# Antialiasing. CS 319 Advanced Topics in Computer Graphics John C. Hart

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1 Antialiasing CS 319 Advanced Topics in Computer Graphics John C. Hart

2 Aliasing Aliasing occurs when signals are sampled too infrequently, giving the illusion of a lower frequency signal alias noun (c. 1605) an assumed or additional name f(t) = sin 1.9πt Plotted for t [1,20] Sampled at integer t Reconstructed signal appears to be f(t) = sin 0.1πt

3 Zone Plate f(x,y) = sin(x 2 + y 2 ) Gray-level plot above Evaluated over [-10,10] samples (more than needed) Frequency = (x 2 + y 2 )/2π About 30Hz (cycles per unit length) in the corners Poorly sampled version below Only samples Moire patterns in higher frequency areas Moire patterns resemble center of zone plate Low frequency features replicated in under-sampled high frequency regions

4

5 Image Functions Analog image 2-D region of varying color Continuous e.g. optical image Symbolic image Any function of two real variables Continuous e.g. sin(x 2 + y 2 ), theoretical rendering Digital image 2-D array of uniformly spaced color pixel values Discrete e.g. framebuffer

6 Photography Scanning Display Analog Image Digital Image Analog Image

7 Graphics Rendering Display Symbolic Image Digital Image Analog Image

8 Sampling and Reconstruction Continuous Image Sampling Discrete Samples Reconstruction Continuous Image 1 1 p Sampling Function p Reconstruction Kernel

9 1-D Fourier Transform Makes any signal I(x) out of sine waves Converts spatial domain into frequency domain Yields spectrum F(u) of frequencies u u is actually complex Only worried about amplitude: u DC term: F(0) = mean I(x) Symmetry: F(-u) = F(u) I Spatial p x F Frequency 0 1/p u

10 Product and Convolution Product of two functions is just their product at each point Convolution is the sum of products of one function at a point and the other function at all other points E.g. Convolution of square wave with square wave yields triangle wave Convolution in spatial domain is product in frequency domain, and vice versa f*g FG fg F*G

11 Sampling Functions Sampling takes measurements of a continuous function at discrete points Equivalent to product of continuous function and sampling function Uses a sampling function s(x) Sampling function is a collection of spikes Frequency of spikes corresponds to their resolution Frequency is inversely proportional to the distance between spikes Fourier domain also spikes Distance between spikes is the frequency s(x) S(u) Spatial Domain Frequency Domain 1/p p

12 Sampling I(x) F(u) s(x) (Is)(x) p 1/p S(u) (F*S)(u) s (x) S (u) (Is )(x) (F*S )(u) Aliasing, can t retrieve original signal

13 Shannon s Sampling Theorem Sampling frequency needs to be at least twice the highest signal frequency Otherwise the first replica interferes with the original spectrum Sampling below this Nyquist limit leads to aliasing Conceptually, need one sample for each peak and another for each valley max {u : F(u) > ε} 1/p > 2 max u

14 Prefiltering Aliases occur at high frequencies Sharp features, edges Fences, stripes, checkerboards Prefiltering removes the high frequency components of an image before it is sampled Box filter (in frequency domain) is an ideal low pass filter Preserves low frequencies Zeros high frequencies Inverse Fourier transform of a box function is a sinc function sinc(x) = sin(x)/x Convolution with a sinc function removes high frequencies Spatial Domain sinc(x) I(x) (I*sinc)(x) Frequency Domain DC Term box(u) F(u) (F box)(u)

15 Prefiltering Can Prevent Aliasing s (x) S (u) (Is )(x) (F*S )(u) I = (I*sinc) F = (F box) (I s )(x) (F *S )(u) (sinc)*(i s )(x) (box)(f *S )(u)

16 2-D Fourier Transform Converts spatial image into frequency spectrum image Distance from origin corresponds to frequency Angle about origin corresponds to direction frequency occurs diag. \ freq. vert. freq. diag. / freq. hor. freq. diag. / freq. DC vert. freq. hor. freq. diag. \ freq.

