mutation - the addition or deletion of a nitrogen base, causing the gene sequence to read out of sequence. Causes of Mutation Can arise (due to an unknown cause) or they may be caused by an. A factor that increases the chance of a mutation is called a Environmental Mutagens 1. Chemical - food additives Page 8 of 16

9 2. Radiation - ( ) The greater the exposure the greater the risk. Suspected mutagens are tested on bacteria and other organisms such as Fruit Flies, and then mammals (rats, mice). If mutations (such as cancer) develop, the government restricts its use. Mutagens that lead to an increased chance of cancer are called. Examples of Mutations 1. DOWN' SYNDROME - A chromosomal translocation part of chromosome #21 becomes attached to another chromosome (#'s 12, 14, 15, or 22) also have 2 normal chromosome #21 2. SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA substitution of a base to produce a different amino acid. results in abnormal hemoglobin molecules. prevalent in African American (10% carry the trait) causes decreased ability for the blood to carry oxygen 2 chromosomes: 1 normal and 1 sickle actually protects from Malaria if both chromosomes are sickle, the condition is fatal 3. CANCER - a somatic mutation (affects an individual's body cells) results in uncontrolled growth of abnormal body cells that fail to stay in the organ where they arose. 4. HEMOPHILIA - a germ cell mutation (a mutation of the original sex cells) passed on to the individual from a previous generation. Page 9 of 16

10 U6L2 PRACTICE: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 1. Why is the genetic code considered "universal"? (1 mark) 2. Please complete the following table. Replication has been filled out as an example. (8 marks) Replication Transcription Translation Overall Process DNA DNA Location nucleus Key Enzymes helicase, DNA polymerase, ligase Additional Notes involves making a new copy of the entire genome for the purposes of cell division 3. Please list the steps of translation and provide a brief description of each step. (6 marks) Page 10 of 16

11 4. If an enzyme is composed of 687 amino acids, how many bases would the mature mrna that encoded for it have? (1 mark) 5. The codon table allows you to determine the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide based on the sequence. (1 mark) 6. Use a codon table to determine the amino acid sequence encoded for by the following mrna sequence. (2 marks) mrna: AUG GAA GCU ACG Page 11 of 16

12 7. Use a codon table to determine the amino acid sequence encoded for by the following DNA sequence. (3 marks) DNA: CCG CTC TTA CTT 8. What would be the sequence of the 4 trnas' anticodons, in order, that would be used to translate the following DNA sequence into a protein? (2 marks) DNA: CGG TTG TGT TAG 9. A mutagen causes a base pair to be removed from a gene that codes for a protein within a cell. Name the type of mutation and the likely effect of this mutation on protein synthesis. (3 marks) Page 12 of 16

13 10. Choose ONE of the following topics to research and write a paragraph about. (10 marks) A. Some theories state that mutations are involved in the evolution of life on Earth. Assuming this is true, describing the difference that a somatic mutation versus a germ mutation would have on future generations. B. Using internet resources, research one disorder in animals caused by a mutation. Include: name of disorder description of symptoms/effects of disorder specifics of the type of mutation that causes the disorder a diagram/picture of the effects of the disorder C. Using internet resources, research gene therapy. Include: a basic description of what gene therapy is some examples of disorders that may be treated by gene therapy a description of some of the challenges/limitations face by the field of gene therapy ~ END OF BIOLOGY 12 UNIT 6 LEARNING GUIDE ~ Page 13 of 16

14 UNIT 6 ANSWER KEY U6L1 PRACTICE: INTRODUCTION 1. is the process of making an identical strand of DNA and occurs in the nucleus. (1 mark) 2. Protein synthesis refers to the process of using the information encoded in DNA to make proteins and involves two steps: a. where DNA is used as a template to make mrna. (1 mark) b. where mrna is used to direct the synthesis of proteins. (1 mark) 3. Please state where in the cell the following processes occurs (3 marks): a. Replication: b. Transcription: c. Translation: U6L2 PRACTICE: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 1. Why is the genetic code considered "universal"? (1 mark) = because the same codons code for the same amino acids in all living things 2. Please complete the following table. Replication has been filled out as an example. (8 marks) Replication Transcription Translation Overall Process DNA DNA DNA mrna mrna protein Location nucleus nucleus cytosol Key Enzymes helicase, DNA polymerase, ligase RNA polymerase ribosomes Additional Notes involves making a new copy of the entire genome for the purposes of cell division forms immature mrna that must then be processed to become mature and exit to cytosol requires additional assistance from rrna (part of the ribosome) and trnas which transfer amino acids to the growing aa chain Page 14 of 16

15 3. Please list the steps of translation and provide a brief description of each step. (6 marks) Step 1. = Initiation where small ribosome subunit binds to start codon of mrna, the initiator trna binds complimentary to the mrna's start codon and then the large ribosomal subunit binds to the complex such that the initiator trna is located in the P site of the ribosome. Step 2. = Elongation where a second trna binds complimentary to the mrna's second codon such that the second trna is located in the A site of the ribosome. The ribosome catalyzes the transfer of the amino acid from the trna in the P site to the trna in the A site, forming a peptide bond between the two amino acids. The ribosome then shifts down the mrna by a single codon such that the empty trna is now in the E site of the ribosome and the trna with the growing amino acid chain is now in the P site of the ribosome and the A site is now open and available for a new complimentary trna. The empty trna exits the E site to be recycled while a new, complimentary trna comes into the A site and the entire process is repeated. Step 3. = Termination where the ribosome encounters a termination codon (stop codon) on the mrna. A release factor will complimentary bind to the mrna stop codon such that it is in the A site of the ribosome, when the ribosome goes to transfer the amino acid changing to this release factor it cannot do so and the amino acid chain polypeptide/protein) is released from the ribosomal complex. All other components are released from the complex and may be recycled and used again to produce more copies of the protein. 4. If an enzyme is composed of 687 amino acids, how many bases would the mature mrna that encoded for it have? (1 mark) = each codon is coded for by 3 bases so 3 x 687 = 2061 bases 5. The codon table allows you to determine the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide based on the sequence. (1 mark) 6. Use a codon table to determine the amino acid sequence encoded for by the following mrna sequence. (2 marks) mrna: AUG GAA GCU ACG Page 15 of 16

16 7. Use a codon table to determine the amino acid sequence encoded for by the following DNA sequence. (3 marks) DNA: CCG CTC TTA CTT 8. What would be the sequence of the 4 trnas' anticodons, in order, that would be used to translate the following DNA sequence into a protein? (2 marks) DNA: CGG TTG TGT TAG 9. A mutagen causes a base pair to be removed from a gene that codes for a protein within a cell. Name the type of mutation and the likely effect of this mutation on protein synthesis. (3 marks) = If a single base pair from a gene is removed it is known as a deletion and a frame shift mutation. As the entire reading frame of the gene is shifted, the entire code downstream of the mutation will be translated incorrectly likely leading to a completely non-functional protein. If this protein is essential for cellular function the cell and potentially the organism will die. 10. Choose ONE of the following topics to research and write a paragraph about. (10 marks) Answers will vary. Page 16 of 16

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