17 Analytic Diamond Example: a Gaussian diamond function I(x,y) = e -1 e- x y Fourier transform of I yields I(x,y) < 0 Spectrum has energy at infinitely high horizontal and vertical frequencies Limited bandwidth for diagonal frequencies Dashed line can be placed arbitrarily close to tip of diamond, yielding a signal with arbitrarily high frequencies F(u,v)

18 Sampled Diamond Sample every 0.1 units: Sampling frequency is 10 Hz (samples per unit length) Frequencies overlap with replicas of diamond s spectrum centered at 10Hz Aliasing causes blocking quantization artifacts Frequencies of staircase edge include ~10 Hz and ~20 Hz copies of diamond s analytical spectrum centered about the DC (0Hz) term

19 Diamond Edges Plot one if I(x,y) 0, otherwise zero Aliasing causes jaggy staircase edges Frequencies of staircase edge include ~10 Hz and ~20 Hz copies of diamond s analytical spectrum centered about the DC (0Hz) term

20 Antialiasing Strategies Pixel needs to represent average color over its entire area 1. Prefiltering averages the image function so a single sample represents the average color Limits bandwidth of image signal to avoid overlap 2. Supersampling Supersampling averages together many samples over pixel area Moves the spectral replicas farther apart in frequency domain to avoid overlap Prefiltering Supersampling

21 Cone Tracing Amanatides SIGGRAPH 84 Replace rays with cones Cone samples pixel area Intersect cone with objects Analytic solution of cone-object intersection similar to ray-object intersection Expensive Images courtesy John Amanatides

22 Beam Tracing Heckbert & Hanrahan SIGGRAPH 84 Replace rays with generalized pyramids Intersection with polygonal scenes Plane-plane intersections easy, fast Existing scan conversion antialiasing Can perform some recursive beam tracing Scene transformed to new viewpoint Result clipped to reflective polygon

23 Covers

24 Supersampling Trace at higher resolution, average results Adaptive supersampling trace at higher resolution only where necessary Problems Does not eliminate aliases (e.g. moire patterns) Makes aliases higher-frequency Due to uniformity of samples

25 Stochastic Sampling Eye is extremely sensitive to patterns Remove pattern from sampling Randomize sampling pattern Result: patterns -> noise Some noises better than others Jitter: Pick n random points in sample space Easiest, but samples cluster Uniform Jitter: Subdivide sample space into n regions, and randomly sample in each region Easier, but can still cluster Poisson Disk: Pick n random points, but not too close to each other Samples can t cluster, but may run out of room

26 Adaptive Stochastic Sampling Proximity inversely proportional to variance How to generate patterns at various levels? Cook: Jitter a quadtree Dippe/Wold: Jitter a k-d tree Dippe/Wold: Poisson disk on the fly - too slow Mitchell: Precompute levels - fast but granular

27 Reconstruction g(x 1 ) g(x 2 ) g(x 3 ) g(x 4 ) k

28 OpenGL Aliases Aliasing due to rasterization Opposite of ray casting New polygons-to-pixels strategies Prefiltering Edge aliasing Analytic Area Sampling A-Buffer Texture aliasing MIP Mapping Summed Area Tables Postfiltering Accumulation Buffer

29 Analytic Area Sampling Ed Catmull, 1978 Eliminates edge aliases Clip polygon to pixel boundary Sort fragments by depth Clip fragments against each other Scale color by visible area Sum scaled colors

30 A-Buffer Loren Carpenter, 1984 Subdivides pixel into 4x4 bitmasks Clipping = logical operations on bitmasks Bitmasks used as index to lookup table

31 Texture Aliasing Image mapped onto polygon Occur when screen resolution differs from texture resolution Magnification aliasing Screen resolution finer than texture resolution Multiple pixels per texel Minification aliasing Screen resolution coarser than texture resolution Multiple texels per pixel

32 Magnification Filtering Nearest neighbor Equivalent to spike filter Linear interpolation Equivalent to box filter

33 Minification Filtering Multiple texels per pixel Potential for aliasing since texture signal bandwidth greater than framebuffer Box filtering requires averaging of texels Precomputation MIP Mapping Summed Area Tables

34 MIP Mapping Lance Williams, 1983 Create a resolution pyramid of textures Repeatedly subsample texture at half resolution Until single pixel Need extra storage space Accessing Use texture resolution closest to screen resolution Or interpolate between two closest resolutions

35 Summed Area Table Frank Crow, 1984 Replaces texture map with summed-area texture map S(x,y) = sum of texels <= x,y Need double range (e.g. 16 bit) Creation Incremental sweep using previous computations S(x,y) = T(x,y) + S(x-1,y) + S(x,y-1) - S(x-1,y-1) Accessing Σ T([x 1,x 2 ],[y 1,y 2 ]) = S(x 2,y 2 ) S(x 1,y 2 ) S (x 2,y 1 ) + S(x 1,y 1 ) Ave T([x 1,x 2 ],[y 1,y 2 ])/((x 2 x 1 )(y 2 y 1 )) x-1,y-1 x 1,y 1 x,y x 2,y 2

36 Accumulation Buffer Increases OpenGL s resolution Render the scene 16 times Shear projection matrices Samples in different location in pixel Average result Jittered, but same jitter sampling pattern in each pixel

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